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- Synthesis of novel azo compounds containing 5(4H)-oxazolone ring as potent tyrosinase inhibitors. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Bioorg Med Chem 2013 Apr 1; 21(7):2088-92.
Six new azo dyes containing of 5(4H)-oxazolone ring were prepared by diazotization of 4-aminohippuric acid and coupling with N,N-dimethylaniline, 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol and condensation with 4-fluoro benzaldehyde or 4-trifluoromethoxy benzaldehyde. The new compounds were fully characterized by spectroscopic techniques. All synthesized compounds exhibited high tyrosinase inhibitory behavior. The results of mushroom tyrosinase inhibition assays indicate that the 4-trifluoromethoxy derivatives have high degrees of inhibition and N,N-dimethylaniline derivatives are better for tyrosinase inhibition than 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol derivatives. All synthesized azo compounds (4a-4f) showed the most potent mushroom tyrosinase inhibition, comparable to that of Kojic acid and l-mimosine, as reference standard inhibitors.
- Liver-specific Aquaporin 11 knockout mice show rapid vacuolization of the rough endoplasmic reticulum in periportal hepatocytes after amino acid feeding. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2013 Mar 1; 304(5):G501-15.
Aquaporin 11 (AQP11) is a protein channel expressed intracellularly in multiple organs, yet its physiological function is unclear. Aqp11 knockout (KO) mice die early due to malfunction of the kidney, a result of hydropic degeneration of proximal tubule cells. Here we report the generation of liver-specific Aqp11 KO mice, allowing us to study the role of AQP11 protein in liver of mice with normal kidney function. The unchallenged liver-specific Aqp11 KO mice have normal longevity, their livers appeared normal, and the plasma biochemistries revealed only a minor defect in lipid handling. Fasting of the mice (24 h) induced modest dilatation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) in the periportal hepatocytes. Refeeding with standard mouse chow induced rapid generation of large RER-derived vacuoles in Aqp11 KO mice hepatocytes. Similar effects were observed following oral administration of pure protein or larger doses of various amino acids. The fasting/refeeding challenge is associated with increased expression of markers of ER stress Grp78 and GADD153 and decreased glutathione levels, suggesting that ER stress may play role in the development of vacuoles in the AQP11-deficient hepatocytes. NMR-based metabolome analysis of livers from mice subject to amino acid challenge showed decreased amount of extractable metabolites in the AQP11-deficient livers and particularly a decrease in glucose levels. In conclusion, in the liver, deletion of AQP11 results in disrupted RER homeostasis and increased sensitivity to RER injury upon metabolic challenge with amino acids.
- Electronic tuning of site-selectivity. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Nat Chem 2012 Dec; 4(12):996-1003.
Site-selective functionalizations of complex small molecules can generate targeted derivatives with exceptional step efficiency, but general strategies for maximizing selectivity in this context are rare. Here, we report that site-selectivity can be tuned by simply modifying the electronic nature of the reagents. A Hammett analysis is consistent with linking this phenomenon to the Hammond postulate: electronic tuning to a more product-like transition state amplifies site-discriminating interactions between a reagent and its substrate. This strategy transformed a minimally site-selective acylation reaction into a highly selective and thus preparatively useful one. Electronic tuning of both an acylpyridinium donor and its carboxylate counterion further promoted site-divergent functionalizations. With these advances, we achieve a range of modifications to just one of the many hydroxyl groups appended to the ion channel-forming natural product amphotericin B. Thus, electronic tuning of reagents represents an effective strategy for discovering and optimizing site-selective functionalization reactions.
- Study on the determination of heavy metals in water samples with ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction prior to FAAS. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Water Sci Technol 2013; 67(2):247-53.
A new, simple and rapid method based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was developed for extracting and preconcentrating copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in water samples prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) analysis. 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-naphthol (TAN) was used as chelating reagents, and non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 and CCl(4) as disperser solvent and extraction solvent, respectively. Some influential factors relevant to DLLME, such as the concentration of TAN, type and volume of disperser and extraction solvent, pH and ultrasound time, were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 10-800 μg L(-1) for Cu and Ni, 10-500 μg L(-1) for Pb, and 10-1,000 μg L(-1) for Cd, respectively. The limits of detection for the four metal ions were below 0.5 μg L(-1), with the enhancement factors of 105, 66, 28 and 106 for Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 6) were 2.6-4.1%. The proposed method was applied to determination of Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd in water samples and satisfactory relative recoveries (93.0-101.2%) were achieved.
- Urinary tract analgesics for the treatment of patients with acute cystitis: where is the clinical evidence? [Journal Article]
- Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2012 Aug; 10(8):875-9.
Acute cystitis is one of the most common health-related problems in the female population. Over the last few decades, a number of drugs labeled as 'urinary tract analgesics' were released; these are available over the counter and are gaining widespread resonance among the North American population. The main representatives of this class of drugs are phenazopyridine and methenamine hippurate. Methenamine's efficacy and side effects have been well studied in a recent systematic review. On the other hand, in contrast to its widespread use, the published clinical evidence regarding phenazopyridine's effectiveness and safety is scarce. In addition, consumers (potentially patients) appear to ignore the limitations of this kind of treatment. In this article, concerns regarding the use of over-the-counter uroanalgesics, with a focus on the relevant clinical evidence, are discussed.
- A urine sample with an orange to red hue, what should we do? [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Clin Chem 2012 Oct; 58(10):1497-8.
- Azo dye removal in a membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor coupled with an aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Hazard Mater 2012 Nov 15.:257-64.
Azo dyes that consist of a large quantity of dye wastewater are toxic and persistent to biodegradation, while they should be removed before being discharged to water body. In this study, Alizarin Yellow R (AYR) as a model azo dye was decolorized in a combined bio-system of membrane-free, continuous up-flow bio-catalyzed electrolysis reactor (UBER) and subsequent aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor (ABOR). With the supply of external power source 0.5 V in the UBER, AYR decolorization efficiency increased up to 94.8±1.5%. Products formation efficiencies of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) were above 90% and 60%, respectively. Electron recovery efficiency based on AYR removal in cathode zone was nearly 100% at HRTs longer than 6 h. Relatively high concentration of AYR accumulated at higher AYR loading rates (>780 gm(-3) d(-1)) likely inhibited acetate oxidation of anode-respiring bacteria on the anode, which decreased current density in the UBER; optimal AYR loading rate for the UBER was 680 gm(-3) d(-1) (HRT 2.5 h). The subsequent ABOR further improved effluent quality. Overall the Chroma decreased from 320 times to 80 times in the combined bio-system to meet the textile wastewater discharge standard II in China.
- Acquired methaemoglobinaemia related to phenazopyridine ingestion. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2012.
Methaemoglobin is an altered state of haemoglobin in which the ferrous ions of haeme are oxidised to the ferric state. This results in increased affinity to the bound oxygen and decreasing its availability to tissues. Most cases of methaemoglobinaemia are acquired, resulting from an increased methaemoglobin formation by various exogenous agents. The authors report an elderly patient presenting to the emergency department with a 1-month history of shortness of breath. Around the same time she had started using over-the-counter (OTC) phenazopyridine tablets for urinary symptoms. The patient was hypoxic and cyanotic; however, lacked evidence of hypoxaemia on the arterial blood gas. The presence of abnormal haemoglobin was suspected and confirmed by elevated levels of methaemoglobin. Phenazopyridine was proposed to be the likely aetiology of the methaemoglobinaemia, which the patient was not aware of. This case highlights the importance of always inquiring the OTC drug use especially in geriatric population.
- Preconcentration of aqueous dyes through phase-transfer liquid-phase microextraction with a room-temperature ionic liquid. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Anal Chim Acta 2012 Sep 12.:54-8.
In this study, we employed the room-temperature ionic liquid [bmim][PF(6)] as both ion-pair agent and an extractant in the phase-transfer liquid-phase microextraction (PTLPME) of aqueous dyes. In the PTLPME method, a dye solution was added to the extraction solution, comprising a small amount of [bmim][PF(6)] in a relatively large amount of CH(2)Cl(2), which serves as the disperser solvent to an extraction solution. Following extraction, CH(2)Cl(2) was evaporated from the extractant, resulting in the extracted dyes being concentrated in a small volume of the ionic liquid phase to increase the enrichment factor. The enrichment factors of for the dye Methylene Blue, Neutral Red, and Methyl Red were approximately 500, 550 and 400, respectively; their detection limits were 0.014, 0.43, and 0.02 μg L(-1), respectively, with relative standard deviations of 4.72%, 4.20%, and 6.10%, respectively.
- Theoretical calculation (DFT), Raman and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) study of ponceau 4R. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2012 Oct.:600-4.
Ponceau 4R is used as a coloring agent in many different products, such as food, drinks, medicines, cosmetics and tobacco. However, ponceau 4R also shows carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic behavior in high doses. In this work, standard Raman, theoretical Raman and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra have been used to investigate ponceau 4R. More specifically, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to calculate the optimized Raman spectrum of ponceau 4R at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. This has provided a better understanding of the optimized geometry and vibrational frequencies of this dye. In addition, the experimental spectrum of ponceau 4R has been compared with the theoretical spectrum; good agreement was obtained. Finally, it has shown that using SERS the detection limit of the ponceau 4R solution can be as low as 5 μg/mL. This has been achieved by SERS measurements of ponceau 4R on a substrate of gold nanoparticles. The SERS peaks at 1030, 1236, 1356 and 1502 cm(-1) were chosen as index for semi-quantitative analysis, showing that the SERS technique provided a useful ultrasensitive method for the detection of ponceau 4R.