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- Altered biliary flow rate and bile composition following consumption of ethanolic fruit extract of Dennettia in rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Appl Basic Med Res 2014 1; 4(1):20-24.
Dennettia tripetala is a tropical plant with some ethno-medicinal uses; it enhances uterine contraction/involution in pregnant and post-partum women, it is also a mild laxative, with anti-bacteria, antifungal properties etc..This study sought to elucidate the impact of D. tripetala fruit extract intake on biliary flow rate and bile composition in rats.A total of 18 albino Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups of 6 rats each and fed on normal rat chow + drinking water and/or 85 mg/kg, 170 mg/kg body weight of D. tripetala extract for 14 days.The rate of bile secretion in the control, low dose (LD) and high dose (HD) D. tripetala extract treated rats was 4.40 ± 0.24 ml/h, 3.20 ± 0.20 ml/h and 4.60 ± 0.25 ml/h respectively. Showing a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in LD and an increase in HD. Na+ concentration increased significantly (P < 0.01) in the LD extract recipients, but was reduced in the HD. LD of the extract increased K+ significantly (P < 0.001) while HD decreased it (P < 0.05). Both low and HD of the extract reduced Cl(-) concentration significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001 respectively). HCO3(-) increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the HD extract recipients. However, total cholesterol, total and conjugated bilirubin concentrations were not significantly altered by D. tripetala fruit extracts.In conclusion, this study showed that LD of D. tripetala may reduce bile flow rate while HD may increase it without altering the saturation of cholesterol and bilirubin.
- Intraperitoneal bilirubin administration decreases infarct area in a rat coronary ischemia/reperfusion model. [Journal Article]
- Front Physiol 2014.:53.
Bilirubin was previously considered a toxin byproduct of heme catabolism. However, a mounting body of evidence suggests that at physiological doses, bilirubin is a powerful antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic agent. Recent clinical studies have shown that human beings with genetically-induced hyperbilirubinemia (Gilbert Syndrome) are protected against coronary heart disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether administration of exogenous bilirubin to normal rats would convey similar protective effects in an experimental model of coronary ischemia. We hypothesized that intraperitoneal bilirubin administration 1 h before injury would decrease infarct area and preserve left ventricular (LV) systolic function when compared to non-treated rats. Coronary ischemia was induced by temporary (30 min) ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in control or bilirubin treated rats, followed by a 1-h period of reperfusion. LV function was estimated by measurements of fractional shortening (FS) and fractional area shortening using echocardiography. LV function decreased in both experimental groups after ischemia and reperfusion, although in bilirubin-treated rats FS was less depressed during the period of ischemia (18.8 vs. 25.8%, p = 0.034). Infarct size was significantly reduced in the bilirubin treated group compared to the non-treated group (13.34 vs. 25.5%, p = 0.0067). Based on the results of this study, bilirubin supplementation appears to provide significant decrease in infarct size although protective effects on LV function were noted only during the period of ischemia. This result also suggests that lipid soluble antioxidant bilirubin prevents the oxidation of cardiolipin and decreases the infarct size in the heart during ischemia.
- Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) for diagnosis of dengue. [Journal Article]
- Med J Armed Forces India 2013 Jul; 69(3):246-53.
Dengue is an emerging public health problem causing serious morbidity and mortality in tropical developing countries. Early, sensitive and specific diagnosis is paramount for clinical decision making. Currently available diagnostic tests are limited in scope and utility. This study highlights applicability of RT-LAMP in dengue diagnosis.100 dengue confirmed cases, 100 dengue negative cases and 79 healthy negative controls from dengue epidemic between Sep 2009 to Jul 2011 were included. Dengue cases were profiled using WHO guidelines 2006, haematological and biochemical parameters evaluated and diagnosed using NS1 antigen, IgM and IgG enzyme immunoassay, RT-PCR and RT-LAMP. Positive cases were serotyped, genotyped and various tests were compared.Mean haematocrit, PT, PTT, platelet count, activated lymphocytes, serum fibrinogen, transaminases, bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase, protein and sodium were significantly elevated in DHF/DSS as compared to DF. NS1 antigen, RT-PCR and RT-LAMP were sensitive during 1-3 days while μ-capture IgM EIA was specific after 5-7 days of initial infection. DEN-1 genotype III was predominant.Deranged haematocrit and liver function tests are indicators of the severity of the disease. RT-LAMP is rapid, cost effective, highly sensitive and specific qualitative and quantitative technique which can detect dengue infection in both early and intermediary stages when NS1 antigen titres are not in the detectable range and the IgM antibody titres have just started to rise. Its superiority over existing techniques, amenability for automation and promising utility in low resource healthcare setups and field conditions raise it as the new gold standard for dengue diagnosis.
- Increasing Incidence of Recent Hepatitis D Virus Infection in HIV-Infected Patients in an Area Hyperendemic for Hepatitis B Virus Infection. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Infect Dis 2014 Mar 5.
Background. Superinfection with hepatitis D virus (HDV) may increase the risk for hepatitis flares and chronic hepatic complications in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This retrospective observational study aimed to examine the incidence of and factors associated with recent HDV superinfection among HIV/HBV-coinfected patients. Method. Anti-HDV IgG was sequentially determined in 375 HIV/HBV-coinfected patients to estimate the HDV incidence between 1992 and 2012. Plasma HDV and HBV viral loads and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) levels were determined for the HDV seroconverters. A nested case-control study was conducted to identify the associated factors with HDV seroconversion that was defined as development of anti-HDV IgG. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using HDV sequences amplified from HDV seroconverters and HDV-seropositive patients at baseline. Results. During a total of 1762.4 person-years of follow-up [PYFU], 16 patients seroconverted for HDV, with an overall incidence rate of 9.07 per 1000 PYFU, which increased from 0 in 1992-2001, 3.91 in 2002-2006, to 13.26 per 1000 PYFU in 2007-2012 (P<0.05). Recent HDV infections were associated with elevated aminotransferase and bilirubin levels and elevated rapid plasma reagin titers. Of the 12 patients with HDV viremia, 2 were infected with genotype 2 (n=2) and 10 with genotype 4. HBsAg levels remained elevated despite a significant decline of plasma HBV DNA load with combination antiretroviral therapy that contained lamivudine and/or tenofovir. Conclusions. Our findings show that the incidence of recent HDV infection in HIV/HBV-coinfected patients increased significantly from 1992-2001 to 2007-2011, which was associated with hepatitis flares and syphilis.
- Liver enzyme abnormalities during antipsychotic treatment: a case report of risperidone-associated hepatotoxicity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Metabol Drug Interact 2014 Mar 6.
Abstract Background: Drug-induced liver enzyme abnormalities may indicate hepatic injury. Antipsychotic drugs also may cause increase in the liver enzymes and serum bilirubin levels. The present report evaluates the case of a patient with risperidone-associated hepatocellular damage. Case summary: A 19-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to the Department of Psychiatry with paranoid schizophrenia and risperidone was administered in a gradually increasing dose up to 8 mg/day. After 3 weeks of treatment, he experienced asthenia and weight loss. The level of aspartate aminotransferase was 283 IU/L (normal: <30 IU/L), and the alanine aminotransferase level was 778 IU/L (normal: <36 IU/L). Treatment with risperidone was immediately discontinued. Six days after drug withdrawal, the alanine aminotransferase level fell more than 50%, and a complete return to normalcy was seen within 2 months. Results: In the present case, a possible causal association between risperidone and hepatocellular damage has been observed due to the temporal relationship between the administration of the drug and the onset of hepatic abnormalities, and a following rapid recovery after stopping the drug. As the hepatic damage could be related to the plasma concentration of risperidone which is highly influenced by the hepatic enzyme CYP2D6, the patient was genotyped for CYP2D6. He was classified as homozygous wild type for CYP2D6. Conclusions: The risk for developing hepatotoxicity during risperidone therapy cannot be supported by the patient CYP2D6 genotype. In clinical practice, it may be recommended to obtain baseline liver function tests before starting risperidone and regular screening for liver enzyme changes during therapy.
- Bilirubin-induced neurologic damage. [Comment, Letter]
- N Engl J Med 2014 Mar 6; 370(10):978-9.
- Bilirubin-induced neurologic damage. [Comment, Letter]
- N Engl J Med 2014 Mar 6; 370(10):979.
- Studying the association of microRNA-210 level with chronic hepatitis B progression. [Journal Article]
- J Viral Hepat 2014 Apr; 21(4):272-80.
We studied the relationship between hypoxia and microRNA-210 (miR-210) levels, the miR-210 levels in patients with hepatitis B and the roles of miR-210 in liver inflammation. We used the concanavalin A (Con A) murine hepatitis model and inflammation, hypoxia and miR-210 levels were examined. In these patients, we studied serum miR-210 levels and clinical indexes related to hepatitis in 90 patients with different stages of chronic hepatitis B and 30 controls. Two functional assays of miR-210 in vitro under hypoxic condition were conducted. The animal experiments indicated that the liver and serum miR-210 levels significantly increased with liver hypoxia and inflammation. In humans, serum miR-210 levels enhanced with hepatitis severity and were related to serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB) and prothrombin activity (PTA) levels. The miR-210 functional assays showed that miR-210 elevation might be related to the decreases in HepG2.2.15 cell dehydrogenase activity and HBV replication under hypoxic conditions. Because the liver inflammation causes liver hypoxia which also results in liver and serum miR-210 level elevation, the serum miR-210 level may serve as a molecular biomarker for the severity of hepatitis and increases in liver miR-210 that we see may be a response of hepatocytes to hypoxia during hepatitis progression.
- Bilirubin: Jekyll and Hyde pigment of life; pursuit of its structure through two world wars to the new millenium. [Journal Article]
- Prog Chem Org Nat Prod 2013.:1-776.
- Hepatoprotective activity of Oxalis corniculata L. ethanolic extract against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats and its in vitro antioxidant effects. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Indian J Exp Biol 2014 Feb; 52(2):147-52.
Oxalis corniculata is well known for its medicinal properties like anti-inflammatory, digestive, diuretic, antibacterial, antiseptic etc. The present study focuses on the ability of O. corniculata to alleviate liver damage caused by over dose of paracetamol. Antioxidant activity of O. corniculata was evaluated using the free radical scavenging activity of 1, 1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl radicals, total anti oxidant capacity by phosphomolybdenum method and total phenolic content was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of whole plant of O. corniculata (OC, 500 microg/mL, po) significantly reduced 1, 1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl radicals. This dose also caused significant reduction (62.67%) in malondialdehyde levels of murine hepatic tissues. The antioxidant capacity of OC was comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid and showed 53.5 microg of phenol/mg OC. Rats pre-treated with OC for 4 days showed significant reduction in the serum enzymes such as glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, serum bilirubin and showed almost normal histological liver architecture of the treated groups compared to paracetamol induced hepatic damage group, indicating its hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential.