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CONTRACEPTIVES HORMONAL [keywords]
- Continuous or extended cycle vs. cyclic use of combined hormonal contraceptives for contraception. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014 Jul 29.:CD004695.
The avoidance of menstruation through continuous or extended (greater than 28 days) administration of combination hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) has gained legitimacy through its use in treating endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, and menstruation-associated symptoms. Avoidance of menstruation through extended or continuous use of CHCs for reasons of personal preference may have additional advantages to women, including improved compliance, greater satisfaction, fewer menstrual symptoms, and less menstruation-related absenteeism from work or school.To determine the differences between continuous or extended-cycle CHCs (pills, patch, ring) in regimens of greater than 28 days of active hormone compared with traditional cyclic dosing (21 days of active hormone and 7 days of placebo, or 24 days of active hormones and 4 days of placebo). Our hypothesis was that continuous or extended-cycle CHCs have equivalent efficacy and safety but improved bleeding profiles, amenorrhea rates, adherence, continuation, participant satisfaction, and menstrual symptoms compared with standard cyclic CHCs.We searched computerized databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PUBMED, EMBASE, POPLINE, LILACS) for trials using continuous or extended CHCs (oral contraceptives, contraceptive ring and patch) during the years 1966 to 2013. We also searched the references in review articles and publications identified for inclusion in the protocol. Investigators were contacted regarding additional references.All randomized controlled trials in any language comparing continuous or extended-cycle (greater than 28 days of active hormones) versus traditional cyclic administration (21 days of active hormones and 7 days of placebo, or 24 days of active hormones and 4 days of placebo) of CHCs for contraception.Titles and abstracts identified from the literature searches were assessed for potential inclusion. Data were extracted onto data collection forms and then entered into RevMan 5. Peto odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all outcomes for dichotomous outcomes. Weighted mean difference was calculated for continuous outcomes. The trials were critically appraised by examining the following factors: study design, blinding, randomization method, group allocation concealment, exclusions after randomization, loss to follow-up, and early discontinuation. Because the included trials did not have a standard treatment (type of CHC formulation, route of delivery, or time length for continuous dosing), we could not aggregate data into meta-analysis.Twelve randomized controlled trials met our inclusion criteria. Study findings were similar between 28-day and extended or continuous regimens in regard to contraceptive efficacy (i.e., pregnancy rates) and safety profiles. When compliance was reported, no difference between 28-day and extended or continuous cycles was found. Participants reported high satisfaction with both dosing regimens, but this was not an outcome universally studied. Overall discontinuation and discontinuation for bleeding problems were not uniformly higher in either group. The studies that reported menstrual symptoms found that the extended or continuous group fared better in terms of headaches, genital irritation, tiredness, bloating, and menstrual pain. Eleven out of the twelve studies found that bleeding patterns were either equivalent between groups or improved with extended or continuous cycles over time. Endometrial lining assessments by ultrasound and/or endometrial biopsy were done in some participants and were all normal after cyclic or extended CHC use.The 2014 update yielded four additional trials but unchanged conclusions. Evidence from existing randomized control trials comparing continuous or extended-cycle CHCs (greater than 28 days of active combined hormones) to traditional cyclic dosing (21 days of active hormone and 7 days of placebo, or 24 days of active hormone and 4 days of placebo) is of good quality. However, the variations in type of hormones and time length for extended-cycle dosing make a formal meta-analysis impossible. Future studies should choose a previously described type of CHC and dosing regimen. More attention needs to be directed towards participant satisfaction, continuation, and menstruation-associated symptoms.
- Dienogest in the treatment of endometriosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Expert Opin Pharmacother 2014 Jul 29.:1-14.
Introduction: Dienogest (DNG) is an oral progestin, derivative of 19-nortestosterone, that has recently been introduced for the treatment of endometriosis. Areas covered: This review examines the clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of DNG in the treatment of endometriosis. The material included in the current manuscript was searched and obtained via Medline, Pubmed and EMBASE, from inception until February 2014. The term 'dienogest' was associated with the following search terms: 'endometriosis', 'pharmacokinetics', 'safety' and 'efficacy'. Expert opinion: Several trials demonstrated the clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of DNG. However the use of DNG is associated with some limitations. So far, no study investigated the potential of contraceptive effect of this treatment and therefore, it should be recommended with other methods of contraception (e.g., barrier methods). A further limitation of the use of DNG as daily therapy in the long term is that the cost of the therapy is higher than other progestins available on the market and combined oral contraceptives. Therefore, future studies should be designed to compare the efficacy and safety of DNG with other progestins.
- Exercise per se masks oral contraceptive-induced postprandial lipid mobilization. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2014 Jun 5.:1-8.
Because of their hormonal content, oral contraceptives may alter lipolytic activity under resting or exercise conditions in women. The aim of the present study was to compare lipid mobilization in a postprandial state at rest and during exercise in oral contraceptive users (OC+) versus nonusers (OC-). The metabolic (glucose, glycerol, free fatty acids) and hormonal (insulin, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and catecholamines) concentrations were determined in 11 OC+ (monophasic low-dose oral contraceptives) and 10 OC- during a resting and an exercise session (45 min at 65% maximal oxygen consumption). Results were expressed as plasma concentrations and area under the concentration versus time curve values. ANP concentrations were higher in OC+ compared with OC- women at baseline (p = 0.04). Plasma concentrations of glycerol (p = 0.04), free fatty acids (p = 0.04), ANP (p = 0.02), and noradrenaline (p = 0.04) were higher in OC+ compared with OC- when both sessions were pooled. The plasma growth hormone, IGF-1, and adrenaline concentrations were not significantly different between the 2 groups. When the effect of exercise was isolated to overcome food intake and daytime variations (exercise per se using the area under the curve), no difference was observed between groups for all metabolic and hormonal variables. Overall, oral contraceptives increased lipid mobilization in the postprandial state, but this effect was blunted when lipolytic activity was stimulated by exercise per se. Oral contraceptive-induced greater lipolytic mobilization could be partly explained by greater ANP levels in OC users.
- The effect of drospirenone (3mg) with ethinyl estradiol (30mcg) containing pills on ovarian blood flows in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a case controlled study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2014 Jul 6.:93-99.
To evaluate whether oral contraceptive pill (OCP) therapy has any effects on ovarian stromal blood flow by using pulsed and color Doppler at the end of 3 months follow-up period of OCP-users and non-users with or without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).200 patients were included in the study. The patients were designed into four groups as follows; Group 1: PCOS patients that received OCP containing 30mcg ethinyl estradiol (EE) plus 3mg drospirenone for 3 months (DRP n=50); Group 2: PCOS patients that received no medication (n=50); Group 3: Healthy controls that received OCP (EE plus DRP) (n=50); Group 4: healthy controls that received no medication (n=50). Resistance index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) of both ovarian arteries, hormonal, anthropometric and biochemical parameters were assessed before and after 3 months.There was a significant increament in RI and PI of both ovarian arteries in healthy controls (Group 3) and in women with PCOS (Group 1) who received OCP (p<0.001). The increment rate in both Doppler parameters were significantly higher in women with PCOS (Group 1) than healthy controls (Group 3) (p<0.001). Whereas RI and PI values of both ovaries remained unchanged in all untreated women with or without PCOS (Groups 2 and 4).OCP therapy reduced ovarian vascularization in both PCOS and healthy users after 3 months of therapy and this decrease is especially noticeable in women with PCOS.
- Combined oral contraceptives: health benefits beyond contraception. [Journal Article]
- Panminerva Med 2014 Sep; 56(3):233-44.
It has been recognized for over 50 years that combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are also capable of offering health benefits beyond contraception through the treatment and prevention of several gynaecological and medical disorders. During the last years a constant attention was given to the adverse effects of COCs, whereas their non-contraceptive benefits were underestimated. To date, most women are still unaware of the therapeutic uses of hormonal contraceptives, while on the contrary there is an extensive and constantly increasing of these non-contraceptive health benefits. This review summarizes the conditions of special interest for physicians, including dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagia, hyperandrogenism (acne, hirsutism, polycystic ovary syndrome), functional ovarian cysts, endometriosis, premenstrual syndrome, myomas, pelvic inflammatory disease, bone mineral density, benign breast disease and endometrial/ovarian and colorectal cancer. The benefits of COCs in rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, menstrual migraine and in perimenopause have also been treated for more comprehensive information. Using COCs specifically for non-contraceptive indications is still outside the product licence in the majority of cases. We strongly believe that these aspects are not of minor relevance and they deserve a special consideration by health providers and by the mass media, which have the main responsibility in the diffusion of scientific information. Thus, counseling and education are necessary to help women make well-informed health-care decisions and it is also crucial to increase awareness among general practitioners and gynaecologists.
- Committee Opinion No. 606: Options for Prevention and Management of Heavy Menstrual Bleeding in Adolescent Patients Undergoing Cancer Treatment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Obstet Gynecol 2014 Aug; 124(2, PART 1):397-402.
: Adolescents undergoing cancer treatment are at high risk of heavy menstrual bleeding, and gynecologists may be consulted either before the initiation of cancer treatment to request strategies for menstrual suppression or during an episode of severe heavy bleeding to stop the bleeding emergently. Therapy in both situations should be tailored to the patient, her cancer diagnosis and treatment plan, and her desires for contraception and fertility. Options for menstrual suppression include combined hormonal contraceptives, progestin-only therapy, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. Adolescents presenting emergently with severe uterine bleeding may benefit from hormonal therapy, antifibrinolytics or, as a last resort, surgical management. In choosing appropriate treatment, considerations such as current platelet count, course of treatment, time to expected nadir, risk of thromboembolism, and need for contraception should be considered. Because of the complex nature of cancer care, collaboration with the adolescent's oncologist is highly recommended.
- Oxytocin levels are lower in premenopausal women with type 1 diabetes mellitus compared to matched controls. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2014 Jul 7.
Oxytocin (OT), a hormone most commonly associated with parturition and lactation, may have additional roles in diabetes complications. We determined OT levels in premenopausal women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) compared to nondiabetic controls; and examined associations of OT with health behaviors, clinical factors, biomarkers, kidney function, and bone health. Lower OT was hypothesized for T1DM.Cross-sectional study of premenopausal women with T1DM (n = 88) from the Wisconsin Diabetes Registry Study, a population-based cohort of incident T1DM cases, and matched nondiabetic controls (n = 74).Women with T1DM had lower OT levels than controls adjusting for caffeine and alcohol use (p = 0.03). Health behaviors associated with OT differed between women with and without T1DM: OT was negatively associated with hormonal contraceptive use (quantified as lifetime contraceptive estrogen exposure) in women with T1DM (p = 0.003) while positively related to hormonal contraceptive use (quantified as never/former/current) in controls (p < 0.001). OT had a positive association with adiposity (waist-to-hip ratio and leptin) in women with T1DM and a negative relationship with adiposity (weight gain) in controls. In T1DM only, OT was positively associated with caffeine intake (p = 0.01) and negatively associated with alcohol use (p = 0.01). OT was not related to glycemic control, kidney function, or bone health in T1DM.OT levels are lower in women with T1DM than matched controls. OT also has opposing associations with hormonal contraceptives and adiposity in women with and without T1DM. Research is needed to determine if the altered OT milieu in T1DM is associated with other health outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Acute mesenteric venous thrombosis with a vaginal contraceptive ring. [Journal Article]
- West J Emerg Med 2014 Jul; 15(4):395-7.
Mesenteric venous thrombosis is a rare cause of abdominal pain, which if left untreated may result in bowel infarction, peritonitis and death. The majority of patients with this illness have a recognizable, predisposing prothrombotic condition. Oral contraceptives have been identified as a predisposing factor for mesenteric venous thrombosis in reproductive-aged women. In the last fifteen years new methods of hormonal birth control have been introduced, including a transdermal patch and an intravaginal ring. In this report, we describe a case of mesenteric venous thrombosis in a young woman caused by a vaginal contraceptive ring.
- Oral contraceptive use, parity, and constitutional characteristics in soft tissue sarcoma: a Swedish population-based case-control study 1988-2009. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cancer Causes Control 2014 Jul 18.
The study was designed to investigate the influence of surrogate factors associated with sex (SH) and growth hormones (GH) on the risk of developing soft tissue sarcomas (STS).The etiology of soft tissue sarcoma is largely unknown. We have studied the effect of hormone related factors on STS in the Swedish population between 1988 and 2009 using a population-based matched case-control design.Our study is the largest on this topic to date, including 634 cases in a primary matched analysis and 855 cases in an unmatched sensitivity analysis. We identified protective effects connected to constitutional characteristics, hormonal and reproductive factors. Being shorter than your peers at age 11 was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.51 (0.36-0.74). Having used oral contraceptives (OC), OR 0.75 (0.49-1.15), and high parity, OR 0.16 (0.04-0.63), comparing three or more children to two or less, also appeared to reduce the risk of STS. The risk was further reduced with the duration of OC use (p = 0.01), comparing use for 11 years or more to use for 3 years or less yielded an OR of 0.10 (0.02-0.41). No effect was observed for ever having had perimenopausal hormone therapy OR 1.02 (0.70-1.47). The effect of BMI varied significantly with subtype (p = 0.03) and tumor location (p < 0.001).We observed surrogates of SH, GH, and insulin-like growth factor 1 to be associated with STS development. These findings are important as they may connect STSs to the group of hormone-dependent tumors, potentially revealing common treatment and prevention targets.
- Association between contraceptive use and gestational diabetes: Missouri Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, 2007-2008. [Journal Article]
- Prev Chronic Dis 2014.:E121.
The efficacy and safety of contraceptives have been questioned for decades; however, whether a relationship exists between hormonal contraceptives and gestational diabetes (GDM) is undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal risk for GDM was influenced by type of contraceptive method used before pregnancy.Data collected in 2007 and 2008 by the Missouri Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) were analyzed to determine if type of contraception before pregnancy influenced maternal risk for GDM. We used a logistic regression model to determine the adjusted odds for GDM given exposure to hormonal forms of contraception.Of the 2,741 women who completed the 2007-2008 PRAMS survey, 8.3% were diagnosed with gestational diabetes, and 17.9% of the respondents had used hormonal contraceptive methods. Women who used hormonal methods of birth control had higher odds for gestational diabetes (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-1.55) than did women who used no contraception. A protective effect was also observed for women who had used barrier methods of contraception (AOR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.72-0.86).Findings suggest there may be a relationship between type of contraceptive method and GDM. More research is needed to verify contraception as a potential risk factor for GDM.