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Bassen Kornzweig syndrome [keywords]
- A successful spontaneous pregnancy in abetalipoproteinemia: Amsterdam or the art of vitamin replacement? [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2014.
Abetalipoproteinemia is a rare metabolic disorder that causes disturbed lipid absorption with consequent hypocholesterolaemia and liposoluble avitaminosis. The broad spectrum of presentations includes malabsorption, failure to thrive and acanthocytosis in children, while later in life expected manifestations include coagulopathy, myopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, peripheral neuropathy, hyporeflexia and ataxia. These neurological complications stem from demyelination secondary to vitamin E deficiency. Another complication is reduced fertility in women. In the event of a successful conception, issues arise in vitamin supplementation, the mainstay of treatment of abetalipoproteinemia. The skilful clinician must master the delicate balance between the teratogenic effects on the fetus of over as well as under replacement of vitamins, pregnancy complications such as premature rupture of membranes and eclampsia, and, finally, maternal complications such as corneal ulcers. We describe the management of a patient ranging from pubertal growth to bearing a successful spontaneous pregnancy with an outcome of a completely healthy mother and child.
- Insights from human congenital disorders of intestinal lipid metabolism. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Lipid Res 2014 Nov 11.
The intestine must challenge the profuse daily flux of dietary fat that serves as a vital source of energy and as an essential component of cell membranes. The fat absorption process takes place in a series of orderly and interrelated steps, including the uptake and translocation of lipolytic products from the brush border membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum, lipid esterification, apolipoprotein (Apo) synthesis and ultimately the packaging of lipid and Apo components into chylomicrons (CM). Deciphering inherited disorders of intracellular CM elaboration afforded new insight into the key functions of crucial intracellular proteins, such as Apo B, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and Sar1B GTPase, the defects of which lead to hypobetalipoproteinemia, abetalipoproteinemia, and chylomicron retention disease, respectively. These experiments of nature are characterized by fat malabsorption, steatorrhea, failure to thrive, low levels of triglycerides and cholesterol, and deficiency of liposoluble vitamins and essential fatty acids. After summarizing and discussing the functions and regulation of these proteins for reader's comprehension, the current review focuses on their specific roles in malabsorptions and dyslipidemia-related intestinal fat hyperabsorption while dissecting the spectrum of clinical manifestations and managements. The influence of newly discovered proteins (PCSK9 and ANGPTL3) on fat absorption has also been provided. Finally, it was stressed how the overexpression or polymorphisms status of the critical intracellular proteins promotes dyslipidemia and cardiometaboloic disorders.
- Novel missense MTTP gene mutations causing abetalipoproteinemia. [Journal Article]
- Biochim Biophys Acta 2014 Oct; 1842(10):1548-54.
The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) plays a critical role in the formation of hepatic very low density lipoprotein. Abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) is a rare, naturally occurring extreme form of MTTP inhibition, which is characterized by the virtual absence of apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins in blood. The goal of this study was to examine the effect that four novel MTTP missense mutations had on protein interactions, expression and lipid-transfer activity, and to determine which mutations were responsible for the ABL phenotype observed in two patients.In two patients with ABL, we identified in MTTP a novel frameshift mutation (K35Ffs*37), and four novel missense mutations, namely, G264R, Y528H, R540C, and N649S. When transiently expressed in COS-7 cells, all missense MTTP mutations interacted with apoB17, apoB48, and protein disulfide isomerase. Mutations Y528H and R540C, however, displayed negligible levels of MTTP activity and N649S displayed a partial reduction relative to the wild-type MTTP. In contrast, G264R retained full lipid-transfer activity.These studies indicate that missense mutations Y528H, R540C, and N649S appear to cause ABL by reducing MTTP activity rather than by reducing binding of MTTP with protein disulfide isomerase or apoB. The region of MTTP containing amino acids 528 and 540 constitutes a critical domain for its lipid-transfer activity.
- Intractable diarrhea of infancy: 10 years of experience. [Journal Article]
- J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2014 Nov; 59(5):571-6.
Intractable diarrhea of infancy (IDI), a group of prolonged diarrheal disorders, is difficult to diagnose and manage. We documented general features of patients and the causes of IDI.The present retrospective study included 60 hospitalized patients with IDI ages 0 to 24 months during January 2000 to December 2010. Detailed history, laboratory and endoscopic findings, diagnoses, and clinical courses were reviewed. Descriptive analyses were used for statistical evaluation.The male/female ratio was 1.4. The median age at onset of diarrhea was 12 days. A total of 70% and 11% of patients were severely and moderately malnourished, respectively. Carbohydrate malabsorption (CM) and food allergies (n = 11, 18% for both) were the most frequent causes. A total of 16 of the patients (27%) did not have a specific diagnosis. The other diagnoses were infections (n = 5), immune-mediated disorders (IMD) (n = 6), congenital enterocyte defects (CED) (n = 3, 5%), short bowel syndrome (n = 2), cystic fibrosis (n = 2), intestinal pseudoobstruction (n = 1), congenital disorder of glycosylation (n = 1), abetalipoproteinemia (n = 1), and proprotein convertase (PC) 1 deficiency (n = 1). Stool calprotectin level was high in 10 of 19 patients with Crohn disease (n = 3, mean 1116 ± 851 mg/L), food allergy (n = 4, mean 516 ± 288 mg/L), and undefined etiology (n = 3, mean 616 ± 780 mg/L). The mean duration of hospitalization was 76 days.IDI is a heterogeneous group of diarrheal disorders. The most frequent causes were CM and food allergies in our study. Because high levels of calprotectin support inflammation, calprotectin levels may help to discriminate CED and inflammatory causes of IDI.
- Homozygous MTTP and APOB mutations may lead to hepatic steatosis and fibrosis despite metabolic differences in congenital hypocholesterolemia. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Hepatol 2014 Oct; 61(4):891-902.
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis leading to fibrosis occurs in patients with abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) and homozygous or compound heterozygous familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (Ho-FHBL). We wanted to establish if liver alterations were more frequent in one of both diseases and were influenced by comorbidities.We report genetic, clinical, histological and biological characteristics of new cases of ABL (n =7) and Ho-FHBL (n = 7), and compare them with all published ABL (51) and Ho-FHBL (22) probands.ABL patients, diagnosed during infancy, presented mainly with diarrhea, neurological and ophthalmological impairments and remained lean, whereas Ho-FHBL were diagnosed later, with milder symptoms often becoming overweight in adulthood. Despite subtle differences in lipid phenotype, liver steatosis was observed in both groups with a high prevalence of severe fibrosis (5/27 for Ho-FHBL vs. 4/58 for ABL (n.s.)). Serum triglycerides concentration was higher in Ho-FHBL whereas total and HDL-cholesterol were similar in both groups. In Ho-FHBL liver alterations were found to be independent from the apoB truncation size and apoB concentrations.Our findings provide evidence for major liver abnormalities in both diseases. While ABL and Ho-FHBL patients have subtle differences in lipid phenotype, carriers of APOB mutations are more frequently obese. These results raise the question of a complex causal link between apoB metabolism and obesity. They suggest that the genetic defect in VLDL assembly is critical for the occurrence of liver steatosis leading to fibrosis and shows that obesity and insulin resistance might contribute by increasing lipogenesis.
- Zebrafish yolk lipid processing: a tractable tool for the study of vertebrate lipid transport and metabolism. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Dis Model Mech 2014 Jul; 7(7):915-27.
Dyslipidemias are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, particularly in developed nations. Investigating lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in experimentally tractable animal models is a crucial step towards understanding and treating human dyslipidemias. The zebrafish, a well-established embryological model, is emerging as a notable system for studies of lipid metabolism. Here, we describe the value of the lecithotrophic, or yolk-metabolizing, stages of the zebrafish as a model for studying lipid metabolism and lipoprotein transport. We demonstrate methods to assay yolk lipid metabolism in embryonic and larval zebrafish. Injection of labeled fatty acids into the zebrafish yolk promotes efficient uptake into the circulation and rapid metabolism. Using a genetic model for abetalipoproteinemia, we show that the uptake of labeled fatty acids into the circulation is dependent on lipoprotein production. Furthermore, we examine the metabolic fate of exogenously delivered fatty acids by assaying their incorporation into complex lipids. Moreover, we demonstrate that this technique is amenable to genetic and pharmacologic studies.
- Update on primary hypobetalipoproteinemia. [Journal Article]
- Curr Atheroscler Rep 2014 Jul; 16(7):423.
"Primary hypobetalipoproteinemia" refers to an eclectic group of inherited lipoprotein disorders characterized by low concentrations of or absence of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in plasma. Abetalipoproteinemia and homozygous familial hypobetalipoproteinemia, although caused by mutations in different genes, are clinically indistinguishable. A framework for the clinical follow-up and management of these two disorders has been proposed recently, focusing on monitoring of growth in children and preventing complications by providing specialized dietary advice and fat-soluble vitamin therapeutic regimens. Other recent publications on familial combined hypolipidemia suggest that although a reduction of angiopoietin-like 3 activity may improve insulin sensitivity, complete deficiency also reduces serum cholesterol efflux capacity and increases the risk of early vascular atherosclerotic changes, despite low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Specialist laboratories offer exon-by-exon sequence analysis for the molecular diagnosis of primary hypobetalipoproteinemia. In the future, massively parallel sequencing of panels of genes involved in dyslipidemia may play a greater role in the diagnosis of these conditions.
- Clinical, hematological, and imaging observations in a 25-year-old woman with abetalipoproteinemia. [Journal Article]
- Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2014 Jan; 17(1):113-6.
Abetalipoproteinemia is an uncommon cause of ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Most of the neurological and ocular manifestations occur secondary to deficiency syndromes that is consequent to fat malabsorption from the small intestine. In this report, we have described the phenotype of a young adult female who manifested with recurrent diarrheal illness in her first decade, followed by anemia, RP, and neurological involvement with progressive deafness, cerebellar and sensory ataxia, and subclinical neuropathy in her second decade of life. While RP and sensory ataxia due to vitamin E deficiency are well-recognized features of abetalipoproteinemia, deafness is rarely described. In addition, we have highlighted the abnormal posterior column signal changes in the cervical cord in this patient. Early recognition avoids unnecessary investigations and has a potential to retard the disease progression by replacing some of the deficient vitamins.
- Hypobetalipoproteinemia and abetalipoproteinemia. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Review]
- Curr Opin Lipidol 2014 Jun; 25(3):161-8.
Several mutations in the apoB, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), and MTP genes result in low or absent levels of apoB and LDL-cholesterol in plasma, which cause familial hypobetalipoproteinemia and abetalipoproteinemia. Mutations in the ANGPTL3 gene cause familial combined hypolipidemia. Clinical manifestations range from none to severe, debilitating, and life-threatening disorders. This review summarizes recent genetic, metabolic, and clinical findings and presents an update on management strategies.Cases of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma have now been identified in heterozygous familial hypobetalipoproteinemia probably because of decreased triglyceride transport capacity from the liver. ANGPTL3 mutations cause low levels of LDL-cholesterol and low HDL-cholesterol in compound heterozygotes and homozygous individuals, decrease reverse cholesterol transport, and lower glucose levels. The effect on atherosclerosis is unknown; however, severe fatty liver has been identified. Loss-of-function mutations in PCSK9 cause familial hypobetalipoproteinemia, which appears to lower risk for coronary artery disease and has no adverse sequelae. Phase III clinical trials are now underway examining the effect of PCSK9 inhibitors on cardiovascular events in combination with statin drugs.Mutations causing low LDL-cholesterol and apoB have provided insight into lipid metabolism, disease associations, and the basis for drug development to lower LDL-cholesterol in disorders causing high levels of cholesterol. Early diagnosis and treatment are necessary to prevent adverse sequelae from familial hypobetalipoproteinemia and abetalipoproteinemia.
- Abetalipoproteinemia and homozygous hypobetalipoproteinemia: a framework for diagnosis and management. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Inherit Metab Dis 2014 May; 37(3):333-9.
Abetalipoproteinemia (ABL; OMIM 200100) and homozygous hypobetalipoproteinemia (HHBL; OMIM 107730) are rare diseases characterized by hypocholesterolemia and malabsorption of lipid-soluble vitamins leading to retinal degeneration, neuropathy and coagulopathy. Hepatic steatosis is also common. The root cause of both disorders is improper packaging and secretion of apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoprotein particles due to mutations either in both alleles of the MTP (alias MTTP) gene encoding microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) or both alleles of the APOB gene itself in the case of ABL and HHBL, respectively. Clinical diagnosis is based on signs and symptoms, acanthocytosis on blood smear, and virtually absent apo B-containing lipoproteins, including chylomicrons, very low density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein. Obligate heterozygote parents of ABL patients usually have normal lipids consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance, while heterozygous parents of HHBL patients typically have half normal levels of apo B-containing lipoproteins consistent with autosomal co-dominant inheritance. Definitive diagnosis involves sequencing the MTP and APOB genes, for which >30 and >60 mutations have been described for ABL and HHBL, respectively. Follow-up includes monitoring for ophthalmologic, neurologic, hematologic, and hepatic complications, as well as compliance with treatment. Investigations include lipid profile, serum transaminases, markers for lipid-soluble vitamins, and periodic instrumental assessment of ocular and neurological function. Mainstays of treatment include adherence to a low-fat diet, and supplementation with essential fatty acids and high oral doses of fat soluble vitamins. Prognosis is variable, but early diagnosis and strict adherence to treatment can recover normal neurological function and halt disease progression.