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Breast AND Breast pain [keywords]
- Are Psychological Predictors of Chronic Postsurgical Pain Dependent on the Surgical Model? A Comparison of Total Knee Arthroplasty and Breast Surgery for Cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pain 2013 May 16.
Anxiety, depression, and catastrophizing are generally considered to be predictive of chronic postoperative pain, but this may not be the case after all types of surgery, raising the possibility that the results depend on the surgical model. We assessed the predictive value of these factors for chronic postsurgical pain in 2 different surgical models: total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis (89 patients, 65% women, age = 69 ± 9 years, baseline pain intensity = 4.7 ± 2.1) and breast surgery for cancer (100 patients, 100% women, age = 55 ± 12 years, no preoperative pain). Data were collected before surgery, then 2 days and 3 months after surgery. Anxiety, depression, and catastrophizing were measured with the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and Pain Catastrophizing Scale, respectively. Pain was assessed with the Brief Pain Inventory. Neuropathic pain was detected with the DN4 questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses for the total knee arthroplasty and breast surgery models considered together indicated that the presence of clinically meaningful chronic pain at 3 months (pain intensity ≥3/10) was predicted independently by age (P = .04), pain intensity on day 2 (P = .009), and state anxiety (P = .001). Linear regression models also showed that pain magnification, one of the dimensions of catastrophizing, independently predicted chronic pain intensity (P = .04). These results were not affected by the surgical model or by the neuropathic characteristics of the pain. Thus, state anxiety and pain magnification seem to constitute psychological risk factors for chronic postsurgical pain relevant in all surgical models. PERSPECTIVE: This prospective study performed in patients with total knee arthroplasty or breast surgery for cancer shows that state anxiety, amplification of pain, and acute postoperative pain independently predict postsurgical pain at 3 months and that this does not depend on the surgical model.
- 3M Cavilon No-Sting Barrier Film or topical corticosteroid (mometasone furoate) for protection against radiation dermatitis: A clinical trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Formos Med Assoc 2013 May 16.
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE:Evidence on the prevention of radiation dermatitis is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 3M Cavilon No Sting Barrier Film and topical corticosteroids on irradiated skin.
METHODS:Thirty-nine postoperative breast cancer patients were randomized into three groups for intraindividual comparison (skin to be irradiated was divided into 2 parts): (1) 3M No Sting Barrier Film versus no treatment; (2) corticosteroid versus no treatment; and (3) corticosteroid versus 3M No Sting Barrier Film. The primary end points monitored were the time to first occurrence of grade 1 pruritus, pain score of 3 and grade 2 radiation dermatitis. The secondary end points studied were the incidence of grade 3 radiation dermatitis and total pain scores. Data analysis was done using the SPSS software version 10.
RESULTS:Skin given the 3M barrier film experienced a later occurrence of pruritus compared to both corticosteroids and untreated, although this was statistically insignificant. Corticosteroids delayed the time to occurrence of grade 2 dermatitis compared to both untreated skin and 3M barrier film, (mean day of onset = corticosteroid: 52 vs. untreated: 43, p = 0.092; corticosteroid: 53.4 vs. 3M barrier film: 44.5, p = 0.002, t test). Skin given corticosteroids had the lowest incidence of grade 3 dermatitis among all three conditions, although the differences were statistically insignificant. No statistically significant differences were noted in total pain scores.
CONCLUSION:The 3M barrier film may be helpful against dermatitis associated pruritus. Corticosteroids may delay the time of onset of severe skin reactions and also reduce the incidence of severe radiation dermatitis.
- Efficacy and safety of 12-weekly versus 4-weekly zoledronic acid for prolonged treatment of patients with bone metastases from breast cancer (ZOOM): a phase 3, open-label, randomised, non-inferiority trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Lancet Oncol 2013 May 15.
BACKGROUND:Zoledronic acid reduces skeletal-related events in patients with breast cancer, but concerns have been raised about prolonged monthly administration. We assessed the efficacy and safety of a reduced dosing frequency of zoledronic acid in women treated previously with monthly zoledronic acid.
METHODS:We did this non-inferiority, phase 3 trial in 62 centres in Italy. We enrolled patients with breast cancer who had one or more bone metastases and had completed 12-15 months of monthly treatment with zoledronic acid. Patients were randomly assigned with a permutated block (size four to eight) random list stratified by centre in a 1:1 ratio to zoledronic acid 4 mg once every 12 weeks or once every 4 weeks, and followed up for at least 1 year. Neither patients nor investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was skeletal morbidity rate (skeletal-related events per patient per year) in the intention-to-treat population. We used a non-inferiority margin of 0·19. The trial is registered with EudraCT, number 2005-004942-15.
FINDINGS:We screened 430 patients and enrolled 425, of whom 209 were assigned to the 12-week group and 216 to the 4-week group. The skeletal morbidity rate was 0·26 (95% CI 0·15-0·37) in the 12-week group versus 0·22 (0·14-0·29) in the 4-week group. The between-group difference was 0·04 and the upper limit of one-tailed 97·5% CI was 0·17, which is lower than the non-inferiority margin. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were bone pain (56 [27%] patients in the 12-week group vs 65 [30%] in the 4-week group), nausea (24 [11%] vs 33 [15%]), and asthenia (18 [9%] vs 33 [15%]). Renal adverse events occurred in one patient (<1%) in the 12-week group versus two (1%) in the 4-week group. One patient (<1%) in the 4-week group had grade 1 acute renal failure. Osteonecrosis of the jaw occurred in four patients in the 12-week group versus three in the 4-week group. No treatment-related deaths were reported. Median N-terminal telopeptide concentration changed from baseline more in the 12-week group than in the 4-week group after 12 months (12·2%vs 0·0%; p=0·011).
INTERPRETATION:Our results raise the possibility of decreasing administration of zoledronic acid to a 12-weekly regimen to reduce exposure during the second year, while maintaining its therapeutic effects. However, the effects on N-terminal telopeptide should be investigated further before changing current practice. FUNDING: Novartis Farma.
- Influence of curing agent on fibrosis around silicone implants. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2013 Jun; 24(9):1140-1151.
Severe capsular contracture around silicone expander breast implants leading to pain and failure is a major clinical problem. Even though earlier studies have implicated the immunogenicity of silicone, the role of physical and chemical properties of the silicone material in excessive collagen deposition and fibrosis has been less addressed. The present study investigates whether there is any correlation between the type of curing systems i.e. addition and free radical curing and the fibrosis around silicone elastomer. The experiment carried out uses commercially available silicone ventriculo-peritoneal shunt material elastomer cured by platinum and the results are compared with results obtained in a similar study carried out by the authors using commercially available silicone tissue expander material cured by peroxide. Ultra-high molecular weight poly-ethylene (UHMWPE), the standard reference for biocompatibility evaluation, was used as the control material. The materials were implanted in rat skeletal muscle for 30 and 90 days. Inflammatory cells, myofibroblasts, cytokines, and collagen deposition at the material-tissue interface were identified by haematoxylin-eosin and Masson's Trichrome stains and semi-quantitated based on immunohistochemical studies. Results indicate that even though the cellular response in the initial phase of wound healing was similar in both platinum and peroxide-cured materials, the collagen deposition in the proliferative phase was more around peroxide-cured material in comparison to the platinum-cured silicone elastomer. There is a need to look into the molecular mechanisms of this interaction and the possibility of using curing systems other than free radical peroxide in the manufacture of silicone elastomer expanders for breast prosthesis.
- Raynaud phenomenon of the nipple in breastfeeding mothers: an underdiagnosed cause of nipple pain. [Journal Article]
- JAMA Dermatol 2013 Mar; 149(3):300-6.
To elucidate the diagnostic criteria of Raynaud phenomenon of the nipple that will aid in recognizing and treating Raynaud phenomenon in breast feeding mothers with chronic deep nipple pain during lactation.Retrospective review of a patient database composed of 22 cases of breastfeeding mothers who fit the diagnostic criteria for Raynaud phenomenon of the nipple.Menlo Dermatology Medical Group in Menlo Park, California, an academic-affiliated, private dermatologic referral center.All patients diagnosed as having Raynaud phenomenon of the nipple evaluated from January 1, 2004,through December 31, 2010.The rate of failed treatment for Candida mastitis, the rate of improvement of symptoms with nifedipine use, and the overall rate of improvement of symptoms with appropriate therapy involving treatment of Raynaud phenomenon.Among the 22 patients with Raynaud phenomenon of the nipple, previous treatment for Candida mastitis with oral or topical antifungals was ineffective in 20(91%). Of the 12 patients who tolerated a trial of nifedipine,10 (83%) reported decreased or resolved nipple pain. All patients experienced marked improvement of symptoms with appropriate therapy involving treatment of Raynaud phenomenon.Most patients were treated with antifungals before presentation without resolution of nipple pain. Nifedipine appears to be an effective medication for the treatment of Raynaud phenomenon of the nipple. With appropriate management of Raynaud phenomenon,breastfeeding mothers demonstrated improvement of nipple pain. Raynaud phenomenon of the nipple should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nipple pain during lactation.
- Evidence for U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) Recommendations Against Routine Mammography for Females between 40-49 Years of Age. [Journal Article]
- Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013; 14(3):2137-9.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females, worldwide, accounting for 22.9% of all cancers (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) in women. Mammography is a sensitive (77-95%) and specific (94-97%) screening method for breast cancer. Previously, females between the 40-50 years old were recommended to have mammograms every one to two years. However, based on current evidence, in 2009, USPSTF recommended that the decision to start regular, biennial screening mammography for females younger than 50 years should be an individual decision and take patient context into account, including patient values regarding specific benefits and harms. This decision was based on findings regarding radiation exposure, false-positive and false-negative rates, over-diagnosis, and pain and psychological responses. The goal of this paper is to focus on evidence for updating the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation against routine mammography for females between 40-49 years of age.
- Adjuvant Trastuzumab for 6 Months is Effective in Patients with HER2-positive Stage II or III Breast Cancer. [Journal Article]
- Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013; 14(3):1981-4.
Objective:The optimal duration of adjuvant trastuzumab treatment in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 6 months of adjuvant trastuzumab treatment in patients with stage II or III HER2-positive breast cancer.
Methods:The records of patients with HER2-positive stage II or III breast cancer who were admitted to the Breast Center of Taipei Medical University Hospital and Yuan's General Hospital between 2000 and 2008 were reviewed. All patients received adjuvant trastuzumab at an initial dose of 4 mg/kg followed by a maintenance dose of 2 mg/kg/week for 22 weeks in combination with chemotherapy.
Results:A total of 51 patients were included with a mean age of 46.9 years. Approximately 55% of the patients had stage III disease. The mean follow-up time from initiation of treatment was 45.2 months (range, 0.9 to 85 months). During follow-up, 46 patients (90.2%) did not experience tumor recurrence. The mean estimated disease free survival was 80.2 months. The estimated 1- , 2-, 5-, and 7-year survival rates were 97.9%, 93.1%, 93.1%, and 93.1%, respectively. The most common adverse effects were gastrointestinal symptoms (21.6%), chills (17.6%), dizziness (9.8%), and bone pain (7.8%). No cardiac or hematologic adverse events occurred.
Conclusion:Adjuvant therapy with trastuzumab for 6 months resulted in a clinical benefit in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.
- A review of the use of somatostatin analogs in oncology. [Journal Article]
- Onco Targets Ther 2013.:471-83.
Somatostatin is a neuropeptide produced by paracrine cells that are located throughout the gastrointestinal tract, lung, and pancreas, and is also found in various locations of the nervous system. It exerts neural control over many physiological functions including inhibition of gastrointestinal endocrine secretion through its receptors. Potent and biologically stable analogs of somatostatin have been developed. These somatostatin analogs show different efficacy on different receptors, and receptors are varyingly concentrated in specific tissues. Antitumor and antisecretory effects of somatostatin analogs in cancer have been shown in several in vivo and in vitro studies. However, these activities have not always yielded into clinically relevant patient outcome benefit. Somatostatin analogs are of clinical benefit in treating symptoms of ectopic hormone secretion (adrenocorticotropic hormone, growth hormone-releasing hormone) in lung cancer, without inducing a significant tumor response. They have also been shown to induce a statistically significant decrease in bone pain and increase in Karnofsky performance status in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Somatostatin analogs alone or in combination with other agents have only limited antitumoral effect in breast cancer. In gastrointestinal cancers, studies have not shown an objective tumor response to somatostatin analogs except in endocrine tumors of the liver with symptomatic and biochemical improvement. In neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system and pancreas, very high symptomatic and biochemical response rates have been achieved with somatostatin analogs. Antiproliferative activity has been clearly shown in metastatic midgut neuroendocrine tumors.
- Clinico- pathological profile of patients with breast diseases. [Journal Article]
- Diagn Pathol 2013.:77.
To evaluate the spectrum of breast diseases and their association with presenting complains of patients.It was a cross sectional study conducted from 1st January 2010 - 30th December 2012. A total of 254 breast specimens of patients, who were admitted in Civil Hospital Karachi with breast complaints, were included. Specimens were collected either from mastectomy, lumpectomy or needle biopsy from the admitted patients. Informed written consent was taken from all the patients. All patients with primary breast diseases were included. Patients undergoing chemotherapy or with secondary breast disease and slides with insufficient specimen were excluded. All data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19.There were 254 breast lesions, histologically diagnosed in 3 year review period. The overall mean age of patients with breast lesion was 25.18, SD ± 11.73 with a wide age range of 12-74 years. Most common cases identified are benign 191(75.3%), followed by inflammatory 30(11.8%) and malignant lesions 30(11.8%). Most patients presenting with the complain of pain have diagnosis of fibroadenoma 24 (63.2%) while patient with complain of lump also have the most common diagnosis of fibroadenoma 147 (72.8%).Study shows that in Pakistani females, mostly encountered breast lesion was fibroadenoma. Due to lack of awareness breast diseases present lately. Awareness must be created among women to reduce the mortality and morbidity with breast lesions. VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1037059088969395.
- [Bonecancer pain: from preclinicalpharmacology toclinical trials]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Gac Med Mex 2013 Mar-Apr; 149(2):204-11.
Worldwide over 12 million people were diagnosed with cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) and 8 million individuals died from cancer in 2008. Recent data indicate that 75-90% of patients with advanced stage diseases or metastatic cancer will experience significant cancer pain. Bone cancer pain is common in patients with advanced breast, prostate, and lung cancer as these tumors have a marked affinity to metastasize to bone. Once tumors metastasize to bone, they are a major cause of morbidity and mortality as the tumor induces significant skeletal remodeling, fractures, pain and anemia; all of which reduce the functional status, quality of life and survival of the patient. Currently, the factors that drive cancer pain are poorly understood, however, several recently introduced models of bone cancer pain that mirror the human condition, are providing insight into the mechanisms that drive bone cancer pain and guiding the development of novel therapies to treat the cancer pain. Several of these therapies have recently been approved by the FDA to treat bone cancer pain (bisphosphonates, denosumab) and others are currently being evaluated in human clinical trials (tanezumab). These new mechanism-based therapies are enlarging the repertoire of modalities available to treat bone cancer pain and improving the quality of life and functional status of patients with bone cancer.