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- Thioacetamide-induced liver injury: protective role of genistein. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2014 Sep 9.:1-9.
This study aimed to investigate the possible protective effects of genistein (GEN), a phytoestrogen, on the liver injury induced in rats by thioacetamide (TTA; 200.0 mg·(kg body mass)(-1); administered 3 times a week by intraperitoneal injection). GEN (0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg·(kg body mass)(-1); by subcutaneous injection) was concurrently administered on a daily basis for 8 weeks, and its effects were evaluated 24 h after the administration of the last dose. The results from this study revealed that TTA-induced liver injury was associated with massive changes in the serum levels of liver biomarkers, oxidative stress markers, and liver inflammatory cytokines. Treatment of TAA-induced liver injury in rats with GEN decreased the elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and total and direct bilirubin, and increased the serum level of albumin. GEN also restored the liver levels of malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione, as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and their modulator nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells. From our results, it can be concluded that GEN attenuates the liver injury-induced in rats with TAA, and this hepatoprotective role is attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.
- The Influence of Free Hemoglobin and Bilirubin on Heparin Monitoring by Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time and Anti-Xa Assay. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arch Pathol Lab Med 2014 Nov; 138(11):1503-1506.
Context .- Elevated free hemoglobin (Hb) and bilirubinemia complicate extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and could affect unfractionated heparin (UH) therapy monitoring by anti-Xa assay and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Objectives .- To compare in vitro response of anti-Xa and aPTT assays to UH in samples with artificial hyperbilirubinemia and hyperhemoglobinemia and to estimate if this interference is also observed in vivo in pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Design .- Measurement of aPTT and anti-Xa activity in plasma spiked with UH and increased concentration of free Hb and/or conjugated bilirubin. All samples with anti-Xa activity, antithrombin, free Hb, and bilirubin determination and infused dose of UH from inpatients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were extracted from the clinical patient database and analyzed. Results .- Each increment of free Hb by 100 mg/dL significantly shortened aPTT, whereas an increment of bilirubin by 6 mg/dL caused significant prolongation of aPTT and stepwise increase of free Hb and/or bilirubin in plasma decreased anti-Xa activity by 0.03 to 0.05 IU/mL. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation samples with free Hb 50 mg/dL or greater had significantly lower anti-Xa activity compared with normal ones: 0.33 (0.25-0.42) versus 0.4 (0.31-0.48) IU/mL (P = .01), despite the identical UH infusion and similar antithrombin activity. Moderate increase of free Hb by 59 mg/dL was associated with absolute decrease of anti-Xa activity by 0.07 IU/mL. Conclusions .- Activated partial thromboplastin time and anti-Xa assay are affected by elevated level of free Hb and/or bilirubin in the presence of UH, and lower anti-Xa activity is noted in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients with elevated free Hb. Severe hemolysis and/or hyperbilirubinemia could compromise UH monitoring based on these assays.
- Autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation in patients with liver failure: a meta-analytic review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Stem Cells Dev 2014 Oct 30.
Autologous bone marrow stem cell (ABMSC) transplantation in patients with liver failure has been utilizing in clinical practice, but the therapeutic effect remains to be defined. A meta-analysis is essential to assess clinical advantages of ABMSC transplantation for patients with liver failure. A systematic search of published works (e.g. Medline, Embase, Science Citation Index, PubMed and Chin J Clinicians (Electronic edition)) was conducted to compare clinical outcomes of ABMSC transplantation in patients with liver failure. Meta-analytic results were tested using either fixed-effects model or random-effects model. Seven studies and a total of 534 patients were eligible for final meta-analysis. Subsequent to ABMSC transplantation, there was no significant improvement in general symptom and sign such as loss of appetite, fatigue and ascites. Activities of serum ALT were not significantly decreased with weighted mean difference (WMD) of -19.36 and 95% confidence interval (CI) -57.53 to 18.80 (P = 0.32). Postoperative level of albumin (ALB) was expectedly enhanced by stem cell transplantation (WMD 2.97, 95% CI 0.52 to 5.43, P < 0.05, I2 = 84%). Coagulation function was improved as demonstrated by a short prothrombin time (PT) (WMD -1.18, 95% CI -2.32 to -0.03, P < 0.05, I2 = 6%), but was not reflected by prothrombin activity (PTA) (P = 0.39). Total bilirubin (TBIL) was drastically diminished after ABMSC therapy (WMD -14.85, 95% CI -20.39 to -9.32, P < 0.01, I2 = 73%). Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores were dramatically improved (WMD -2.27, 95% CI -3.53 to -1.02, P < 0.01, I2 = 0%). The advantage of ABMSC transplantation could be maintained more than 24 weeks as displayed by time-courses of ALB, TBIL and MELD score. ABMSC transplantation does provide beneficial effects for patients with liver failure. Therapeutic effects can last for six months. However, long-term effects need to be determined.
- Clinical significance of the FIB-4 index for non-B non-C hepatocellular carcinoma treated with surgical resection. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Oncol Rep 2014 Oct 30.
The aims of the present study were to examine the relationship between the preoperative FIB-4 index and background liver fibrosis in non-tumor parts obtained from surgical specimens and to investigate whether the FIB-4 index can be a useful predictor for non-B non-C hepatocellular carcinoma (NBNC-HCC) patients treated with surgical resection (SR). A total of 118 patients with NBNC-HCC treated with SR with curative intent were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed for calculating the area under the ROC (AUROC) for the FIB-4 index, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to platelet ratio index, AST to alanine aminotransferase ratio, serum albumin, total bilirubin and platelet count for cirrhosis. We also examined predictors linked to overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) after SR. The mean patient age was 68.9±9.0 years (93 males and 25 females) with a median observation period of 3.2 years. In extracted surgical specimens, background liver cirrhosis (F4) was observed in 39 patients (33.1%). The mean maximum tumor size was 5.7±3.2 cm. The mean body mass index was 24.3±3.9 kg/m2. The FIB-4 index yielded the highest AUROC for cirrhosis with a level of 0.887 at an optimal cut-off value of 2.97 (sensitivity, 92.3; specificity, 69.6%). In the multivariate analysis, serum α-fetoprotein >40 ng/ml (P=0.026) was the only significant independent predictor linked to OS, while tumor number (P=0.002) and FIB-4 index >2.97 (P=0.044) were significant factors linked to RFS. In conclusion, preoperative FIB-4 index can be a useful predictor for NBNC-HCC patients who undergo SR.
- Follow-up of extreme neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia in 5- to 10-year-old children: a Danish population-based study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dev Med Child Neurol 2014 Oct 29.
To investigate whether infants with neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia but without intermediate or advanced bilirubin encephalopathy develop long-term sequelae, with impairment of motor development, executive function, or hearing.This nested double-cohort study included 167 exposed children (107 males, 60 females) born in Denmark 2000 to 2005 at gestational age ≥35 weeks with a total serum bilirubin ≥450 μmol/L (26.3mg/dL) and 163 age-, sex-, and gestational age-matched unexposed children (103 males, 60 females). The children were examined at a mean age of 7.7 years (SD 1.7y) using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (MABC-2), pure tone audiometry, and the Behavioural Regulation Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) questionnaire.The follow-up rate was 70% of the eligible infants in the exposed group and 45% in the unexposed group. Mean difference was -0.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] -1.1 to 0.8) in adjusted standard score for MABC-2 and 0.3 (95% CI -2.9 to 3.5) in adjusted BRIEF executive composite standard score. No children had significant hearing impairment or a diagnosis of cerebral palsy, attention-deficit-hyperactive disorder, or autism spectrum disorder recorded in national registries.No evidence was found of an increased risk of deficits in motor development, executive function, or hearing in children with extreme hyperbilirubinaemia who did not have intermediate or advanced bilirubin encephalopathy.
- Substantial effect of efavirenz monotherapy on bilirubin levels in healthy volunteers. [Journal Article]
- Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 2014 Dec.:64-9.
Efavirenz exhibits multiple interactions with drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters, and for this reason efavirenz-based HIV therapy is associated with altered pharmacokinetics of coadministered drugs. Probably by the same mechanism, efavirenz-based HIV therapy affects the disposition of endogenous compounds, but this effect is difficult to directly link with efavirenz because it is used in combination with other drugs.To explore the effect of efavirenz monotherapy on biochemical laboratory values in a clinical trial of healthy volunteers.Men and women (aged 18-49 years) with body mass index ≤32 who were assessed to be healthy based on medical history, physical examination, and standard laboratory screening received a single (600 mg) and multiple doses (600 mg/d for 17 days) of efavirenz orally. This trial was designed to determine the pharmacokinetics and drug interactions of efavirenz. As part of this study, analysis of serum chemistries that were measured at study entry (screening) and 1 week after completion of the multiple dose study (exit) is reported.Data from 60 subjects who fully completed and 13 subjects who partially completed the study are presented. Total bilirubin was substantially reduced at exit (by ~30%, with large intersubject variability) compared with screening values (P < 0.0001). The percent changes were in part explained by the intersubject differences in baseline total bilirubin because there was a significant correlation between baseline (screening) values and percent change at exit (r = 0.50; P < 0.0001). Hemoglobin and absolute neutropenia were also substantially decreased at exit compared with screening, but this may be due to intensive blood sampling rather than direct effect of efavirenz on these parameters. No significant correlation was found between percent change in hemoglobin versus percent change in bilirubin, indicating the effect of efavirenz on bilirubin is independent of its effects on hemoglobin.Efavirenz monotherapy significantly lowers plasma total bilirubin concentration in healthy volunteers independent of its effect on hemoglobin, probably through its effects on bilirubin metabolism and transport (uptake and efflux). These findings help explain reversal by efavirenz of hyperbilirubinemia induction observed by some protease inhibitor antiretroviral drugs (eg, atazanavir). Besides its well-documented role on drug interactions, efavirenz may alter the disposition of endogenous compounds relevant in physiologic homeostasis through its interaction with drug metabolizing enzymes and/or drug transporters. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00668395.
- Evolution of the food and drug administration approach to liver safety assessment for new drugs: current status and challenges. [Journal Article]
- Drug Saf 2014 Nov.:9-17.
Prompted by approval in 1997 of troglitazone and bromfenac, two drugs that promptly began to show serious and sometimes fatal liver toxicity, we began at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) a series of annual conferences in 1999 to consider issues of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). First inviting reviewers of new drug applications we opened the audiences in 2001 to pharmaceutical industry and academic consultants to industry and FDA, and slides shown at the meetings were posted on the internet to be available at the website of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD)-go to ( http://www.aasld.org/dili/Pages/default.aspx ). Observations by Dr. Hyman J. Zimmerman that "drug-induced hepatocellular jaundice is a serious lesion" with possible mortality formed a basis for developing a computer program to plot peak serum values for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and total bilirubin (TBL) in an x-y log-log graph for all subjects enrolled in clinical trials. This program had the capability to show the time course of all liver tests for individuals who had both hepatocellular injury and reduced whole liver function, plus clinical narratives to diagnose the severity and most likely cause of the abnormalities. We called the program eDISH (for evaluation of Drug-Induced Serious Hepatotoxicity), and began in 2004 to use it to assess DILI in clinical trial subjects. From 2008, comments made by the presenters at the conferences about their slides and ensuing discussions have been added to the website. All this has raised awareness of the problem, and since 1997, the FDA has not had to withdraw a single drug because of post-marketing hepatotoxicity. Many issues still remain to be resolved; among the most controversial is the best method to estimate likelihood that a given liver injury was actually caused by the drug in question. On November 9, 2012, a workshop was convened to discuss the best practices for the assessment of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in clinical trials.
- Acute pericardial effusion representing the TNF-α-mediated severe inflammation but not the coronary artery outcome of Kawasaki disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Scand J Rheumatol 2014 Oct 29.:1-6.
Objectives: To establish the optimal inflammation control of Kawasaki disease (KD), we investigated the clinical and pathophysiological basis of pericardial effusion (PE) during the acute phase of KD. Method: Clinical and laboratory features of Japanese KD children with PE (PE group: n = 9) and without PE (non-PE group: n = 89) were studied retrospectively by using the medical records. Serum levels of soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Results: PE group patients had coronary artery lesions (CALs) more frequently than non-PE group patients during the acute phase of KD (33% vs. 5.6%, p = 0.024). PE patients also showed lower levels of haemoglobin (p < 0.01) and serum albumin (p < 0.01) and higher platelet counts (p = 0.013) than non-PE patients. The proportion of neurological symptoms, but not other manifestations, in the PE group was higher than in the non-PE group (p = 0.022). All patients survived free from coronary artery aneurisms. Serum levels of sTNFR1, but not the other cytokines, in the PE group were higher than those in the non-PE group (p < 0.001). The sTNFR1 levels correlated positively with C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = 0.30, p = 0.019) or total bilirubin (r = 0.40, p < 0.01) levels. Conclusions: Acute PE in KD patients indicated the severity of TNF-mediated vascular inflammation and concurrent CALs. According to the progression, these patients might need more targeted therapy of anti-inflammation for a better coronary outcome.
- Early post-treatment FDG PET predicts survival after (90)Y microsphere radioembolization in liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2014 Oct 29.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of early metabolic response 4 weeks post-treatment using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in patients with unresectable hepatic metastases of colorectal cancer (CRC) undergoing radioembolization (RE) with (90)Y-labelled microspheres.A total of 51 consecutive patients with liver-dominant metastases of CRC were treated with RE and underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT at baseline and 4 weeks after RE. In each patient, three hepatic metastases with the highest maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) were selected as target lesions. Metabolic response was defined as >50 % reduction of tumour to liver ratios. Survival analyses using Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors for overall survival (OS). Investigated baseline characteristics included age (>60 years), performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group >1), bilirubin (>1.0 mg/dl), hepatic tumour burden (>25 %) and presence of extrahepatic disease.The median OS after RE was 7 months [95 % confidence interval (CI) 5-8]; early metabolic responders (n = 33) survived longer than non-responders (p < 0.001) with a median OS of 10 months (95 % CI 3-16) versus 4 months (95 % CI 2-6). Hepatic tumour burden also had significant impact on treatment outcome (p < 0.001) with a median OS of 5 months (95 % CI, 3-7) for patients with >25 % metastatic liver replacement vs 14 months (95 % CI 6-22) for the less advanced patients. Both factors (early metabolic response and low hepatic tumour burden) remained as independent predictors of improved survival on multivariate analysis.These are the first findings to show that molecular response assessment in CRC using (18)F-FDG PET/CT appears feasible as early as 4 weeks post-RE, allowing risk stratification and potentially facilitating early response-adapted treatment strategies.
- Contamination of lithium heparin blood by K2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA): an experimental evaluation. [Journal Article]
- Biochem Med (Zagreb) 2014 Oct; 24(3):359-67.
The contamination of serum or lithium heparin blood with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) salts may affect accuracy of some critical analytes and jeopardize patient safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lithium heparin sample contamination with different amounts of K2EDTA.Fifteen volunteers were enrolled among the laboratory staff. Two lithium heparin tubes and one K2EDTA tube were collected from each subject. The lithium-heparin tubes of each subject were pooled and divided in 5 aliquots. The whole blood of K2EDTA tube was then added in scalar amount to autologous heparinised aliquots, to obtained different degrees of K2EDTA blood volume contamination (0%; 5%; 13%; 29%; 43%). The following clinical chemistry parameters were then measured in centrifuged aliquots: alanine aminotranspherase (ALT), bilirubin (total), calcium, chloride, creatinine, iron, lactate dehydrogenase (LD), lipase, magnesium, phosphate, potassium, sodium.A significant variation starting from 5% K2EDTA contamination was observed for calcium, chloride, iron, LD, magnesium (all decreased) and potassium (increased). The variation of phosphate and sodium (both increased) was significant after 13% and 29% K2EDTA contamination, respectively. The values of ALT, bilirubin, creatinine and lipase remained unchanged up to 43% K2EDTA contamination. When variations were compared with desirable quality specifications, the bias was significant for calcium, chloride, LD, magnesium and potassium (from 5% K2EDTA contamination), sodium, phosphate and iron (from 29% K2EDTA contamination).The concentration of calcium, magnesium, potassium, chloride and LD appears to be dramatically biased by even modest K2EDTA contamination (i.e., 5%). The values of iron, phosphate, and sodium are still reliable up to 29% K2EDTA contamination, whereas ALT, bilirubin, creatinine and lipase appear overall less vulnerable towards K2EDTA contamination.