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Breech Birth [keywords]
- New and old predictive factors for breech presentation: our experience in 14'433 singleton pregnancies and a literature review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013 May 20.
Objective.Breech presentation represents a common indication for primary cesarean section in women presenting for parturition. This study aims to investigate the presence of new and old risk factors for breech presentation and to provide a literature review. Methods. In this population-based retrospective cohort study we collected data from 14'433 consecutive singleton deliveries occurred in a 3rd level hospital setting of northeast Italy between January 2001 and July 2009. Related risk factors and trends in breech presentation prevalence were also considered.
Results.Mean maternal age was 31.78 years (±5.17) and mean gestational age at delivery 38.67 weeks (±2.54). Breech presentation prevalence in nullipara and pluripara was respectively 5.36% (415/7743) and 3.53% (236/6689) (p<0.05), and was significantly lower among Sub-Saharan-African women 2.62% (14/535) vs 4.51% (651/14432) (p<0.05). Also advanced maternal age, early gestational age at delivery, neonatal female gender and low weight at delivery resulted associated with a higher prevalence of breech presentation. By multivariate logistic regression, the breech presentation resulted independently predicted by maternal age, ethnicity, parity, gestational age and neonatal weight MoMs at delivery, and neonatal gender.
Conclusions.Advanced maternal age, early gestational age, low neonatal weight MoMs at delivery and female gender resulted to be risk factors for fetal breech presentation at delivery, while multiparity and Sub-Saharan-African ethnicity resulted to be protective.
- Descriptive Epidemiology of Idiopathic Clubfoot. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Med Genet A 2013 May 17.:0.
Clubfoot is a common structural malformation, occurring in approximately 1/1,000 live births. Previous studies of sociodemographic and pregnancy-related risk factors have been inconsistent, with the exception of the strong male preponderance and association with primiparity. Hypotheses for clubfoot pathogenesis include fetal constraint, Mendelian-inheritance, and vascular disruption, but its etiology remains elusive. We conducted a population-based case-control study of clubfoot in North Carolina, Massachusetts, and New York from 2007 to 2011. Mothers of 677 clubfoot cases and 2,037 non-malformed controls were interviewed within 1 year of delivery about socio-demographic and reproductive factors. Cases and controls were compared for child's sex, maternal age, education, cohabitation status, race/ethnicity, state, gravidity, parity, body mass index (BMI), and these pregnancy-related conditions: oligohydramnios, breech delivery, bicornuate uterus, plural birth, early amniocentesis (<16 weeks), chorionic villous sampling (CVS), and plural gestation with fetal loss. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were adjusted for state. Cases were more likely to be male (OR: 2.7; 2.2-3.3) and born to primiparous mothers (1.4; 1.2-1.7) and mothers with BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) (1.4; 1.1-1.8). These associations were greatest in isolated and bilateral cases. ORs for the pregnancy-related conditions ranged from 1.3 (breech delivery) to 5.6 (early amniocentesis). Positive associations with high BMI were confined to cases with a marker of fetal constraint (oligohydramnios, breech delivery, bicornuate uterus, plural birth), inheritance (family history in 1st degree relative), or vascular disruption (early amniocentesis, CVS, plural gestation with fetal loss). Pathogenetic factors associated with obesity may be in the causal pathway for clubfoot. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Patients' and professionals' barriers and facilitators to external cephalic version for breech presentation at term, a qualitative analysis in the Netherlands. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Midwifery 2013 May 9.
OBJECTIVE:external cephalic version (ECV) is a relatively simple and safe manoeuvre and a proven effective approach in the reduction of breech presentation at term. There is professional consensus that ECV should be offered to all women with a fetus in breech presentation, but only up to 70% of women eligible for ECV undergo an ECV attempt. The aim of the study was to identify barriers and facilitators for ECV among professionals and women with a breech presentation at term.
DESIGN:qualitative study with semi-structured interviews.
PARTICIPANTS:pregnant women with a breech presentation who had decided on ECV, and midwives and gynaecologists treating women with a breech presentation.
MEASUREMENTS:on the basis of national guidelines and expert opinions, we developed topic lists to guide the interviews and discuss barriers and facilitators in order to decide on ECV (pregnant women) or advice on ECV (midwives and gynaecologists).
FINDINGS:among pregnant women the main barriers were fear, the preference to have a planned caesarean section (CS), incomplete information and having witnessed birth complications within the family or among friends. The main facilitators were the wish for a home birth, the wish for a vaginal delivery and confidence of the safety of ECV. Among professionals the main barriers were a lack of knowledge to fully inform and counsel patients on ECV, and the inability to counsel women who preferred a primary CS. The main facilitator was an unambiguous policy on (counselling for) ECV within the region.
CONCLUSION:we identified several barriers and facilitators possibly explaining the suboptimal implementation of ECV for breech presentation in the Netherlands. This knowledge should be taken into account in designing implementation strategies for ECV to improve the uptake of ECV by professionals and patients.
- Role of public and private funding in the rising caesarean section rate: a cohort study. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Open 2013; 3(5)
The caesarean section rates have been rising in the developed world for over two decades. This study assessed the involvement of the public and private health sectors in this increase.Population-based, retrospective cohort study.Public and private hospitals in Western Australia.Included in this study were 155 646 births to nulliparous women during 1996-2008.Caesarean section rates were calculated separately for four patient type groups defined according to mothers' funding source at the time of birth (public/private) and type of delivery hospital (public/private). The average annual per cent change (AAPC) for the caesarean section rates was calculated using joinpoint regression.Overall, there were 45 903 caesarean sections performed (29%) during the study period, 24 803 in-labour and 21 100 prelabour. Until 2005, the rate of caesarean deliveries increased most rapidly on average annually for private patients delivering in private hospitals (AAPC=6.5%) compared with public patients in public hospitals (AAPC=4.3%, p<0.0001). This increase could mostly be attributed to an increase in prelabour caesarean deliveries for this group of women and could not be explained by an increase in breech deliveries, placenta praevia or multiple pregnancies.Our results indicate that an increase in the prelabour caesarean delivery rate for private patients in private hospitals has been driving the increase in the caesarean section rate for nulliparous women since 1996. Future research with more detailed information on indication for the prelabour caesarean section is needed to understand the reasons for these findings.
- Impact of Caesarean section on subsequent fertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hum Reprod 2013 May 3.
STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association between a Caesarean section and subsequent fertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: Most studies report that fertility is reduced after Caesarean section compared with vaginal delivery. However, studies with a more robust design show smaller effects and it is uncertain whether the association is causal. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A previous systematic review published in 1996 summarizing six studies including 85 728 women suggested that Caesarean section reduces subsequent fertility. The included studies suffer from severe methodological limitations.
STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies comparing subsequent reproductive outcomes of women who had a Caesarean section with those who delivered vaginally. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING,
METHODS:Searches of Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, CINAHL Plus and Maternity and Infant Care databases were conducted in December 2011 to identify randomized and non-randomized studies that compared the subsequent fertility outcomes after a Caesarean section and after a vaginal delivery. Eighteen cohort studies including 591 850 women matched the inclusion criteria. Risk of bias was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS). Data extraction was done independently by two reviewers. The meta-analysis was based on a random-effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed to assess whether the estimated effect was influenced by parity, risk adjustment, maternal choice, cohort period, and study quality and size. MAIN
RESULTSAND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The impact of Caesarean section on subsequent pregnancies could be analysed in 10 studies and on subsequent births in 16 studies. A meta-analysis suggests that patients who had undergone a Caesarean section had a 9% lower subsequent pregnancy rate [risk ratio (RR) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.87, 0.95)] and 11% lower birth rate [RR 0.89, 95% CI (0.87, 0.92)], compared with patients who had delivered vaginally. Studies that controlled for maternal age or specifically analysed primary elective Caesarean section for breech delivery, and those that were least prone to bias according to the NOS reported smaller effects. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: There is significant variation in the design and methods of included studies. Residual bias in the adjusted results is likely as no study was able to control for a number of important maternal characteristics, such as a history of infertility or maternal obesity. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE
FINDINGS:Further research is needed to reduce the impact of selection bias by indication through creating more comparable patient groups and applying risk adjustment. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): None. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: n/a.
- Effect of an amniotic sheet on pregnancy outcomes. [Journal Article]
- J Ultrasound Med 2013 May; 32(5):807-13.
Objectives- Our aim was to evaluate whether the presence of an amniotic sheet affects obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Methods- : All singleton pregnant women with and without a sonographic diagnosis of an amniotic sheet between the 16th and 24th weeks of pregnancy were retrospectively identified. Two women without an amniotic sheet were randomly selected from the similar stratified periods as a control group for each case. The demographic characteristics and obstetric and perinatal outcomes were compared between the groups. Multivariable logistic regression was also performed for potential confounding factors. In addition, the subsequent pregnancies of 12 women with an amniotic sheet were followed during the antenatal and postnatal periods. Results- : The prevalence of an amniotic sheet was 1.13%. The risk factors for an amniotic sheet were primiparity, previous normal vaginal delivery, previous dilation and curettage, and previous abortions. When the groups were compared in terms of maternal and neonatal outcomes, the rates of a nuchal cord at birth, breech birth, birth weight of less than 2500 g, preterm delivery (<37 weeks), and neonatal intensive care unit admission were higher in the amniotic sheet group than the control group. There were 2 intrauterine deaths in the amniotic sheet group. In addition, an amniotic sheet was not observed again in any of the subsequent pregnancies of the 12 cases from the amniotic sheet group, and these pregnancies eventuated uneventfully. Conclusions- An amniotic sheet is associated with an increase in poor obstetric outcomes. Therefore, close monitoring of pregnancies after diagnosis is required.
- Does the mode of delivery affect neonatal morbidity and mortality in very low-birth-weight infants ? [Journal Article]
- Tunis Med 2013 Mar; 91(3):183-7.
Background:Despite the great advances made in neonatal intensive care, one of the greatest challenges in perinatology today, remains the management of very low-birth-weight infants (VLWB). aim: To evaluate the impact of the mode of delivery on very lowbirth- weight infants' survival and their outcome. methods: We performed a retrospective comparative study in the department "B" of gynecology-obstetrics in collaboration with the neonatology department of the same centre during a 12-month period. The study population included mothers giving birth to infants weighing between 500 and 1500 grams, at gestational age > 26 weeks and an Apgar score > 3 at one minute. All included cases were classified according to the way of delivery: vaginal delivery ( Group A) giving birth to neonates of group 1 and cesarean section ( group B) giving birth to neonates in group 2 . results: The study involved 69 women giving birth to 82 very lowbirth- weight infants. Both groups of parturients were homogeneous and similar in age, parity, prenatal care and gestational age. No statistically significant difference was noticed in terms of morbidity and mortality in the very low-birth-weight infants of the two groups. A higher rate of cesarean sections was noticed in breech presentations (74%).
Conclusion:Systematic cesarean section does not guarantee better outcome for very low-birth-weight infants.
- Breech presentation among nullipara at term: an indication for caesarean section. [Journal Article]
- Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) 2012 Oct-Dec; 10(40):66-9.
Background Breech is the commonest malpresentation. Vaginal breech delivery in a nulliparous lady carries higher risk than in multiparous ladies. Poor neonatal outcome following vaginal delivery has made the mode of delivery a matter of controversy. Objective To evaluate the outcome of planned caesarean section among nullipara ladies with breech presentation. Method This is a prospective, analytical study conducted in Dhulikhel Hospital Kathmandu University Hospital from January 2008 to June 2012 among 102 nullipara ladies at term gestation with breech presentation. All cases underwent caesarean section either elective or emergency. During section cause of breech presentation was searched for. Neonatal condition was evaluated using APGAR Score, need for resuscitation and admission in NICU. Post partum status was also recorded for evaluation of maternal morbidity and mortality. Results These Nullipara ladies often had some reason for breech presentation, the most common being cord around the neck. Perinatal outcome was uneventful in 97(95%) neonates, there were two (2%) still birth and three (3%) needed NICU care. APGAR was good in 92 neonates, average in eight and poor in two. Total 16(15.6%) ladies stayed hospital for more than eight days. Among them 11(10.7%) developed wound infection and five stayed in hospital waiting for baby. Conclusion Nullipara ladies with breech presentation should have elective caesarean section as a preferred route of delivery.
- Misrecognition of need: women's experiences of and explanations for undergoing cesarean delivery. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Soc Sci Med 2013 May.:103-11.
International rates of operative delivery are consistently higher than the World Health Organization determined is appropriate. This suggests that factors other than clinical indications contribute to cesarean section. Data presented here are from interviews with 115 mothers on the postnatal ward of a hospital in Northeast England during February 2006 to March 2009 after the women underwent either unscheduled or scheduled cesarean childbirth. Using thematic content analysis, we found women's accounts of their experiences largely portrayed cesarean section as everything that they had wanted to avoid, but necessary given their situations. Contrary to popular suggestion, the data did not indicate impersonalized medical practice, or that cesareans were being performed 'on request.' The categorization of cesareans into 'emergency' and 'elective' did not reflect maternal experiences. Rather, many unscheduled cesareans were conducted without indications of fetal distress and most scheduled cesareans were not booked because of 'choice.' The authoritative knowledge that influenced maternal perceptions of the need to undergo operative delivery included moving forward from 'prolonged' labor and scheduling cesarean as a prophylactic to avoid anticipated psychological or physical harm. In spontaneously defending themselves against stigma from the 'too posh to push' label that is currently common in the media, women portrayed debate on the appropriateness of cesarean childbirth as a social critique instead of a health issue. The findings suggest the 'need' for some cesareans is due to misrecognition of indications by all involved. The factors underlying many cesareans may actually be modifiable, but informed choice and healthful outcomes are impeded by lack of awareness regarding the benefits of labor on the fetal transition to extrauterine life, the maternal desire for predictability in their parturition and recovery experiences, and possibly lack of sufficient experience for providers in a variety of vaginal delivery scenarios (non-progressive labor, breech presentation, and/or after previous cesarean).
- [Term breech presentations in singleton pregnancies: A continuous series of 418 cases.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) 2013 Mar 1.