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Breast cancer [keywords]
- Cohort study of risk factors for breast cancer in post menopausal women. [Journal Article]
- Epidemiol Health 2013.:e2013003.
The present study assessed more than 800 potential risk factors to identify new predictors of breast cancer and compare the independence and relative importance of established risk factors.Data were collected by the Women's Health Initiative and included 147,202 women ages 50 to 79 who were enrolled from 1993 to 1998 and followed for 8 years. Analyses performed in 2011 and 2012 used the Cox proportional hazard regression to test the association between more than 800 baseline risk factors and incident breast cancer.Baseline factors independently associated with subsequent breast cancer at the p<0.001 level (in decreasing order of statistical significance) were breast aspiration, family history, age, weight, history of breast biopsies, estrogen and progestin use, fewer live births, greater age at menopause, history of thyroid cancer, breast tenderness, digitalis use, alcohol intake, white race, not restless, no vaginal dryness, relative with prostate cancer, colon polyps, smoking, no breast augmentation, and no osteoporosis. Risk factors previously reported that were not independently associated with breast cancer in the present study included socioeconomic status, months of breast feeding, age at first birth, adiposity measures, adult weight gain, timing of initiation of hormone therapy, and several dietary, psychological, and exercise variables. Family history was not found to alter the risk associated with other factors.These results suggest that some risk factors not commonly studied may be important for breast cancer and some frequently cited risk factors may be relatively unimportant or secondary.
- Twenty years of experience on stem cell transplantation in iran. [Journal Article]
- Iran Red Crescent Med J 2013 Feb; 15(2):93-100.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a new window to therapy of many diseases. From March 1991 through April 2011, a total of 3237 HSCT were performed in the Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Here we report 20 years experience of HSCT.Our strategy and aim include the protraction of cytogenetic and molecular biological diagnostic tests, the expansion of the first Iranian Cord Blood Bank (ICBB) and development of the first Iranian Stem Cell Donor Program (ISCDP), and improvement the researches in new therapeutic fields.Totally, 3237 patients were undergone HSCT. Of these transplants, 2205 were allogeneic stem cell transplantation, 1016 autologous and 16 syngeneic. Among 2205 patients who were undergone allogenic-HSCT, 34 received cord blood stem cells as stem cell source for transplantation. It is important to point out that cord blood bank at our center provides reliable storage of cord blood stem cells for our patients. Stem cell transplantation was performed for treatment of various diseases such as acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphoblastic leukemia, beta-thalassemia major, sickle- cell thalassemia, sickle- cell disease, multiple myeloma, myelodysplasia, mucopolysaccharidosis, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, severe aplastic anemia, plasma cell leukemia, Niemann-Pick disease, Fanconi anemia, severe combined immunodeficiency, congenital neutropenia, leukocyte adhesion deficiencies, Chediak-Higashi syndrome, osteopetrosis, histiocytosis X, Hurler syndrome, amyloidosis, systemic sclerosis, breast cancer, Ewing's sarcoma, testicular cancer, germ cell tumors, neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, renal cell carcinoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, ovarian cancer, Wilms' tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, pancreatoblastoma, and multiple sclerosis. Also, we had 220 cellular therapies for post-myocardial infarction, multiple sclerosis, cirrhosis, head of femur necrosis, Diabetes Mellitus and GvHD treatment. 45 patients were undergone retransplantation in this center.About 78.2% of the patients (2530 of 3237) remained alive between one to 211 months after stem cell transplantation. Nearly, 21.8% (707) of our patients died after stem cell transplantation. The main causes of death were relapse, infection, hemorrhagic cystitis, graft-versus- host disease and etc.In Iran, HSCT has been successfully adapted in routine clinical care. Recently, new methods such as double cord blood and haploidentical transplantation have been used to treat many life-threatening diseases.
- A role for PVRL4-driven cell-cell interactions in tumorigenesis. [Journal Article]
- Elife 2013.:e00358.
During all stages of tumor progression, cancer cells are subjected to inappropriate extracellular matrix environments and must undergo adaptive changes in order to evade growth constraints associated with the loss of matrix attachment. A gain of function screen for genes that enable proliferation independently of matrix anchorage identified a cell adhesion molecule PVRL4 (poliovirus-receptor-like 4), also known as Nectin-4. PVRL4 promotes anchorage-independence by driving cell-to-cell attachment and matrix-independent integrin β4/SHP-2/c-Src activation. Solid tumors frequently have copy number gains of the PVRL4 locus and some have focal amplifications. We demonstrate that the transformation of breast cancer cells is dependent on PVRL4. Furthermore, growth of orthotopically implanted tumors in vivo is inhibited by blocking PVRL4-driven cell-to-cell attachment with monoclonal antibodies, demonstrating a novel strategy for targeted therapy of cancer. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00358.001.
- Discord of Measurements in Assessing Depression among African Americans with Cancer Diagnoses. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Cult Ment Health 2013 Jan 1; 6(1):58-71.
This study examined the level of agreement among the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and Observers' Rating on assessing depression of African American adults with cancer.75 breast and prostate cancer patients (57 African Americans and 18Whites) were interviewed and administered the depression measures. Nonparametric tests were performed to examine the level of measurement agreement by group and the symptom items of CES-D, HAM-D and BDI-II to which African American patients responded differently across measures.The four measures showed agreement on approximately 75% of the cases in both racial groups. However, the difference between measures in identifying depressive cases is marked. The item analysis indicated that most measurement disagreements about African American patients occurred on two items: self-report of depression and sleeping disturbance.Measurement discord may be explained by African American's reporting behavior that varies from a self-reported measure to an interviewer-administrated measure of depression. African American patients showed a reluctance to use the word "depression" and a tendency to report sleep disturbance. The findings suggest that accurately assessing depression in these patients requires a consideration of their culturally shaped life experiences.
- Survival Benefit With Radium-223 Dichloride in a Mouse Model of Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Natl Cancer Inst 2013 May 16.
BACKGROUND:Bone metastases are associated with increased morbidity and poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Radium-223 dichloride is a calcium mimetic that localizes to bone, providing targeted therapy for skeletal metastasis.
METHODS:We investigated the mode of action of radium-223 dichloride using breast cancer cell, osteoclast, and osteoblast cultures as well as a mouse model of breast cancer bone metastasis. A single dose of radium-223 dichloride was used in three different settings mimicking the prevention or treatment of bone metastasis. Disease progression was monitored using fluorescence and radiographic imaging and histological analyses. The effect of radium-223 dichloride alone and in combination with doxorubicin or zoledronic acid on survival of mice was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier methods. All statistical tests used were two-sided.
RESULTS:Radium-223 dichloride incorporated into bone matrix and inhibited proliferation of breast cancer cells and differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts (all P values < .001) in vitro. In an established bone metastasis setting, radium-223 dichloride prevented tumor-induced cachexia (0/14 vs 7/14 control mice) and decreased osteolysis by 56% and tumor growth by 43% (all P values < .05). Radium-223 dichloride induced double-strand DNA breaks in cancer cells in vivo. Finally, radium-223 dichloride extended survival as a monotherapy (29.2 days, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 26.6 to 31.8 days, P = .039) and in combination with zoledronic acid (31.4 days, 95% CI = 28.8 to 34.0 days, P = .004) or doxorubicin (31.5 days, 95% CI = 29.5 to 33.5 days, P < .001) compared to the vehicle group (24.9 days, 95% CI = 23.4 to 26.4 days). Similar but even more pronounced effects were observed when radium-223 dichloride was administered in a preventive or micrometastatic setting.
CONCLUSIONS:Our findings strongly support the development of radium-223 dichloride for the treatment of breast cancer patients with or at high risk of developing bone metastases.
- Metabolic syndrome and mammographic density in Mexican women. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2013 May 16.
Background:Metabolic syndrome has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer; however little is known about the association between metabolic syndrome and percent mammographic density, a strong predictor of breast cancer.
METHODS:We analyzed cross-sectional data from 789 premenopausal and 322 postmenopausal women in the Mexican Teacher's Cohort (ESMaestras). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition. We measured percent density on mammograms using a computer-assisted thresholding method. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the association between density and metabolic syndrome, as well as its components by state (Jalisco, Veracruz) and menopausal status (premenopausal, postmenopausal).
RESULTS:Among premenopausal women in Jalisco, women with metabolic syndrome had higher percent density compared to those without after adjusting for potential confounders including BMI (difference = 4.76, 95%CI: 1.72, 7.81). Among the metabolic syndrome components, only low high-density lipoprotein levels (<50mg/dl) were associated with significantly higher percent density among premenopausal women in Jalisco (difference=4.62, 95%CI: 1.73, 7.52). Metabolic syndrome was not associated with percent density among premenopausal women in Veracruz (difference=-2.91, 95% CI: -7.19, 1.38), nor among postmenopausal women in either state.
Conclusion:Metabolic syndrome was associated with higher percent density among premenopausal women in Jalisco, Mexico, but was not associated with percent density among premenopausal women in Veracruz, Mexico or among postmenopausal women in either Jalisco or Veracruz. These findings provide some support for a possible role of metabolic syndrome in mammographic density among premenopausal women; however results were inconsistent across states and require further confirmation in larger studies.
- Characterization of raloxifene glucuronidation. Potential role of UGT1A8 genotype on raloxifene metabolism in vivo. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2013 May 16.
Raloxifene is a 2nd-generation selective estrogen receptor modulator used for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and the prevention of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Raloxifene is extensively metabolized by glucuronidation to form raloxifene-6-glucuronide (ral-6-Gluc) and raloxifene-4'-glucuronide (ral-4'-Gluc). The goal of the present study was to determine whether functional polymorphisms in active UGTs could play a role in altered raloxifene glucuronidation in vivo. Using homogenates from HEK293 UGT-overexpressing cell lines, raloxifene was shown to be glucuronidated primarily by the hepatic UGTs 1A1 and 1A9 and the extra-hepatic UGTs 1A8 and 1A10; no detectable raloxifene glucuronidation activity was found for UGT2B enzymes. Functional UGT1A1 transcriptional promoter genotypes were significantly (ptrend=0.005) associated with ral-6-Gluc formation in human liver microsomes, and, consistent with the decreased raloxifene glucuronidation activities observed in vitro with cell line over-expressing UGT1A8 variants, the UGT1A8*2 variant was significantly (p=0.023) correlated with total raloxifene glucuronide formation in human jejunum homogenates. While ral-4'-Gluc exhibited 1/100th the anti-estrogenic activity of raloxifene itself as measured by binding to the estrogen receptor, raloxifene glucuronides comprised ~99% of the circulating raloxifene dose in raloxifene-treated subjects, with ral-4'-Gluc comprising ~70% of raloxifene glucuronides. Plasma ral-6-Gluc (ptrend=0.0025), ral-4'-Gluc (ptrend=0.001), and total raloxifene glucuronides (ptrend=0.001) were increased in raloxifene-treated subjects who were predicted slow metabolizers [UGT1A8 (*1/*3)] vs intermediate metabolizers [UGT1A8 (*1/*1) or UGT1A8 (*1/*2)] vs fast metabolizers [UGT1A8 (*2/*2). These data suggest that raloxifene metabolism may be dependent on UGT1A8 genotype and that UGT1A8 genotype may play an important role in overall response to raloxifene.
- Photoacoustic and photothermal detection of circulating tumor cells, bacteria and nanoparticles in cerebrospinal fluid in vivo and ex vivo. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biophotonics 2013 May 16.
Circulating cells, bacteria, proteins, microparticles, and DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are excellent biomarkers of many diseases, including cancer and infections. However, the sensitivity of existing methods is limited in their ability to detect rare CSF biomarkers at the treatable, early-stage of diseases. Here, we introduce novel CSF tests based on in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC) and ex vivo photothermal scanning cytometry. In the CSF of tumor-bearing mice, we molecularly detected in vivo circulating tumor cells (CTCs) before the development of breast cancer brain metastasis with 20-times higher sensitivity than with current assays. For the first time, we demonstrated assessing three pathways (i.e., blood, lymphatic, and CSF) of CTC dissemination, tracking nanoparticles in CSF in vivo and their imaging ex vivo. In label-free CSF samples, we counted leukocytes, erythrocytes, melanoma cells, and bacteria and imaged intracellular cytochromes, hemoglobin, melanin, and carotenoids, respectively. Taking into account the safety of PAFC, its translation for use in humans is expected to improve disease diagnosis beyond conventional detection limits. (© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).
- Contribution of ADAMTS1 as a tumor suppressor gene in human breast carcinoma. Linking its tumor inhibitory properties to its proteolytic activity on Nidogen-1 and Nidogen-2. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Cancer 2013 May 16.
The extracellular protease ADAMTS1 (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease with ThromboSpondin repeats 1) has been described as an anti-angiogenic molecule and its role as a putative tumor protective molecule has also been suggested. Here we have used a tumor xenograft model to determine the role of ADAMTS1 in tumor growth and angiogenesis. Increasing levels of the protease led to the complete inhibition of tumor growth. In an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of action of this protease we focused our attention on its proteolytic activity on nidogens, one of the main components of the vascular basement membrane. The increased expression of ADAMTS1 was accompanied by increased proteolysis of Nidogen-1 and -2 and their almost complete removal from vascular structures, together with major morphological alterations of tumor blood vessels and a decreased vessel density. The clinical relevance of this work is supported by our observations that ADAMTS1 expression is decreased in breast tumor specimens when compared with healthy tissue. Our studies also reveal that the cleavage of Nidogen-1 and -2 is partially inhibited in human tumor samples. Moreover the deposition of both nidogens surrounding vascular structures is drastically altered, implying a possible reduction in the maintenance of vessel integrity. Our studies reflect the requirement to explore the functional interactions between proteases and specific substrates in cancer biology. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- CD44/cellular prion protein interact in multidrug resistant breast cancer cells and correlate with responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Carcinog 2013 May 16.
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the most important factors leading to chemotherapeutic failure in patients with breast cancer. The invasive/metastatic ability of MDR cells is strengthened compared with their parental cells. However, the mechanisms underlying MDR have not been fully elucidated. We found that CD44 and the cellular prion protein (PrPc) were both overexpressed in MDR cells (MCF7/Adr and H69AR). Subsequently, we chose the human breast cancer cell line MCF7/Adr, which is resistant to adriamycin, for further research. We discovered that PrPc physically and functionally interacted with CD44. The knockdown of CD44 or PrPc by siRNA in MCF7/Adr cells inhibited cell migration, invasion and proliferation in vitro. However, when the MCF7/Adr cells transfected with CD44 siRNA were incubated with 10 times the peak plasma concentration (PPC) of taxol, their invasive ability was again enhanced. In the breast-carcinoma tissue samples, a significant correlation between the CD44 expression and the PrPc expression was observed in the postneoadjuvant-chemotherapy (NAC) cases. Moreover, in Group 2, which was unresponsive to NAC, the CD44 and PrPc expression levels were significantly increased in the post-NAC cases compared with the pre-NAC cases using the paired-samples t-test. These data indicate that the CD44/PrPc interaction enhances the malignancy of breast cancer cells and affects the responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. Therefore, blocking the CD44/PrPc interaction may improve outcomes in chemorefractory breast cancer patients. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.