Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Bassen Kornzweig syndrome [keywords]
- Diagnosis and management of familial dyslipoproteinemias. [Journal Article]
- Curr Cardiol Rep 2013 Jun; 15(6):371.
The three major pathways of lipoprotein metabolism provide a superb paradigm to delineate systematically the familial dyslipoproteinemias. Such understanding leads to improved diagnosis and treatment of patients. In the exogenous (intestinal) pathway, defects in LPL, apoC-II, APOA-V, and GPIHBP1 disrupt the catabolism of chylomicrons and hepatic uptake of their remnants, producing very high TG. In the endogenous (hepatic) pathway, six disorders affect the activity of the LDLR and markedly increase LDL. These include FH, FDB, ARH, PCSK9 gain-of-function mutations, sitosterolemia and loss of 7 alpha hydroxylase. Hepatic overproduction of VLDL occurs in FCHL, hyperapoB, LDL subclass pattern B, FDH and syndrome X, often due to insulin resistance and resulting in high TG, elevated small LDL particles and low HDL-C. Defects in APOB-100 and loss-of-function mutations in PCSK9 are associated with low LDL-C, decreased CVD and longevity. An absence of MTP leads to marked reduction in chylomicrons and VLDL, causing abetalipoproteinemia. In the reverse cholesterol pathway, deletions or nonsense mutations in apoA-I or ABCA1 transporter disrupt the formation of the nascent HDL particle. Mutations in LCAT disrupt esterification of cholesterol in nascent HDL by LCAT and apoA-1, and formation of spherical HDL. Mutations in either CETP or SR-B1 and familial high HDL lead to increased large HDL particles, the effect of which on CVD is not resolved. The major goal is to prevent or ameliorate the major complications of many familial dyslipoproteinemias, namely, premature CVD or pancreatitis. Dietary and drug treatment specific for each inherited disorder is reviewed.
- Vitamin-responsive disorders: cobalamin, folate, biotin, vitamins B1 and E. [Journal Article]
- Handb Clin Neurol 2013.:1799-810.
The catalytic properties of many enzymes depend on the participation of vitamins as obligatory cofactors. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) and folic acid (folate) deficiencies in infants and children classically present with megaloblastic anemia and are often accompanied by neurological signs. A number of rare inborn errors of cobalamin and folate absorption, transport, cellular uptake, and intracellular metabolism have been delineated and identification of disease-causing mutations has improved our ability to diagnose and treat many of these conditions. Two inherited defects in biotin metabolism are known, holocarboxylase synthetase and biotinidase deficiency. Both lead to multiple carboxylase deficiency manifesting with metabolic acidosis, neurological abnormalities, and skin rash. Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia is characterized by megaloblastic anemia, non-type I diabetes, and sensorineural deafness that responds to pharmacological doses of thiamine (vitamin B1). Individuals affected with inherited vitamin E deficiencies including ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency and abetalipoproteinemia present with a spinocerebellar syndrome similar to patients with Friedreich's ataxia. If started early, treatment of these defects by oral or parenteral administration of the relevant vitamin often results in correction of the metabolic defect and reversal of the signs of disease, stressing the importance of early and correct diagnosis in these treatable conditions.
- Molecular characterization of Tunisian families with abetalipoproteinemia and identification of a novel mutation in MTTP gene. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Diagn Pathol 2013 Apr 4; 8(1):54.
BACKGROUND:Abetalipoproteinemia (ABL; OMIM 200100) is a rare monogenic disorder of lipid metabolism characterized by reduced plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and almost complete absence of apolipoprotein B (apoB). ABL results from genetic deficiency in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP; OMIM 157147). In the present study we investigated two unrelated Tunisian patients, born from consanguineous marriages, with severe deficiency of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and apo B.
METHODS:Intestinal biopsies were performed and The MTTP gene was amplified by Polymerase chain reaction then directly sequenced in patients presenting chronic diarrhea and retarded growth.
RESULTS:First proband was homozygous for a novel nucleotide deletion (c. 2611delC) involving the exon 18 of MTTP gene predicted to cause a non functional protein of 898 amino acids (p.H871I fsX29). Second proband was homozygous for a nonsense mutation in exon 8 (c.923 G > A) predicted to cause a truncated protein of 307 amino acids (p.W308X), previously reported in ABL patients.
CONCLUSIONS:We discovered a novel mutation in MTTP gene and we confirmed the diagnosis of abetalipoproteinemia in new Tunisian families. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8134027928652779.
- Inhibitory effects of in vivo oxidized high-density lipoproteins on platelet aggregation: evidence from patients with abetalipoproteinemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- FASEB J 2013 Mar 18.
There is evidence that high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) may regulate platelet function, but disparate results exist regarding the effects of oxidized HDLs on platelets. The objective of our study was to determine the role of in vivo oxidized HDLs on platelet aggregation. Platelet aggregation and redox status were investigated in 5 patients with abetalipoproteinemia (ABLP) or homozygous hypobetalipoproteinemia, two rare metabolic diseases characterized by the absence of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, compared to 5 control subjects. Platelets isolated from plasma of patients with ABLP aggregated 4 to 10 times more than control platelets, depending on the agonist. By contrast, no differences in the extent of platelet aggregation were observed between ABLP platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and control PRP, suggesting the presence of a protective factor in ABLP plasma. ABLP HDLs inhibited agonist-induced platelet aggregation by binding to SR-BI, while control HDLs had no effect. On the other hand, lipoprotein-deficient plasma from patients with ABLP did not inhibit platelet aggregation. Severe oxidative stress was evidenced in patients with ABLP. Compared to control HDLs, ABLP HDLs showed a 40% decrease of α-tocopherol and an 11-fold increased malondialdehyde concentration. These results demonstrate that in vivo oxidized HDLs do not lose their antiaggregatory properties despite oxidation.-Calzada, C., Véricel, E., Colas, R., Guillot, N., El Khoury, G., Drai, J., Sassolas, A., Peretti, N., Ponsin, G., Lagarde, M., Moulin, P. Inhibitory effects of in vivo oxidized high-density lipoproteins on platelet aggregation: evidence from patients with abetalipoproteinemia.
- Loss of both phospholipid and triglyceride transfer activities of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in abetalipoproteinemia. [Journal Article]
- J Lipid Res 2013 Jun; 54(6):1541-9.
Mutations in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) cause abetalipoproteinemia (ABL), characterized by the absence of plasma apoB-containing lipoproteins. In this study, we characterized the effects of various MTP missense mutations found in ABL patients with respect to their expression, subcellular location, and interaction with protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). In addition, we characterized functional properties by analyzing phospholipid and triglyceride transfer activities and studied their ability to support apoB secretion. All the mutants colocalized with calnexin and interacted with PDI. We found that R540H and N780Y, known to be deficient in triglyceride transfer activity, also lacked phospholipid transfer activity. Novel mutants S590I and G746E did not transfer triglycerides and phospholipids and did not assist in apoB secretion. In contrast, D384A displayed both triglyceride and phospholipid transfer activities and supported apoB secretion. These studies point out that ABL is associated with the absence of both triglyceride and phospholipid transfer activities in MTP.
- Deep brain stimulation for the treatment of tremor and ataxia associated with abetalipoproteinemia. [Journal Article]
- Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y) 2012.
Abetalipoproteinemia is a rare disorder of fat absorption, characterized by vitamin deficiency, acanthocytosis, and neurologic symptoms including ataxia and tremor.A 41-year-old male with abetalipoproteinemia is presented. He underwent staged bilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of his tremors. After DBS, the patient achieved significant improvements in his tremors, ataxia, and quality of life.Thalamic DBS proved to be both safe and efficacious in the management of ataxia and tremors in a patient with abetalipoproteinemia. This is the first report of DBS in abetalipoproteinemia in the literature.
- Chronic adrenal failure and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism in a patient with abetalipoproteinemia. [Journal Article]
- Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2012 Oct.:95-7.
Abetalipoproteinemia is a rare inherited disorder characterized by very low plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, secondary to a dramatic decrease in apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, which is induced by a mutation in the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene.In our paper, we describe an atypical clinical manifestation of this condition in a young man, which included the presence of hypogonadism and chronic adrenal failure. We connect the development of both endocrine disorders with very low plasma levels of cholesterol, which is uptaken by the gonads and adrenal cortex and used as a substrate for steroidogenesis, accentuated by carbamazepine treatment. Testosterone treatment and administration of hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone and dehydroepiandrosterone resulted in a significant improvement in a patient's condition.This case shows that untreated or inaccurately managed long-lasting abetalipoproteinemia may impair the production of steroid hormones and lead to the development of some endocrine disorders.
- The chorea of McLeod syndrome: progression to hypokinesia. [Letter]
- Mov Disord 2012 Nov; 27(13):1701-2.
- Novel mutations in SAR1B and MTTP genes in Tunisian children with chylomicron retention disease and abetalipoproteinemia. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Gene 2013 Jan 1; 512(1):28-34.
Monogenic hypobetalipoproteinemias include three disorders: abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) and chylomicron retention disease (CMRD) with recessive transmission and familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL) with dominant transmission. We investigated three unrelated Tunisian children born from consanguineous marriages, presenting hypobetalipoproteinemia associated with chronic diarrhea and retarded growth. Proband HBL-108 had a moderate hypobetalipoproteinemia, apparently transmitted as dominant trait, suggesting the diagnosis of FHBL. However, she had no mutations in FHBL candidate genes (APOB, PCSK9 and ANGPTL3). The analysis of MTTP gene was also negative, whereas SAR1B gene resequencing showed that the patient was homozygous for a novel mutation (c.184G>A), resulting in an amino acid substitution (p.Glu62Lys), located in a conserved region of Sar1b protein. In the HBL-103 and HBL-148 probands, the severity of hypobetalipoproteinemia and its recessive transmission suggested the diagnosis of ABL. The MTTP gene resequencing showed that probands HBL-103 and HBL-148 were homozygous for a nucleotide substitution in the donor splice site of intron 9 (c.1236+2T>G) and intron 16 (c.2342+1G>A) respectively. Both mutations were predicted in silico to abolish the function of the splice site. In vitro functional assay with splicing mutation reporter MTTP minigenes showed that the intron 9 mutation caused the skipping of exon 9, while the intron 16 mutation caused a partial retention of this intron in the mature mRNA. The predicted translation products of these mRNAs are non-functional truncated proteins. The diagnosis of ABL and CMRD should be considered in children born from consanguineous parents, presenting chronic diarrhea associated with hypobetalipoproteinemia.