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- A Prospective Study among Patients Presenting at the General Practitioner with a Tick Bite or Erythema Migrans in the Netherlands. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(5):e64361.
We performed a nationwide prospective study on the transmission risk for Borrelia to humans, investigating symptoms and serology at enrolment and three months after tick bites, and after standard treatment for erythema migrans (EM). Aiming to quantify the infection risk at point of care by physicians, we explored risk factors such as tick testing for Borrelia and assessment of the duration of the tick's blood meal.Questionnaires, blood samples and ticks from patients who consulted one of 307 general practitioners for tick bites (n = 327) or EM (n = 283) in 2007 and 2008, were collected at enrolment and three months later at follow-up. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA was detected in 29.3% of 314 ticks, using PCR/reverse line blot and real-time PCR on the OspA gene. Seroconversion in C6 ELISA, IgM or IgG immunoblots for Borrelia-specific antibodies was observed in 3.2% of tick bite cases. Fourteen tick bite cases had evidence of early Borrelia infection, of which EM developed among seven cases. The risk of developing EM after tick bites was 2.6% (95%CI: 1.1%-5.0%), and the risk of either EM or seroconversion was 5.1% (95%CI: 2.9%-8.2%). Participants with Borrelia-positive ticks had a significantly higher risk of either EM or seroconversion (odds ratio 4.8, 95%CI: 1.1-20.4), and of seroconversion alone (odds ratio 11.1, 95%CI: 1.1-108.9). A third (34%) of the cases enrolled with EM did not recall preceding tick bites. Three EM cases (1%) reported persisting symptoms, three months after standard antibiotic treatment for EM.One out of forty participants developed EM within three months after tick bites. The infection risk can be assessed by tick testing for Borrelia at point of care by physicians. However, further refining is needed considering sensitivity and specificity of tick tests, accuracy of tick attachment time and engorgement.
- Paraspecificity of antivenins: example of severe envenomation by the Sahara horned viper (Cerastes cerastes) treated with non-specific antivenin. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Sante Trop 2013 May 16.
Snake bites are a major public health problem in Morocco. Both morbidity and mortality of ophidian envenomation remain very high in this country. Antivenin immunotherapy, the only etiological treatment of this envenomation, is often unavailable in local hospitals. Moreover, when available, antivenins are not necessarily suitable for local ophidian species. This case report describes severe poisoning caused by a Sahara horned viper (Cerastes cerastes) in southern Morocco. In the absence of specific immunotherapy, FAV-Afrique(®), a polyvalent antivenom serum, was administered. The favorable outcome suggests that this serum is paraspecific against the Sahara horned viper. The paraspecificity of antivenin immunotherapy could be a solution to ophidian envenomation in the absence of an antivenin adapted to local snake species.
- Spider envenomation in north america. [Journal Article]
- Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am 2013 Jun; 25(2):205-23.
In North America, spider envenomation is perceived to be a greater threat than in actuality; however, it still is a valid source of morbidity and, very rarely, mortality. Only 2 groups (widows, recluses) are medically important on this continent. Widow bites affect the neuromuscular junction, have minor dermatologic expression, and are treated with analgesics and antivenom. Recluse bites vary from mild, self-limiting rashes to extensive dermonecrosis. Recent awareness of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a ubiquitous cause of skin injury that is often mistaken as attributable to recluse bites has questioned the credence of spiders being the cause of idiopathic wounds.
- Tick bites and lyme disease: the need for timely treatment. [Journal Article]
- Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am 2013 Jun; 25(2):165-72.
In the United States, 30,158 people were reported as having contracted Lyme disease during 2010; 96% of the cases in 2011 were reported from 13 northeast and north-central states. Time of tick attachment is a critical factor. Prolonged attachment allows time for a bacterium to move from tick to human. Patient history and meticulous skin inspection are the most important elements used in diagnosis of Lyme disease. The most common drug for treatment is doxycycline. Ticks find their hosts by several senses: odor, moisture, heat, and vibration. Avoidance of tick-infested areas, such as wooded areas and leaf piles, is paramount in preventing Lyme disease.
- Bites and stings: epidemiology and treatment. [Journal Article]
- Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am 2013 Jun; 25(2):143-50.
Rapid and effective treatment of bites is a major variable in the overall outcome of a patient who is a victim of a bite. There are a wide range of animals that bite and sting, and the reactions vary depending on the individual and the animal involved. Although most bites are treated on an outpatient basis, patients who have severe complications related to bites become patients in critical care settings. An overview of potential bite and sting sources, with some general guidelines for what to expect and how to treat the patient, is presented.
- Perceptions and treatment seeking behavior for dog bites in rural Bangladesh. [Journal Article]
- Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2013 Mar; 44(2):244-8.
We conducted a study of the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding dog bites among residents of a rural community in Bangladesh from September 2006 to February 2007 using face to face interviews with 1,973 adults from five villages. The mean age of the respondents was 34+/-16 years. Sixty-eight percent of subjects were female, 7.3% of respondents reported a history of dog bite in a family member; 10% had been bitten twice. Sixty-five percent of subjects were aware of rabies and 99.1% knew a dog bite was the cause of rabies. Seventy-one percent of subjects were aware of a rabies vaccine, 77.5% of respondents stated rabies can cause death. Ninty percent of dog bite victims received treatment by traditional healers, 25% were treated with a rabies vaccine and 2.1% of victims died. Greater awareness is needed in rural Bangladesh regarding prevention of rabies.
- Epidemic and maintenance of rabies in Chinese ferret badgers (Melogale moschata) indicated by epidemiology and the molecular signatures of rabies viruses. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Virol Sin 2013 May 21.
An epidemic of Chinese ferret badger-associated human rabies was investigated in Wuyuan county, Jiangxi province and rabies viruses isolates from ferret badgers in different districts in Jiangxi and Zhejiang provinces were sequenced with their nucleotides and amino acids and aligned for epidemiological analysis. The results showed that the human rabies in Wuyuan are only associated with ferret badger bites; the rabies virus can be isolated in a high percentage of ferret badgers in the epidemic areas in Jiangxi and Zhejiang provinces; the isolates share the same molecular features in nucleotides and have characteristic amino acid signatures, i.e., 2 sites in the nucleoprotein and 3 sites in the glycoprotein, that are distinct from virus isolates from dogs in the same region. We conclude that rabies in Chinese ferret badgers has formed an independent transmission cycle and ferret badgers may serve as another important rabies reservoir independent of dog rabies in China.
- The Oral Commensal Microbiota Bites Back through Nod1. [Journal Article]
- Cell Host Microbe 2013 May 15; 13(5):503-5.
The mechanisms through which commensal bacterial populations cause inflammatory disease when shifted to dysbiotic community structures are poorly understood. Jiao et al. (2013) demonstrate that, in the case of inflammatory disease in the mouth, stimulation of the intracellular pattern recognition receptor Nod1 is a critical determinant.
- Experience of Lyme disease and preferences for precautions: a cross-sectional survey of UK patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Public Health 2013 May 16; 13(1):481.
BACKGROUND:Lyme disease (LD) is a tick-borne zoonosis currently affecting approximately 1000 people annually in the UK (confirmed through serological diagnosis) although it is estimated that the real figures may be as high as 3000 cases. It is important to know what factors may predict correct appraisal of LD symptoms and how the experience of LD might predict preferences for future precautionary actions.
METHODS:A cross-sectional survey was conducted with early LD patients via the Lyme Borreliosis Unit at the Health Protection Agency. One hundred and thirty participants completed measures of awareness of having been bitten by ticks, knowledge of ticks and LD, interpretation of LD symptoms, suspicions of having LD prior to seeing the General Practitioner (GP), and preferences for precautionary actions during future countryside visits. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to identify key predictors of awareness of having been bitten by ticks and of having LD. t-tests assessed differences between groups of participants on suspicions of having LD and preferences for future precautions. Pearson correlations examined relationships between measures of preferences for precautions and frequency of countryside use, knowledge of ticks and LD, and intentions to avoid the countryside in the future.
RESULTS:73.8% of participants (n = 96) reported a skin rash as the reason for seeking medical help, and 44.1% (n = 64) suspected they had LD before seeing the GP. Participants reporting a direct event in realizing they had been bitten by ticks (seeing a tick on skin or seeing a skin rash and linking it to tick bites) were more likely to suspect they had LD before seeing the doctor. Participants distinguished between taking precautions against tick bites during vs. after countryside visits, largely preferring the latter. Also, the more frequently participants visited the countryside, the less likely they were to endorse during-visit precautions.
CONCLUSIONS:The results suggest that the risk of LD is set in the context of the restorative benefits of countryside practices, and that it may be counterproductive to overemphasize pre- or during-visit precautions. Simultaneously, having experienced LD is not associated with any withdrawal from countryside.
- [Visceral leishmaniasis in patient with HIV infection]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Chilena Infectol 2013 Apr; 30(2):216-20.
Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoa of the genus Leishmania transmitted by sandfly bites. It causes subclinical infection and diverse clinical manifestations with cutaneous, mucosal or visceral involvement. The last one, called visceral leishmaniasis, is usually fatal without treatment and in VIH patients with deep immunosuppression, has been recognized as an opportunistic infection with a high degree of difficulty in diagnosis and treatment. We present the case of a patient with HIV infection and visceral leishmaniasis. The clinical presentation was a prolonged febril syndrome with hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy and pancytopenia. The diferential diagnosis was made with lymphoma and other opportunistic infections, as mycobacteriosis. The bone marrow aspirate reveled parasite amastigotes. The patient received treatment with amphotericin B deoxycholate for 14 days and 2 months after he relapsed. Then he was treated with the same drug for 21 days and after that he has been in prophylaxis for 29 months with good outcome, without any other relapse.