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CONTRACEPTIVES HORMONAL [keywords]
- Supplementation with vitamin b6 reduces side effects in cambodian women using oral contraception. [Journal Article]
- Nutrients 2014; 6(9):3353-62.
Hormonal contraceptives may produce side effects that deter women from their use as a method of family planning. In nutritionally vulnerable populations these effects may be more pronounced due to micronutrient deficiencies and health status. Previous studies have been unable to resolve whether micronutrient supplementation may reduce such side effects.In a longitudinal study, 1011 women obtaining oral contraception through the public health system in rural Cambodia were allocated to either intervention or control groups, receiving either daily Vitamin B6 supplement or care as usual (without placebo).The intervention participants (n = 577) reported fewer side effects in three categories: nausea/no appetite, headache, and depression compared with control group participants (n = 434).Women taking Vitamin B6 supplement were less likely to report side effects in a nutritionally vulnerable population. Underlying nutrition status should be considered by clinicians and reproductive health policy makers in the context of providing contraceptive services. Further investigation into micronutrient supplementation, particularly with B6, in reproductive-aged women using hormonal contraception should be conducted in other settings to determine the potential for widespread adoption.
- The impact of sex and menstrual cycle on the acoustic startle response. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Behav Brain Res 2014 Aug 23.
Sex differences in fear and anxiety have been widely reported although results are not entirely consistent depending on measures used. Also, a possible influence of the menstrual cycle is often not taken into account, and effect sizes are not always discussed. In a sample of healthy young adults (n=111 women without hormonal contraceptives and n=107 men) the acoustic startle response (ASR) and emotional ASR modulation were analysed. We found no significant effect of sex on ASR (p=.269) but a significant effect of menstrual cycle (p=.027, η(2)=0.105). Compared to men, women showed increased ASR during the late luteal phase probably reflecting elevated negative emotionality, and during ovulation which, however, might be due to increased auditory sensitivity and changes in general CNS arousal. Neither sex nor menstrual cycle affected startle modulation. Thus, at least in young adults, menstrual cycle but not sex per se appears to contribute significantly to ASR variance.
- A study on utilization of oral contraceptives in the City of Zagreb (2008-2010). [Journal Article]
- Coll Antropol 2014 Jun; 38(2):589-93.
Main aim of this study is to quantify and analyze the utilization and utilization trends of oral hormonal contraceptives in the City of Zagreb, 2008-2010, and to propose potential interventions, if necessary. Data gathered from Zagreb pharmacies were assessed by Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification of drugs and Daily Defined Dose methodology. An alarming decrease in total utilization of hormonal contraceptives by 76% from 2008-2009 was found as the main result of this study. A major decrease by 95.5% in utilization of G03AB04 subgroup, sequential combined oral contraceptives, was noted in the year 2009. The subgroup G03AC0, progesterone-only pill group, showed a stable trend, and it became the most utilized subgroup in 2010, due to the decrease in utilization of both fixed and sequential combined oral contraceptives. Utilization of oral contraceptives in Croatia is not regulated adequately, since such dynamics in utilization can occur unnoticed. Measures need to take place in order to improve this situation. Proposed measures include organized farmacovigilance, prescription based on guidelines, and strict screening for risk factors in women seeking oral contraception. More research is required in Croatia to understand the pattern of utilization of hormonal contraceptives and to find the true cause of decrease in utilization of oral contraceptives.
- Safety of Hormonal Replacement Therapy and Oral Contraceptives in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(8):e104303.
There is conflicting data regarding exogenous sex hormones [oral contraceptives (OC) and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT)] exposure and different outcomes on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this work is to determine, through a systematic review and meta-analysis the risks associated with estrogen use for women with SLE as well as the association of estrogen with developing SLE.MEDLINE, EMBASE, SciElo, BIREME and the Cochrane library (1982 to July 2012), were databases from which were selected and reviewed (PRISMA guidelines) randomized controlled trials, cross-sectional, case-control and prospective or retrospective nonrandomized, comparative studies without language restrictions. Those were evaluated by two investigators who extracted information on study characteristics, outcomes of interest, risk of bias and summarized strength of evidence. A total of 6,879 articles were identified; 20 full-text articles were included. Thirty-two meta-analyses were developed. A significant association between HRT exposure (Random model) and an increased risk of developing SLE was found (Rate Ratio: 1.96; 95%-CI: 1.51-2.56; P-value<0.001). One of eleven meta-analyses evaluating the risk for SLE associated with OC exposure had a marginally significant result. There were no associations between HRT or OC exposure and specific outcomes of SLE. It was not always possible to Meta-analyze all the available data. There was a wide heterogeneity of SLE outcome measurements and estrogen therapy administration.An association between HRT exposure and SLE causality was observed. No association was found when analyzing the risk for SLE among OC users, however since women with high disease activity/Thromboses or antiphospholipid-antibodies were excluded from most of the studies, caution should be exercised in interpreting the present results. To identify risk factors that predispose healthy individuals to the development of SLE who are planning to start HRT or OC is suggested.
- Sexual behavioral correlates with HSV-2 seroprevalence among pregnant women in Nigeria. [Journal Article]
- J Infect Dev Ctries 2014; 8(8):1006-12.
The burden of HSV-2 infection, the cause of most cases of genital herpes in Nigeria, varies from region to region; and so are the associated factors. This infection is known to be responsible for several negative pregnancy outcomes. There is currently no documented data on sexual behavioral factors associated with the occurrence of HSV-2 infection or seroprevalence among pregnant women in Nigeria. This study aimed at identifying the sexual behavioral correlates of HSV-2 seroprevalence among pregnant women in Benin City, Nigeria.The cross-sectional study design was adopted and the study took place between November 2011 and June 2012. Four hundred and ten consenting ante-natal clinic patients in two major tertiary hospitals in Benin City were consecutively and prospectively included. Data sources were represented by questionnaires, the patient's case records and laboratory investigations. Each patient's serum was analyzed for HSV-2 antibody detection. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.Four hundred and ten patients were enrolled with average age 30.6 years. Seroprevalence of HSV-2 antibody was 47.3%. Sexual behavioral factors that were significantly associated with HSV-2 seroprevalence included early exposure to sexual intercourse, number of sex partners, involvement in polygamous marriages, involvement of husband in extra-marital affairs and hormonal contraceptive use.The prevalence of HSV-2 among pregnant women in Benin City is high. Public health campaigns aimed at: delaying onset of sexual activity; encouraging monogamous relationships; and emphasizing that hormonal contraceptives do not protect from STI's, are recommended.
- Oral contraceptive use and psychiatric disorders in a nationally representative sample of women. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arch Womens Ment Health 2014 Aug 13.
The purpose of this study is to examine the association between oral contraceptive use (any current use, duration, and type) and major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and panic disorder (PD) in a nationally representative sample of women in the USA. Data were drawn from 1,105 women aged 20-39 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 1999 to 2004. The associations between self-reported use of oral contraceptives in the past year and DSM-IV diagnosed and subthreshold MDD, GAD, and PD in the past year were assessed comparing oral contraceptive users to all non-users, former users, and former long-term users. Women using oral contraceptives had a lower past-year prevalence of all disorders assessed, other than subthreshold MDD. When adjusted for confounders, women using oral contraceptives in the past year had significantly lower odds of subthreshold PD, compared to former users (odds ratio (OR) = 0.34, 95 % CI 0.14-0.84). Effects estimates were strongest for monophasic (versus multiphasic) oral contraceptive users. Hormonal contraceptive use was associated with reduced risk of subthreshold PD. A potential mental health benefit of hormonal contraceptives has substantial public health implications; prospective longitudinal studies are needed to confirm whether hormonal contraceptive use improves mental health.
- Contraceptive counselling and self-prescription of contraceptives of German gynaecologists: Results of a nationwide survey. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2014 Aug 12.:1-10.
Objective To evaluate the attitude toward contraceptive methods of gynaecologists who, in Germany, are the sole prescribers of contraceptives. Methods An anonymous questionnaire was sent to 9545 gynaecologists inquiring about factors involved in their prescription of contraceptives, the contraceptives they preferred, and those they would recommend to their daughter, if they had one. Results The response rate of this survey was 21% (N = 2016). The combined oral contraceptive (COC) was the most commonly prescribed method followed by the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), the vaginal ring, the progestin-only pill (POP), the patch, and the progestin-only injectables. Of the respondents 51% would never prescribe the patch and 45% would never prescribe the hormonal implant at all; 61% would choose the LNG-IUS for themselves/for their partner; 18% would opt for a COC and 8% for the vaginal ring. Concerning their imaginary daughter, 71% would prefer a COC, 26% the ring, and 9% the LNG-IUS. The first counselling session lasted 13.8 ± 4.9 min, and the provision of information on the occasion of following visits 6.6 ± 3.2 min. Conclusion The contraceptives most prescribed by German gynaecologists were COCs, followed by the LNG-IUS, the vaginal ring, and POPs. The spectrum of contraceptives preferred for personal use differed in some ways from those prescribed to patients. Reasons for this discrepancy should be investigated.
- Menstrual suppression for adolescents. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2014 Aug 8.
The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent literature and emerging data describing clinical situations in which menstrual suppression may improve symptoms and quality of life for adolescents. A variety of conditions occurring frequently in adolescents and young adults, including heavy menstrual bleeding, and dysmenorrhea as well as gynecologic conditions such as endometriosis and pelvic pain, can safely be improved or alleviated with appropriate menstrual management.Recent publications have highlighted the efficacy and benefit of extended cycle or continuous combined oral contraceptives, the levonorgestrel intrauterine device, and progestin therapies for a variety of medical conditions.This review places menstrual suppression in an historical context, summarizes methods of hormonal therapy that can suppress menses, and reviews clinical conditions for which menstrual suppression may be helpful.
- Evaluating the efficacy and safety of a progestin- and estrogen-releasing ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer contraceptive vaginal ring. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Expert Opin Drug Saf 2014 Aug 8.:1-8.
Introduction: Multiple studies confirm the safety and efficacy of the combined ethinyl estradiol (EE) and etonogestrel contraceptive vaginal ring (NuvaRing®). Advantages of continuous drug delivery through the vagina compared to oral administration include stable levels of contraceptive steroids without the need for daily drug administration. Although the combined contraceptive vaginal ring (CCVR) avoids the problem of missed pills, clinical data do not support greater efficacy. Vaginal administration avoids first-pass hepatic effects; however, EE is a potent inducer of hepatic globulins regardless of the route of administration. Consequently, thromboembolic risk during CCVR use is similar to that with combined oral contraceptives. Some epidemiologic and database studies suggest that the risk of thromboembolism is increased among users of the CCVR compared to levonorgestrel-containing combined pills. Areas covered: This review examined the available literature for level 1 and level 2 evidence of the CCVR and its associated efficacy and safety. Studies are presented in table format with significant findings and conclusions described. Expert opinion: A prospective study with 33,235 woman-years of exposure and with greater ability to control for covariates did not demonstrate an elevation of risk. The safety profile of the CCVR appears to be the same as with other combined hormonal contraceptives.
- The Impact of Hormonal Contraception on Disease-related Cyclical Symptoms in Women with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Inflamm Bowel Dis 2014 Aug 7.
Women with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) commonly report an increase in their IBD symptoms related to their menstrual cycle. Hormonal contraceptives are safe for women with IBD and frequently used for reproductive planning, but data are lacking on their effect on IBD-related symptoms.We completed a cross-sectional phone survey of 129 women (31% response rate), aged 18 to 45 years, with IBD in an academic practice between March and November 2013. An electronic database query identified eligible women, and we sent an opt-out letter before contact. Questions included demographics, medical and reproductive history, and current/previous contraceptive use. Women were asked if/how their menses affected IBD-related symptoms and if/how their contraceptive affected symptoms. We calculated descriptive statistics and made comparisons by Crohn's disease versus ulcerative colitis on Stata V11.Participants were predominately white (85%) and college educated (97%), with a mean age of 34.2 (SD 6.2, range 19-45) years. Sixty percent had Crohn's disease, and 30% had IBD-related surgery previously. Half of the participants were parous, and 57% desired future pregnancy. Of the participants, 88% reported current or past hormonal contraceptive use and 60% noted cyclical IBD symptoms. Symptomatic improvement in cyclical IBD symptoms was reported by 19% of estrogen-based contraceptive users and 47% of levonorgestrel intrauterine device users. Only 5% of all hormonal method users reported symptomatic worsening.In a subset of women with IBD, 20% of hormonal contraception users reported improved cyclical menstrual-related IBD symptoms. Health care providers should consider potential noncontraceptive benefits of hormonal contraception in women with cyclical IBD symptoms.