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- Efficacy of timolol 0.1% gel and a prostaglandin analog in an unfixed combination compared to the corresponding fixed combinations. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Ophthalmol 2013 Apr 15.:0.
Purpose:To investigate the intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction with prostaglandin analogs (PGAs)-timolol fixed combinations versus the unfixed combination of the same PGAs and timolol 0.1% in gel-forming carbomer.
Methods:Patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) receiving for at least 4 weeks the fixed combinations of PGA-timolol, administered once a day in the evening (0.005% latanoprost with 0.5% timolol, 0.004% travoprost with 0.5% timolol, 0.03% bimatoprost with 0.5% timolol) were switched to an unfixed combination of the same PGA (once a day in the evening) with timolol 0.1% in gel-forming carbomer (once a day in the morning) for at least 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was to compare efficacy of fixed vs unfixed combinations in lowering IOP. The effects of both regimens on short-term IOP fluctuations were also assessed.
Results:A total of 32 patients (64 eyes) fulfilled inclusion criteria: 17 patients received latanoprost-timolol fixed combination, 9 travoprost-timolol fixed combination, 6 bimatoprost-timolol fixed combination. For all considered time periods each unfixed combination induced an IOP reduction significantly higher than the corresponding fixed combination (paired t test: p<0.05 in all measurements). The diurnal IOP reduction was significantly higher during the unfixed combinations (p<0.001). Unfixed combinations significantly decreased IOP diurnal fluctuations and increased the percentage of patients with daily IOP fluctuation ≤2 mm Hg.
Conclusion:In this pilot study, PGA and timolol seems to be more effective in POAG treatment when administered as unfixed combinations, reducing both IOP and daily fluctuations. The once a day timolol 0.1% gel-forming carbomer may be a valuable option in PGA-timolol unfixed combination regimen.
- Long-term cost and efficacy analysis of latanoprost versus timolol in glaucoma patients in Germany. [Journal Article]
- Int J Ophthalmol 2013; 6(2):155-9.
To evaluate 5-year effectiveness and cost between latanoprost or timolol monotherapy in a pilot trial.A retrospective, multi-center trial performed at 6 sites in Germany of patients who had a diagnosis of primary open-angle or pigmentary glaucoma, in at least one eye, initiated on monotherapy with latanoprost or timolol maleate. Qualified consecutive charts were reviewed in which 5-year efficacy, safety and cost data was abstracted.Seventy-seoen latanoprost and 49 timolol patients were included, at the final visit no difference existed between the two groups in disc parameters including: rim area, rim area/disc area ratio, cup volume or vertical cup/disc ratio (P>0.05). There was no difference in intraocular pressure (IOP) between the initial latanoprost (17.4±2.6) and timolol (16.3±2.8mmHg) groups. There was less change in medicines over the follow-up period (0.1 vs 0.8) and fewer medications at the final visit (1.2 vs 1.8) with latanoprost compared to timolol. No patient treated with latanoprost discontinued therapy during follow-up, while 12% discontinued timolol mostly due to inadequate IOP control. Cost/year was less with initial timolol ($458±236) as compared to latanoprost ($552±202).Patients begun on latanoprost or timolol and followed over 5 years may have similar clinical outcomes. However, timolol patients may require more medicines and medicine changes to control IOP for long-term, but at a lower cost.
- Prevention and treatment of postpartum hypertension. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013.:CD004351.
Postpartum blood pressure (BP) is highest three to six days after birth when most women have been discharged home. A significant rise in BP may be dangerous (e.g., can lead to stroke), but there is little information about how to prevent or treat postpartum hypertension.To assess the relative benefits and risks of interventions to: (1) prevent postpartum hypertension, by assessing whether 'routine' postpartum medical therapy is better than placebo/no treatment; and (2) treat postpartum hypertension, by assessing whether (i) one antihypertensive therapy is better than placebo/no therapy for mild-moderate postpartum hypertension; and (ii) one antihypertensive agent offers advantages over another for mild-moderate or severe postpartum hypertension.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 January 2013), bibliographies of retrieved papers, and personal files.For women with antenatal hypertension, trials comparing a medical intervention with placebo/no therapy. For women with postpartum hypertension, trials comparing one antihypertensive with either another or placebo/no therapy.We extracted the data independently and were not blinded to trial characteristics or outcomes. We contacted authors for missing data when possible.Nine trials are included.Prevention: Four trials (358 women) compared furosemide, nifedipine capsules, or L-arginine with placebo/no therapy. For women with antenatal pre-eclampsia, postnatal furosemide is associated with a strong trend towards reduced use of antihypertensive therapy in hospital.Treatment: For treatment of mild-moderate postpartum hypertension, three trials (189 women) compared timolol, oral hydralazine, or oral nifedipine with methyldopa. Use of additional antihypertensive therapy did not differ between groups (risk ratio (RR) 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20 to 4.20; three trials), but the trials were not consistent in their effects. The drugs were well tolerated.For treatment of severe postpartum hypertension, two trials (120 women) compared intravenous hydralazine with either sublingual nifedipine or intravenous labetalol. There were no maternal deaths or hypotension. Use of additional antihypertensive therapy did not differ between groups (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.04 to 9.07; two trials), but the trials were not consistent in their effects.For women with pre-eclampsia, postnatal furosemide may decrease the need for postnatal antihypertensive therapy in hospital, but more data are needed on substantive outcomes before this practice can be recommended. There are no reliable data to guide management of women who are hypertensive postpartum. Any antihypertensive agent used should be based on a clinician's familiarity with the drug. Future studies should include data on postpartum analgesics, severe maternal hypertension, breastfeeding, hospital length of stay, and maternal satisfaction with care.
- Imiquimod 5% cream versus timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution for treating superficial proliferating infantile haemangiomas: a retrospective study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Exp Dermatol 2013 Apr 30.
BACKGROUND:Infantile haemangiomas (IHs) are the most common vascular tumours of infancy. Topical therapies are a possible treatment for superficial IHs.
AIM:To determine the efficacy and safety of topical therapy in the treatment of superficial proliferating IHs.
METHODS:The medical records of all the patients with proliferating superficial IHs were reviewed. All lesions had been treated either with imiquimod 5% cream or timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution. Lesions were classified into pairs, with one of each treatment in each pair, matched by anatomical location, colour and size. A visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Haemangioma Activity Score (HAS) were used to evaluate the efficacy of the two drugs. The paired Student t-test was used to test for differences in recovery with these two treatments.
RESULTS:In total, 51 patients treated with timolol and 94 treated with imiquimod met the inclusion criteria, and 20 lesions treated with timolol were successfully matched to a lesion treated with imiquimod. The paired t-test indicated that there was no significant difference in either VAS score (P = 0.11) or HAS (P = 0.49). For the imiquimod-treated patients, crusting was the most common reaction (65.0%, 13/20). This did not cause any superficial scarring or skin pigmentation in the matched pairs; however, superficial scars (14.9%, 14/94) and skin pigmentation disorders (28.7%, 27/94) were reported for some of the unmatched cases. There were no adverse events (AEs) during the treatment with timolol.
CONCLUSIONS:Both imiquimod 5% cream or timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution showed equivalent clinical efficacy after 4 months of treatment. Timolol appeared to have fewer AEs than imiquimod in the management of superficial IHs. Larger, prospective controlled trials with long-term treatment are needed to confirm these results.
- Two-dimensional transport analysis of transdermal drug absorption with a non-perfect sink boundary condition at the skin-capillary interface. [Journal Article]
- Math Biosci 2013 Jul; 244(1):58-67.
A transient percutaneous drug absorption model was solved in two dimensions. Clearance of the topically-applied pharmaceutical occured at the skin-capillary boundary. Timolol penetration profiles in the dermal tissue were produced revealing concentration gradients in the directions normal and parallel to the skin surface. Ninety-eight percent of the steady-state flux was reached after 85h or four time constants. The analytical solution procedure agreed with published results. As the clearance rate increased relative to diffusion, the delivery rate and amount of drug absorbed into the bloodstream increased while the time to reach the equilibrium flux decreased. Researchers can apply the closed-form expressions to simulate the process, estimate key parameters and design devices that meet specific performance requirements.
- Cystoid macular oedema following selective laser trabeculoplasty in a diabetic patient. [LETTER]
- Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2013 Apr 22.
We report a case of cystoid macular oedema (CMO) precipitated by selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) performed to treat steroid-induced ocular hypertension in a diabetic patient. A 47-year-old diabetic male complained of blurred vision in the right eye. The right visual acuity (VA) was 6/9 and the intraocular pressure (IOP) was 16 mm Hg. Examination revealed bilateral moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and right clinically significant macular oedema (CSMO), also evident on optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated multiple leaking perifoveal microaneurysms which were too close to the foveal centre to be treated safely with focal laser photocoagulation. A right posterior sub-Tenon triamcinolone injection (40 mg in 1 ml) was administered. Four weeks later, the right VA had improved to 6/7.5, associated with almost complete resolution of macular thickening on OCT. However, the right IOP had risen to 24 mm Hg. Topical brinzolamide 10 mg/mL and timolol 5 mg/mL twice daily was prescribed. Seven months after the triamcinolone injection, the right VA had improved to 6/6, though OCT demonstrated mild recurrent CMO (Figure 1). The right IOP was now 37 mm Hg despite continued topical treatment. Consequently, right SLT was performed, with 100 x 0.9 mJ shots divided evenly over the entire angle circumference. Seven days following SLT, the right IOP had fallen to 16 mm Hg, but the patient reported that a marked deterioration in right vision had developed within 12 hours of the SLT being performed. The best corrected right VA was now 6/18, associated with marked macular oedema on OCT scanning (Figure 2). Topical ketorolac trometamol 5mg/ml (Allergan Australia Pty Ltd) four times a day for eight weeks and dexamethasone 1mg/ml (Alcon Laboratories, Australia Pty Ltd) four times a day for two weeks was prescribed. A gradual improvement in VA to 6/9 and reduction in CMO occurred during the subsequent eight weeks.
- Efficacy of topical brimonidine-timolol for haemangioma of infancy and perils of off-label prescribing. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2013.
We report three patients with superficial haemangiomas treated topically with Combigan ophthalmic solution (brimonidine 0.2%-timolol 0.5%), a combination selective α-2-adrenergic agonist and non-selective β-blocker Food and Drug Administration-approved for use in glaucoma. Topical brimonidine 0.2%-timolol 0.5% therapy improved the appearance of haemangiomas in all the cases. Two patients did not experience any adverse effects. One patient had hypothermic episodes which were initially thought to be because of brimonidine 0.2%-timolol 0.5% therapy. However, an episode occurred a few weeks after discontinuation and brimonidine 0.2%-timolol 0.5% therapy was ruled out as a cause. Despite the benefit, off-label use of brimonidine 0.2%-timolol 0.5% therapy served as a pitfall in the evaluation of an unusual constellation of worrisome symptoms. In conclusion, brimonidine 0.2%-timolol 0.5% therapy is a promising alternative in the topical treatment of haemangiomas. It may have synergistic effects and increased efficacy by targeting haemangiomas via two mechanisms (α-agonism and β-inhibition), but the risk of unforeseen adverse effects must always be considered when prescribing off-label treatment, especially in infants.
- Preventive Pharmacologic Treatments for Episodic Migraine in Adults. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Gen Intern Med 2013 Apr 17.
OBJECTIVES:Systematic review of preventive pharmacologic treatments for community-dwelling adults with episodic migraine.
DATA SOURCES:Electronic databases through May 20, 2012. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: English-language randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of preventive drugs compared to placebo or active treatments examining rates of ≥50 % reduction in monthly migraine frequency or improvement in quality of life. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS
METHODS:We assessed risk of bias and strength of evidence and conducted random effects meta-analyses of absolute risk differences and Bayesian network meta-analysis.
RESULTS:Of 5,244 retrieved references, 215 publications of RCTs provided mostly low-strength evidence because of the risk of bias and imprecision. RCTs examined 59 drugs from 14 drug classes. All approved drugs, including topiramate (9 RCTs), divalproex (3 RCTs), timolol (3 RCTs), and propranolol (4 RCTs); off-label beta blockers metoprolol (4 RCTs), atenolol (1 RCT), nadolol (1 RCT), and acebutolol (1 RCT); angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors captopril (1 RCT) and lisinopril (1 RCT); and angiotensin II receptor blocker candesartan (1 RCT), outperformed placebo in reducing monthly migraine frequency by ≥50 % in 200-400 patients per 1,000 treated. Adverse effects leading to treatment discontinuation (68 RCTs) were greater with topiramate, off-label antiepileptics, and antidepressants than with placebo. Limited direct evidence as well as frequentist and exploratory network Bayesian meta-analysis showed no statistically significant differences in benefits between approved drugs. Off-label angiotensin-inhibiting drugs and beta-blockers were most effective and tolerable for episodic migraine prevention.
LIMITATIONS:We did not quantify reporting bias or contact principal investigators regarding unpublished trials.
CONCLUSIONS:Approved drugs prevented episodic migraine frequency by ≥50 % with no statistically significant difference between them. Exploratory network meta-analysis suggested that off-label angiotensin-inhibiting drugs and beta-blockers had favorable benefit-to-harm ratios. Evidence is lacking for long-term effects of drug treatments (i.e., trials of more than 3 months duration), especially for quality of life.
- Melatonin and its analog 5-methoxycarbonylamino-N-acetyltryptamine potentiate adrenergic receptor-mediated ocular hypotensive effects in rabbits: significance for combination therapy in glaucoma. [Journal Article]
- J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2013 Jul; 346(1):138-45.
Melatonin is currently considered a promising drug for glaucoma treatment because of its ocular hypotensive and neuroprotective effects. We have investigated the effect of melatonin and its analog 5-methoxycarbonylamino-N-acetyltryptamine, 5-MCA-NAT, on β2/α2A-adrenergic receptor mRNA as well as protein expression in cultured rabbit nonpigmented ciliary epithelial cells. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemical assays revealed a significant β2-adrenergic receptor downregulation as well as α2A-adrenergic receptor up-regulation of treated cells (P < 0.001, maximal significant effect). In addition, we have studied the effect of these drugs upon the ocular hypotensive action of a nonselective β-adrenergic receptor (timolol) and a selective α2-adrenergic receptor agonist (brimonidine) in normotensive rabbits. Intraocular pressure (IOP) experiments showed that the administration of timolol in rabbits pretreated with melatonin or 5-MCA-NAT evoked an additional IOP reduction of 14.02% ± 5.8% or 16.75% ± 5.48% (P < 0.01) in comparison with rabbits treated with timolol alone for 24 hours. Concerning brimonidine hypotensive action, an additional IOP reduction of 29.26% ± 5.21% or 39.07% ± 5.81% (P < 0.001) was observed in rabbits pretreated with melatonin or 5-MCA-NAT when compared with animals treated with brimonidine alone for 24 hours. Additionally, a sustained potentiating effect of a single dose of 5-MCA-NAT was seen in rabbits treated with brimonidine once daily for up 4 days (extra IOP decrease of 15.57% ± 5.15%, P < 0.05, compared with brimonidine alone). These data confirm the indirect action of melatoninergic compounds on adrenergic receptors and their remarkable effect upon the ocular hypotensive action mainly of α2-adrenergic receptor agonists but also of β-adrenergic antagonists.
- Applications of CYP450 Testing in the Clinical Setting. [Journal Article]
- Mol Diagn Ther 2013 Jun; 17(3):165-84.
Interindividual variability in drug response is a major clinical problem. Polymedication and genetic polymorphisms modulating drug-metabolising enzyme activities (cytochromes P450, CYP) are identified sources of variability in drug responses. We present here the relevant data on the clinical impact of the major CYP polymorphisms (CYP2D6, CYP2C19 and CYP2C9) on drug therapy where genotyping and phenotyping may be considered, and the guidelines developed when available. CYP2D6 is responsible for the oxidative metabolism of up to 25 % of commonly prescribed drugs such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, opioids, antiarrythmics and tamoxifen. The ultrarapid metaboliser (UM) phenotype is recognised as a cause of therapeutic inefficacy of antidepressant, whereas an increased risk of toxicity has been reported in poor metabolisers (PMs) with several psychotropics (desipramine, venlafaxine, amitriptyline, haloperidol). CYP2D6 polymorphism influences the analgesic response to prodrug opioids (codeine, tramadol and oxycodone). In PMs for CYP2D6, reduced analgesic effects have been observed, whereas in UMs cases of life-threatening toxicity have been reported with tramadol and codeine. CYP2D6 PM phenotype has been associated with an increased risk of toxicity of metoprolol, timolol, carvedilol and propafenone. Although conflicting results have been reported regarding the association between CYP2D6 genotype and tamoxifen effects, CYP2D6 genotyping may be useful in selecting adjuvant hormonal therapy in postmenopausal women. CYP2C19 is responsible for metabolising clopidogrel, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and some antidepressants. Carriers of CYP2C19 variant alleles exhibit a reduced capacity to produce the active metabolite of clopidogrel, and are at increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. For PPIs, it has been shown that the mean intragastric pH values and the Helicobacter pylori eradication rates were higher in carriers of CYP2C19 variant alleles. CYP2C19 is involved in the metabolism of several antidepressants. As a result of an increased risk of adverse effects in CYP2C19 PMs, dose reductions are recommended for some agents (imipramine, sertraline). CYP2C9 is responsible for metabolising vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), sulfonylureas, angiotensin II receptor antagonists and phenytoin. For VKAs, CYP2C9 polymorphism has been associated with lower doses, longer time to reach treatment stability and higher frequencies of supratherapeutic international normalised ratios (INRs). Prescribing algorithms are available in order to adapt dosing to genotype. Although the existing data are controversial, some studies have suggested an increased risk of NSAID-associated gastrointestinal bleeding in carriers of CYP2C9 variant alleles. A relationship between CYP2C9 polymorphisms and the pharmacokinetics of sulfonylureas and angiotensin II receptor antagonists has also been observed. The clinical impact in terms of hypoglycaemia and blood pressure was, however, modest. Finally, homozygous and heterozygous carriers of CYP2C9 variant alleles require lower doses of phenytoin to reach therapeutic plasma concentrations, and are at increased risk of toxicity. New diagnostic techniques made safer and easier should allow quicker diagnosis of metabolic variations. Genotyping and phenotyping may therefore be considered where dosing guidelines according to CYP genotype have been published, and help identify the right molecule for the right patient.