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- Combined use of non-biological artificial liver treatments for patients with acute liver failure complicated by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. [Journal Article]
- World J Emerg Med 2014; 5(3):214-7.
Acute liver failure (ALF) caused by viral and non-viral hepatitis is often accompanied with severe metabolic disorders, the accumulation of toxic substances and continuous release and accumulation of a large number of endogenous toxins and inflammatory mediators. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of various combined non-biological artificial liver treatments for patients with acute liver failure (ALF) complicated by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS).Thirty-one patients with mid- or late-stage liver failure complicated by MODS (score 4) were randomly divided into three treatment groups: plasmapheresis (PE) combined with hemoperfusion (HP) and continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF), PE+CVVHDF, and HP+CVVHDF, respectively. Heart rate (HR) before and after treatment, mean arterial pressure (MAP), respiratory index (PaO2/FiO2), hepatic function, platelet count, and blood coagulation were determined.Significant improvement was observed in HR, MAP, PaO2/FiO2, total bilirubin (TBIL) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels after treatment (P<0.05). TBIL and ALT decreased more significantly after treatment in the PE+CVVHDF and PE+HP+CVVHDF groups (P<0.01). Prothrombin time (PT) and albumin were significantly improved only in the PE+CVVHDF and PE+HP+CVVHDF groups (P<0.05). TBIL decreased more significantly in the PE+HP+CVVHDF group than in the HP+CVVHDF and PE+CVVHDF groups (P<0.05). The survival rate of the patients was 58.1% (18/31), viral survival rate 36.4% (4/11), and non-viral survival rate 70% (14/20).Liver function was relatively improved after treatment, but PE+HP+CVVHDF was more efficient for the removal of toxic metabolites, especially bilirubin. The survival rate was significantly higher in the patients with non-viral liver failure than in those with viral liver failure.
- Evaluation of risk factors for development of severe hyperbilirubinemia in term and near term infants in Turkey. [Journal Article]
- Pak J Med Sci 2014 Sep; 30(5):1113-8.
To determine clinical features, etiology and risk factors in term and near term newborns with severe hyperbilirubinemia.During ten years period (2000 - 2009), infants of ≥ 35 gestational weeks who received phototherapy were evaluated retrospectively. The study population was divided into two groups and clinical features, etiology and risk factors were compared. Group 1 defined by those who had bilirubin level ≥25 mg/dl (severe hyperbilirubinemia) and group 2 defined by bilirubin level <25 mg/dl.During the study period 1335 babies were evaluated. Severe hyperbilirubinemia was found in 137 (10.3%) patients. Total serum bilirubin level was 29.7±4.7 mg/dl in group 1 and 18.9±3.5 mg/dl in group 2. Pathological weight loss, vaginal delivery and supplementary feeding were identified as significant risk factors for development of severe hyperbilirubinemia (p <0.001, p <0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively). The time at recognition of jaundice by family and postnatal age at admission were significantly higher in group 1. The ratios of previous sibling received phototherapy and being the second child or after were found higher in group 1.Pathological weight loss, vaginal delivery and supplementary feeding were determined as risk factors for development of severe hyperbilirubinemia. The newborns with severe hyperbilirubinemia had late recognition of jaundice and admission to hospital by their families.
- YKL-40 and Alcoholic Liver and Pancreas Damage and Disease in 86 258 Individuals from the General Population: Cohort and Mendelian Randomization Studies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Chem 2014 Sep 15.
We tested the hypothesis that observationally and genetically increased YKL-40 concentrations are associated with alcoholic liver and pancreas damage and disease.We performed cohort and Mendelian randomization in 86 258 individuals from the Danish general population, with measured concentrations of plasma YKL-40 (n = 21 646) and CHI3L1 rs4950928 genotype (n = 84 738).Increased YKL-40 was associated with increased alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen and with decreased albumin; coagulation factors II, VII, and X; and pancreatic amylase. The multifactorially adjusted hazard ratio for alcoholic liver cirrhosis comparing the 96%-100% vs 0%-33% YKL-40 percentile categories was 41 (95% CI 14-118). Corresponding ratios were 7.9 (5.1-12) for any alcoholic liver disease, 4.1 (1.7-10) for alcoholic pancreatitis, and 3.4 (1.9-6.1) for any pancreatitis. CHI3L1 rs4950928 genotype explained 14% of the variation in plasma YKL-40 concentrations but was not associated with alcoholic liver and pancreas damage or disease. A doubling in YKL-40 concentrations was associated with a multifactorially adjusted observational hazard ratio of 2.8 (2.4-3.3) for alcoholic liver cirrhosis and a corresponding genetic odds ratio of 1.1 (0.7-1.5). Corresponding risk estimates were 2.0 (1.8-2.2) observationally and 1.0 (0.8-1.1) genetically for any alcoholic liver disease, 1.4 (1.1-1.9) observationally and 1.1 (0.8-1.5) genetically for alcoholic pancreatitis, and 1.3 (1.1-1.6) observationally and 1.0 (0.8-1.3) genetically for any pancreatitis. Excessive alcohol consumption combined with YKL-40 concentrations in the top 5% was associated with 10-year risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis of up to 7% in ever-smokers and 2% in never-smokers.YKL-40 concentration within the top 5% was a marker for alcoholic liver cirrhosis, with no evidence to support a causal relationship.
- Latex-Enhanced Turbidimetric Immunoassay for Everolimus in Whole Blood Using the Nanopia TDM Everolimus Assay With the JCA-BM6010 Automatic Analyzer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ther Drug Monit 2014 Oct; 36(5):677-680.
Everolimus is a novel proliferation signal inhibitor used in immunosuppressive therapies for the prevention of acute and chronic rejection. It is an immunosuppressant requiring routine monitoring in whole blood. We evaluated analytical performance of the Nanopia TDM Everolimus assay kit for the measurement of everolimus in whole blood.Whole blood samples from patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy with everolimus after heart transplantation were used, and everolimus concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometric detection and fluorescence polarization immunoassay and Nanopia TDM Everolimus assay.The within-assay coefficient of variation was 4.0%-6.8% (n = 20) at everolimus concentrations of 4.4-15.7 ng/mL, whereas the day-to-day coefficient of variation ranged from 3.6% to 5.4% at everolimus concentrations of 4.8-15.9 ng/mL. The limit of quantitation was 1.5 ng/mL. Calibration curves were stable for at least 14 days. The presence of conjugated bilirubin, unconjugated bilirubin, lipemic material, rheumatoid factor, and variation of the hematocrit did not affect this assay system. There was a strong positive correlation between values obtained with the Nanopia TDM Everolimus assay kit and the results of liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometric detection (y = 0.960x + 0.312 ng/mL; r = 0.946; n = 91), as well as with data from the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (y = 0.966x - 0.440 ng/mL; r = 0.942; n = 91).The Nanopia TDM Everolimus assay showed good analytical performance. These results indicate that the Nanopia TDM Everolimus assay may be suitable for routine clinical use.
- Behavior of the total antioxidant status in a group of subjects with metabolic syndrome. [Journal Article]
- Diabetes Metab Syndr 2014 Jul-Sep; 8(3):166-9.
Our purpose was to examine the total antioxidant status (TAS) in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) subdivided according to the presence or not of diabetes mellitus.We enrolled 106 subjects (45 women, 61 men) with MS subsequently subdivided in diabetics (14 women, 29 men) and nondiabetics (31 women, 29 men). TAS was obtained using an Assay kit which relies on the ability of plasma antioxidant substances to inhibit the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonic acid) to the radical ABTS+.In the group of MS subjects a significant decrease in TAS (p<0.05) in comparison with normal controls was evident. This difference was present between normal subjects and nondiabetic subjects with MS (p<0.001) but not between normal and diabetic subjects with MS. Examining the linear regression among TAS, age, anthropometric profile, blood pressure values and glycometabolic pattern, conflicting data were found.Although we know that TAS includes several enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants, we retain that the difference observed in the two subgroups of subjects with MS must be looked in particular into two pathophysiological aspects regarding bilirubin and uric acid.
- Quality improvement initiatives in neonatal intensive care. [Journal Article]
- Early Hum Dev 2014 Sep.:S5-9.
- Feto-maternal haemorrhage assessment in a woman with a large population of red blood cells containing fetal haemoglobin. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Ginekol Pol 2014 Aug; 85(8):614-8.
FMH quantification is necessary to calculate an individual dose of prophylactic anti-RhD immunoglobulin and to diagnose fetal anaemia causes. We encountered a healthy woman with a numerous RBCs containing fetal haemoglobin (HbF).To investigate the cause of this sign and the correct evaluation of fetal RBCs in maternal circulation.Patients samples and artificial mixtures were tested by microscopic Kleihaur-Betke (KB) and flow cytometric (FC) tests with anti-HbF + anti-CA (carbonic anhydrase), and with anti-D. The patient's blood count with reticulocyte parameters, and concentration of bilirubin, haptoglobin, iron, transferrin, ferritin, hepcidin, sTR, HbF, HbA2 were measured. Genes coding the beta- and gamma-globin were sequenced.It was impossible to distinguish the population of fetal and maternal HbF positive cells using KBT and FC with anti-HbF. Application of anti-CA and anti-D allowed to separate them. Maternal blood haematological and biochemical parameters were normal but HbF was 3.3% of total Hb concentration (normal < 1%). There were no mutations in the beta- and gamma-globin genes, but Xmn I polymorphism at -158 position in gamma-globin gene was detected in the homozygous state.A very large population of HbF positive cells sometimes can be detect in a healthy woman. Implementation of the various procedures for FMH assessment is necessary in the such case, otherwise, the detection of fetal erythrocytes may not be possible or can give false results.
- Successful management of severe intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: report of a first Japanese case. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Gastroenterol 2014 Sep 13; 14(1):160.
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a cholestasis condition caused by elevated levels of serum bile acids that mainly occurs in the third trimester of pregnancy. Maternal symptoms include pruritus; elevation of transaminases, biliary enzymes, and bilirubin levels; and abnormal liver function tests. Fetal symptoms include spontaneous preterm labor, fetal distress, and intrauterine death. It is more prevalent in the Caucasians and is rarely found in Asian countries, including Japan. The etiology of ICP has been reported as involving various factors such as, environmental factors, hormone balance, and genetic components. The genetic factors include single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes of canalicular transporters, including ABCB4 and ABCB11. It has also been reported that the combination of these SNPs induces severe cholestasis and liver dysfunction.Here, we report for the first time a 24-year Japanese case of severe ICP diagnosed by typical symptoms, serum biochemical analysis, and treated with the administration of ursodeoxycholic acid which improved cholestasis and liver injury and prevented fetal death. The sequence analysis showed SNPs reported their association with ICP in the ABCB11 (rs2287622, V444A) and ABCB4 (rs1202283, N168N) loci.The risk of ICP has been reported to be population-specific, and it is rare in the Japanese population. Our case was successfully treated with ursodeoxycholic acid and the genetic sequence analysis has supported the diagnosis. Because genetic variation in ABCB4 and ABCB11 has also been reported in the Japanese population, we need to be aware of potential ICP cases in pregnant Japanese women although further studies are necessary.
- Clinical comparison of scorpion envenomation by Androctonus mauritanicus and Buthus occitanus in children. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Toxicon 2014 Sep 8.
The clinical results of scorpion stings by Androctonus mauritanicus (Am) and Buthus occitanus (Bo) (main sources of scorpionism in Morocco) were evaluated in this work. The objective was to compare the clinical manifestations of envenoming from these species by investigating possible correlations among symptoms/signs and laboratory abnormalities of envenomed patients. 41 children (25 males, 18 months- 11 years) were admitted at the Provincial Hospital of El Jadida-Morocco. Their minor (18 children) or severe (23 children) systemic signs such as pallor (48.8%), pulmonary edema (APE) (36.6%), convulsion (26.8%), coma (7.3%) were more frequent in children envenomed by Am than Bo, but angioedema (Quincke's edema) (4.9%) was particularly developed in the latter group. The laboratory blood abnormalities (hyperglycemia, high levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine, bilirubin, leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, platelets and low levels of lymphocytes and hemoglobin) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in patients envenomed by Am than Bo, and in all population in comparison to control group. The correlation among these biological analyzes and clinical status showed that higher levels of LDH and value of leukocytes ≥19 x10(3)/mm(3) were indices of cardiac dysfunction with APE. Pallor sign was correlated with a state of shock and/or low level of hemoglobin, associated or not to bilirubin increase. Fatalities (7.3%), presenting toxic myocarditis, had lowest count of lymphocytes (≤4.2%) in comparison to survivors. This is the first report on lymphopenia which may be useful for forecast the fatal outcome in scorpion envenomation.
- The influence of age and aerobic fitness on chromosomal damage in Austrian institutionalised elderly. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mutagenesis 2014 Sep 12.
Ageing goes hand in hand with altered DNA repair and defence mechanisms against DNA damage. To improve the body's overall resistance against chromosomal damage, maintaining a healthy and active lifestyle is of great concern, especially in the elderly. As more and more people are getting older, they change from home living to an institutionalised situation, which is often accompanied by malnutrition, depression and inactivity. So far, there is a lack of data on chromosomal damage in relation to age and fitness status. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of age and aerobic fitness on endpoints of DNA damage in 105 institutionalised women and men (65-98 years) living in Vienna. Chromosomal damage was measured by conducting the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay. Aerobic fitness of the participants was assessed using the 6-min walking test. To investigate the effect of age on micronuclei (MN) frequency and evaluate the particular age group, our data were merged with data from a recent study by Wallner et al. (Effects of unconjugated bilirubin on chromosomal damage in individuals with Gilbert's syndrome measured with the micronucleus cytome assay. Mutagenesis 2012; 27: 731-735). Age and MN frequency correlated significantly for squared regression (r = 0.577; P = 0.000) and showed a levelling-off at ~60 years of age. Furthermore, we observed a significant negative linear correlation (r = -0.222; P = 0.03) between MN frequency and 6-min walking performance. There was a plateau-like effect of the MN frequency above the age of 60-70 years, indicating a higher resistance against chromosomal damage of the 'survivors' of the regular lifespan. This study suggests that aerobic fitness 'protects' against chromosomal damage at high age.