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Behavioral Problems Pediatric [keywords]
- Health Status, Emotional/Behavioral Problems, Health Care Use, and Expenditures in Overweight/Obese US Children/Adolescents. [Journal Article]
- Acad Pediatr 2013 May-Jun; 13(3):251-8.
To examine the association of overweight/obesity with health, health care utilization, and expenditures in a national sample of 10- to 17-year-old children and adolescents.Secondary analysis of 2005 to 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data (n = 17,224). Outcome measures included suboptimal health, emotional/behavioral problems, health care utilization, and expenditures.Overweight and obese children and adolescents had greater risk of suboptimal health (adjusted risk ratio [ARR], 1.4 and 1.7; P < .01), use of prescriptions (ARR, both 1.1; P = .01), and emergency department visits (ARR, 1.2 and 1.1; P = .01); overweight children/adolescents had lower mean out-of-pocket expenditures (∼$100, P < .01); and obese children/adolescents had greater risk of emotional/behavioral problems (ARR, 1.2; P < .01) and specialist visits (ARR, 1.1; P = .01). The most common specialty referral among obese children/adolescents was psychiatry. Overweight and obesity were not associated with office visits or total expenditures. A greater proportions of children and adolescents with suboptimal health and emotional/behavioral problems had health care expenditures, and those with suboptimal health were more likely to have out-of-pocket expenditures.Pediatric overweight and obesity affect child and adolescent health status, emotional/behavioral problems, and specific domains of health care utilization, but do not appear to be associated with total health care expenditures. Out-of-pocket expenditures are lower among overweight children and adolescents. These findings highlight the need for early intervention in overweight children/adolescents, when health care expenditures may not be greater, and suggest that it may prove useful to pay special attention to the health status and emotional/behavioral problems of overweight and obese children/adolescents in weight-management interventions.
- Associations between frequency of bullying involvement and adjustment in adolescence. [Journal Article]
- Acad Pediatr 2013 May-Jun; 13(3):214-21.
To examine whether infrequent bullying perpetration and victimization (once or twice a month) are associated with elevated levels of internalizing and externalizing problems and to assess evidence for a minimum frequency threshold for bullying involvement.The analytic sample included 128,681 6th, 9th, and 12th graders who completed the 2010 Minnesota Student Survey. Logistic regression and general linear models examined the association between bullying frequency and adjustment correlates including emotional distress, self-harm, physical fighting, and substance use while controlling for demographic characteristics. Gender and grade were included as moderators.Infrequent bullying perpetration and victimization were associated with increased levels of all adjustment problems relative to those who did not engage in bullying in the past 30 days. Grade moderated many of these findings, with perpetration frequency being more strongly related to substance use, self-harm, and suicidal ideation for 6th graders than 12th graders, whereas victimization frequency was associated with self-harm more strongly for 12th graders than 6th graders. Evidence for minimum thresholds for bullying involvement across all outcomes, grades, and bullying roles was inconsistent.Infrequent bullying involvement may pose risks to adolescent adjustment; thus, clinicians and school personnel should address even isolated instances of bullying behavior. Researchers should reexamine the use of cut points in bullying research in order to more fully understand the nature of bullying in adolescence. These data indicate the need for prevention and intervention programs that target diverse internalizing and externalizing problems for bullies and victims, regardless of bullying frequency.
- Psychiatric symptoms in children prior to epilepsy surgery differ according to suspected seizure focus. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Epilepsia 2013 May 10.
PURPOSE:Children and adolescents with epilepsy have an overrepresentation of psychiatric illness. However, few studies in pediatrics have characterized specific psychiatric conditions associated with seizure localization. In addition, degree to which psychiatric illness may be more prominent in children refractory to standard medical treatment for epilepsy is not known. The aim of this study was to assess psychiatric symptoms in children with medically refractory epilepsy and ascertain whether symptoms were associated with specific localization.
METHODS:Case records were reviewed for 40 children with medically refractory epilepsy at the time of their referral for presurgical evaluation. Patients received a clinical psychiatric evaluation and parents completed the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). Seizure localization was verified by pediatric epileptologists, and suitability for surgical procedures was verified by neurosurgical specialists. Groups were compared based on localization of seizure foci, either in the temporal lobe or predominantly extratemporal. KEY
FINDINGS:The majority of the sample had psychiatric diagnoses and behavior problems, well beyond the level reported in chronic epilepsy populations. In addition, children with temporal lobe seizure foci had more CBCL behavioral problem categories rated in the clinically significant range, and also were more likely to have clinical diagnoses of depression.
SIGNIFICANCE:Routine psychiatric evaluation prior to epilepsy surgery may be important for pediatric patients with medically refractory epilepsy. Psychiatric illness, particularly depression, may be especially prominent for those with temporal lobe seizure foci.
- Sluggish cognitive tempo in survivors of pediatric brain tumors. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurooncol 2013 May 10.
The presence of neurocognitive late effects in survivors of pediatric brain tumors is well established. However, there remains some debate about how best to conceptualize these deficits. Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is a proposed conceptual framework that has been used to describe a subset of children with ADHD who exhibit a particular profile characterized by lethargy, day dreaming and staring, and poor organization. Previous work has suggested that survivors of leukemia exhibit a similar profile, but it has not yet been examined in survivors of pediatric brain tumors. A sample of 65 survivors of pediatric brain tumors, 25 survivors of leukemia and 50 community controls completed the Child Behavior Checklist, with four items used to measure SCT. Survivors completed additional measures of neurocognitive functioning. Survivors of brain tumors demonstrated significantly greater symptoms of SCT than survivors of leukemia or controls. SCT was associated with attention problems and working memory deficits and the presence of a VP-shunt. Results provided conditional support for the presence of SCT in survivors of brain tumors, with further research needed to determine the clinical utility of the framework.
- Undergraduate dental english education in Japanese dental schools. [Journal Article]
- J Dent Educ 2013 May; 77(5):656-63.
Dental schools in Japan are among many worldwide whose medium of instruction is not in English. With advances in science, technology, and communication, the demand for the globalization of professions increases. At present, dental schools in Asia, the Middle East, and Europe have started revising their dental curricula to either include English courses for dentistry or offer a full English dental curriculum. In Japan, dental English courses started to be introduced into curricula in the early 1990s. However, a survey conducted in 1999 found that English courses were not offered in Japan's twenty-nine dental schools and there was no consensus as to what such courses should include or when and how they should be taught. Ten years after that survey, the survey results reported in this article found that the problems reported in the 1999 survey still exist. Additionally, there are still differences among schools offering English courses in terms of the timing and contents of the courses. Since teachers and school officials will have an important role in curriculum development, this article recommends that a fact-finding meeting with educators, school, and education officials be initiated to discuss, develop, and implement a core curriculum for these dental English courses.
- Self-Management in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Clinical Report of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2013 May 5.
This clinical report aims to review key self-management and adherence issues in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to provide recommendations for health care providers regarding evidence-based assessment and treatment approaches to promote optimal self-management. Self-management difficulties in the form of nonadherence to treatment regimens are common in pediatric IBD and are influenced by various disease-related, individual, family, and health-professional relationship factors. To promote adaptive self-management, health care providers are encouraged to adopt a long-term preventive orientation which includes routine screening of barriers to self-management and nonadherence in the context of routine clinic appointments. The use of a multimethod approach to assessment which incorporates objective measures (e.g., pill counts or bioassays) may be particularly advantageous. Individualized treatment approaches that incorporate evidence-based practices, such as providing written treatment plans and offering opportunities to practice and receive feedback on skills may help to ameliorate minor self-management concerns; however, more severe or chronic self-management problems may require a referral for behavioral health intervention. Additional research to broaden our understanding of self-management in domains beyond medication adherence and to evaluate the impact of clinic-based interventions is imperative.
- What clinical differences distinguish depressed teens with and without comorbid externalizing problems? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2013 May 3.
OBJECTIVE:This study examined differences in co-occurring symptoms, psychosocial correlates, health care utilization and functional impairment in youth who screened positive for depression, stratified by whether or not they also self-reported externalizing problems.
METHODS:The AdoleSCent Health Study examined a random sample of youth ages 13-17 enrolled in a health care system. A total of 2291 youth (60.7% of the eligible sample) completed a brief depression screen: the two-item Patient Health Questionnaire. The current analyses focus on a subset of youth (n=113) who had a follow-up interview and screened positive for possible depression on the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 using a cutoff score of 11 or higher . Youth were categorized as having externalizing behavior if their score was ≥7 on the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) externalizing scale [2,3]. χ(2) tests and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to compare groups.
RESULTS:Differences between groups included that youth with depression and externalizing symptoms had a higher rate of obesity and had higher self-reported functional impairment than youth with depression symptoms alone.
CONCLUSIONS:Adding screening for externalizing problems to existing recommendations for depression screening may help primary care providers to identify a high-risk depressed group of youth for referral to mental health services.
- Feeding Dysfunction in Single Ventricle Patients with Feeding Disorder. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Congenit Heart Dis 2013 May 7.
PURPOSE:To determine whether caregivers of children with single ventricle heart defects identified as having feeding disorder will report more frequent feeding dysfunction, or maladaptive mealtime behavior and/or interactions, when compared with reference populations.
METHODS:As part of routine evaluation, parents of children evaluated at the Feeding, Swallowing, and Nutrition Center at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin completed previously validated questionnaires to assess feeding dysfunction and parental stress. Parental responses for single ventricle patients were compared with all other children evaluated with a feeding disorder.
RESULTS:Questionnaires were completed in eight patients with single ventricle heart defects. The mean age was 36 ± 23 months, with five females (63%). Mean weight-for-age z-score was -1.4 ± 0.9. Compared with noncardiac feeding clinic children, there was more reported child resistance to eating (83 ± 15% vs. 44 ± 2%; P = .05). Single ventricle parents were more likely to report distress (50 ± 18% vs. 21 ± 2%; P = .04) and a difficult child (63 ± 17% vs. 31 ± 2%; P = .05). There was also more defensive responding among parents of single ventricle children (63 ± 17% vs. 29 ± 2%; P = .04).
CONCLUSION:Single ventricle patients evaluated for disordered feeding more frequently showed resistance to eating and parental distress than noncardiac feeding clinic patients. Parents of these children underestimated the degree of feeding difficulty by defensive responding and had more parental distress. These findings suggest that feeding dysfunction can contribute to longer-term feeding and growth problems in single ventricle patients with feeding disorder.
- Counselor-Assisted Problem Solving (CAPS) Improves Behavioral Outcomes in Older Adolescents With Complicated Mild to Severe TBI. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Head Trauma Rehabil 2013 May 1.
OBJECTIVE::To test the efficacy of Counselor-Assisted Problem Solving (CAPS) versus an Internet resource comparison (IRC) condition in reducing behavior problems in adolescents following traumatic brain injury (TBI).
DESIGN:: Randomized clinical trial with interviewers naive to treatment condition.
SETTING:: Three large tertiary children's hospitals and 2 general hospitals with pediatric commitment.
PARTICIPANTS:: A total of 132 children and adolescents aged 12 to 17 years hospitalized during the previous 6 months for moderate to severe TBI.
INTERVENTIONS:: Participants in CAPS (n = 65) completed 8 to 12 online modules providing training in problem solving, communication skills, and self-regulation and subsequent synchronous videoconferencing with a therapist. Participants in the IRC group (n = 67) received links to Internet resources about pediatric TBI.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: Child Behavior Checklist administered before and after completion of treatment (ie, approximately 6 months after treatment initiation).
RESULTS::Post hoc analysis of covariance, controlling for pretreatment scores, was used to examine group differences in behavior problems in the entire sample and among older (n = 59) and younger adolescents (n = 53). Among older but not younger adolescents, CAPS resulted in greater improvements on multiple dimensions of externalizing behavior problems than IRC.
CONCLUSION:: Online problem-solving therapy may be effective in reducing behavior problems in older adolescent survivors of moderate-severe TBI.
- Case series: management of immature permanent teeth with pulpal necrosis: a case series. [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Dent 2013; 35(1):55-60.
The management of immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulps has changed in recent years from apexification techniques to regenerative endodontic procedures, which enable apexogenesis with physiologic maturation of the roots. This regenerative technique lies squarely in the endodontist's scope of practice, but children presenting with necrotic immature incisors may pose behavior management problems that endodontists are untrained and unwilling to handle. Treatment of these immature permanent teeth provides an excellent opportunity for collaboration and shared patient management between pediatric dentists and endodontists that can yield optimal clinical outcomes. The purpose of this paper was to report a series of 32 regenerative endodontic cases in 28 children treated at the Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio. The report describes procedural and patient management issues and the need for a collaborative relationship between pediatric dentists and endodontists in tackling these challenging cases.