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- Temporomandibular dysfunction syndrome: A prospective study of 255 consecutive patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Int Med Res 2013 May 16.
OBJECTIVE:To determine the relationship between temporomandibular dysfunction syndrome (TMDS), sex and pain severity.
METHODS:Data were collected prospectively from consecutive patients with TMDS. Patients were divided into four subgroups according to signs and symptoms: myofascial pain; intra-articular disorders; extra-articular disorders; degenerative disorders. Intergroup sex distribution differences were evaluated, the pain severity between the four subgroups was compared, and the rates of bruxism and inco-ordination were measured. A visual analogue scale was used to rate the pain.
RESULTS:A total of 255 patients with TMDS were included in the study. A significantly higher rate of extra-articular disorders was found in male patients. Bruxism was found to be significantly more common in females than in males. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of inco-ordination based on sex. The overall pain score was higher in females than in males, but there was no significant difference. The pain score was significantly higher in patients in the degenerative disorders subgroup, compared with other subgroups.
CONCLUSIONS:There was no relationship between TMDS and pain and sex. Pain scores were significantly higher in the degenerative disorders subgroup, compared with other subgroups.
- Sleep assessment of children with cerebral palsy: Using validated sleep questionnaire. [Journal Article]
- Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2013 Jan; 16(1):62-5.
On the basis of clinical experience, it seems that sleep disturbances are common in children with cerebral palsy (CP); however, there is a lack of research and objective data to support this observation.Our aim was to assess sleep of children with cerebral palsy, using validated sleep questionnaire.one hundred children with diagnosis of CP were investigated via sleep questionnaires, with their ages from 2-12 years. The 100 children with CP were divided into two groups, pre-school group (52 children had a mean age 2.35 ± 1.04 years) and school ages group (48 children had a mean age 10.21 ± 3.75 years).We found high incidence of sleep problem in both pre-school and school age groups. We found that pre-school children have more prevalence of early insomnia (46.2%, P value 0.028) and sleep bruxism (50%, P value 0.000), while school group suffer more sleep disordered breathing (SDB) (50%, P value 0.001), more nightmares (50%, P value 0.001), more sleep talking (12.5% P value 0.049), and more excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) (62.5%, P value 0.001).Results of our study indicate that CP children have high incidence of sleep problem in both pre-school and school age groups.
- Time-linked concurrence of sleep bruxism, periodic limb movements, and EEG arousals in sleep bruxers and healthy controls. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Oral Investig 2013 May 9.
OBJECTIVE:Sleep bruxism (SB) and periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) may have a common underlying neurophysiologic mechanism, especially in relation to the occurrence of sleep-related electroencephalographic (EEG) arousals. To test this hypothesis, three research questions were assessed. First, it was assessed whether PLMS events occur more frequently in SB patients than in individuals without SB. Second, the question was put forward whether the combined presence of SB and PLMS events is more common than that of isolated SB or PLMS events in a group of SB patients. Third, as to further unravel the possible role of EEG arousals in the underlying neurophysiologic mechanism of SB and PLMS, it was assessed in a group of SB patients whether combined SB/PLMS events with associated EEG arousals are more common than those without associated EEG arousals. Positive answers to these questions could suggest a common neurophysiological basis for both movement disorders.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:Seventeen SB patients and 11 healthy controls were polysomnographically studied. SB, PLMS, and EEG arousals were scored. An association was noted when the occurrence was within a 3-s association zone.
RESULTS:The PLMS index was higher in SB patients than in healthy controls (P < 0.001). Within the group of SB patients, the combined SB/PLMS index was higher than the isolated SB index (P < 0.001) and the isolated PLMS index (P = 0.018). Similarly, the combined SB/PLMS index with EEG arousal was higher than the combined SB/PLMS index without EEG arousal in SB patients (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION:The results of this study indicate that SB, PLMS, and EEG arousals commonly concur during sleep in a time-linked manner.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE:SB and PLMS probably have a common underlying neurophysiological mechanism.
- The Effects of Exercise Therapy for the Improvement of Jaw Movement and Psychological Intervention to Reduce Parafunctional Activities on Chronic Pain in the Craniocervical Region. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pain Pract 2013 May 9.
PURPOSE:Apparent organic abnormalities are sometimes not identified among patients suffering from chronic pain in the craniocervical region. In some cases, parafunctional activities (PAs) are recognized. PAs are nonfunctional oromandibular activities that include jaw clenching and bruxism, but are considered as factors that contribute to craniomandibular disorders (CMDs). It is now recognized that PAs and CMDs influence musculoskeletal conditions of the upper quarter. Exercise therapy (ET) to improve jaw movement and psychological intervention (PI) to reduce PAs are useful for PAs and CMDs. We hypothesized that ET and PI would be effective for craniocervical pain without organic abnormalities.
METHODS:Thirty-nine subjects suffering from craniocervical chronic pain were allocated into 3 groups: The control group received only pharmacological treatment; the ET group received jaw movement exercise (JME); and the ET-PI group received JME and PI. Pain and jaw movement were evaluated using a numerical rating scale (NRS).
RESULTS:After interventions, the NRS scores were significantly lower in the ET-PI group, compared with those in the other groups. Jaw movement improved 100% in the ET group, 92% in the ET-PI group, and 0% in the control group.
CONCLUSION:A combination of jaw exercise and psychological intervention to reduce parafunctional activities is more effective than jaw exercise alone for the improvement of craniocervical pain without apparent organic abnormalities.
- [Minimally invasive method for the restoration of localized anterior tooth wear. A case report]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Fogorv Sz 2013 Mar; 106(1):11-6.
Wear localized on front teeth is quite common; the restoration of the lost tissue is generally difficult due to the lack of vertical space between the upper and lower teeth. The traditional prosthetic method would include further tooth preparation for complete crowns and for increasing the occlusal vertical dimension. By applying the Dahl concept the necessary vertical space can be created with the preservation of the tooth tissue in a relatively short period of time. Definitive restoration can be made for the replacement of lost enamel and dentine with a direct or indirect method. Due to the Dahl concept the preparation of the teeth and its potentially harmful consequences can be avoided, the treatment is non- or minimally invasive. In the presented case the lost palatal and incisal tooth tissue was replaced with palatal E.max Press ceramic laminate. After cementing the laminate the patient was advised to wear a night guard, because of bruxism, to counteract the extreme load on the laminates.
- Disorders of arousal and sleep-related bruxism among Japanese adolescents: a nationwide representative survey. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Sleep Med 2013 May 2.
OBJECTIVE:The main objective of our study was to clarify the prevalence of disorders of arousal (confusional arousals, sleepwalking, sleep terrors) and sleep-related bruxism (teeth grinding) and their associated factors among Japanese adolescents.
METHODS:Our study was designed as a cross-sectional sampling survey. The targets were students attending junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. The questionnaire asked for personal data and information on lifestyle, depressive state, and sleep status including the frequency of experiencing disorders of arousal and sleep-related bruxism.
RESULTS:A total of 99,416 adolescents responded. The overall response rate was 63.7%, and 98,411 questionnaires were subjected to analysis. The prevalence of disorders of arousal was 7.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.9-7.3%) among boys and 7.7% (95% CI, 7.5-7.9%) among girls. The prevalence of sleep-related bruxism was 2.3% (95% CI, 2.2-2.4%) among boys and 3.0% (95% CI, 2.8-3.2%) among girls. The factors associated with disorders of arousal were the grade in school, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, naptime (min), breakfast habit, participation in club activities, sleep duration, difficulty initiating sleep, nocturnal awakening, early morning awakening, subjective sleep assessment, snoring, decrease in positive feelings, and depression (all p<.001). The factors associated with sleep-related bruxism were gender, smoking habit, nocturnal awakening, snoring, early morning awakening, decrease in positive feelings, and depressive feelings (all p<.001).
CONCLUSIONS:If disorders of arousal or sleep-related bruxism are observed in an adolescent, his or her smoking habit, alcohol consumption, sleep status, and depressive state should be considered.
- Sleep bruxism, snoring, and headaches in adolescents: short-term effects of a mandibular advancement appliance. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Sleep Med 2013 May 2.
OBJECTIVES:Sleep bruxism (SB) frequently is associated with other sleep disorders and pain concerns. Our study assesses the efficacy of a mandibular advancement appliance (MAA) for SB management in adolescents reporting snoring and headache (HA).
METHODS:Sixteen adolescents (mean age, 14.9±0.5) reporting SB, HA (>1d/wk), or snoring underwent four ambulatory polysomnographies for baseline (BSL) and while wearing MAA during sleep. MAA was worn in three positions (free splints [FS], neutral position [NP], and advanced to 50% of maximum protrusion [A50]) for 1week each in random order (FS-NP-A50 or NP-A50-FS; titration order, NP-A50). Reports of HA were assessed with pain questionnaires.
RESULTS:Overall, sleep variables did not differ across the four nights. SB index decreased up to 60% with MAA in A50 (P=.004; analysis of variance). Snoring was measured as the percentage of sleep time spent snoring. The subgroup of snorers (n=8) showed significant improvement with MAA (-93%; P=.002). Initial HA intensity was reported at 42.7±5/100mm, showing a decreasing trend with MAA (-21% to -51%; P=.07).
CONCLUSION:Short-term use of an MAA appears to reduce SB, snoring, and reports of HA. However, interactions between SB, breathing during sleep, and HA as well as the long-term effectiveness and safety of MAA in adolescents need further investigation.
- Prospects for research and clinical medicine in sleep bruxism. [Editorial]
- J Prosthodont Res 2013 Apr; 57(2):67-8.
- Influence of surface treatment on the wear of solid zirconia. [Journal Article]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2013 May-Jul; 71(3-4):482-7.
Objective.Recently there has been talk of the use of full-contour solid zirconia crowns or bridge restorations with no porcelain overlay. This could be a useful solution for patients with bruxism or limited interocclusal space. However, the hardness of zirconia could affect the opposite natural dentition. The aim of this in-vitro study was to investigate the role of surface treatments on the wear of a zirconia material and its antagonist. Materials and methods. Fifty plates (10 × 10 × 1 mm) made of zirconia (LavaMulti(™) ZrO2, 3M ESPE), divided into five equal groups, were sandblasted and ground under standardized conditions with a fine-grit diamond bur (Komet Brasseler, Germany) to simulate clinical conditions. Group (a) was only fired, (b) was fired and sandblasted, (c) only ground, (d) was ground and additionally polished (EVE Ceramic Polishing-Set, Pforzheim) and (e) was ground and glazed. Wear behavior was measured with a pin-on-disk apparatus ABREX against 6 mm steatite balls as antagonists (45°, 5 N load, 5000 cycles, water). The amount of wear was determined topographically using a 3-D profilometer (Concept 3D, Mahr, Germany) by measuring the height loss of the antagonist and the depth of wear Pt of the zirconia.
Results.In groups (a), (b), (c) and (d) the wear value Pt could not be determined (<1 μm). Wear values of the antagonists (steatite balls) revealed a similar outcome in contact with (b), (c) and (e) in the range of 81-85 μm, whereas (e) was more abrasive but not significantly. A noticeable difference in the wear of the antagonist showed group (d) to have the smallest value.
Conclusion.Polished zirconia seems to have the lowest wear on the antagonists, in contrast with the other kinds of surface treatment.
- Treatments for hypersensitive noncarious cervical lesions: A Practitioners Engaged in Applied Research and Learning (PEARL) Network randomized clinical effectiveness study. [Journal Article]
- J Am Dent Assoc 2013 May; 144(5):495-506.
The Practitioners Engaged in Applied Research and Learning (PEARL) Network conducted a three-armed randomized clinical study to determine the comparative effectiveness of three treatments for hypersensitive noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs): use of a potassium nitrate dentifrice for treatment of hypersensitivity, placement of a resin-based composite restoration and placement of a sealant.Seventeen trained practitioner-investigators (P-Is) in the PEARL Network enrolled participants (N = 304) with hypersensitive posterior NCCLs who met enrollment criteria. Participants were assigned to treatments randomly. Evaluations were conducted at baseline and at one, three and six months thereafter. Primary outcomes were the reduction or elimination of hypersensitivity as measured clinically and by means of patient-reported outcomes.Lesion depth and pretreatment sensitivity (mean, 5.3 on a 0- to 10-point scale) were balanced across treatments, as was sleep bruxism (present in 42.2 percent of participants). The six-month participant recall rate was 99 percent. Treatments significantly reduced mean sensitivity (P < .01), with the sealant and restoration groups displaying a significantly higher reduction (P < .01) than did the dentifrice group. The dentifrice group's mean (standard deviation) sensitivity at six months was 2.1 (2.1); those of the sealant and restoration groups were 1.0 (1.6) and 0.8 (1.4), respectively. Patient-reported sensitivity (to cold being most pronounced) paralleled clinical measurements at each evaluation.Sealing and restoration treatments were effective overall in reducing NCCL hypersensitivity. The potassium nitrate dentifrice reduced sensitivity with increasing effectiveness through six months but not to the degree offered by the other treatments. Practical Implications. Sealant or restoration placement is an effective method of immediately reducing NCCL sensitivity. Although a potassium nitrate dentifrice did reduce sensitivity slowly across six months, at no time was the reduction commensurate with that of sealants or restorations.