(CONTRACEPTIVES HORMONAL) articles in PubMed
- Contraception and family planning at the extreme of reproductive life - climacteric. [Journal Article]
- Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2016 Sep-Oct; 62(5):454-7RA
- Menopause is an endocrine phenomenon characterized by gradual estrogen decline. This is a stage in a woman's life in which contraception is extremely important as the risks associated with pregnancy ...
Menopause is an endocrine phenomenon characterized by gradual estrogen decline. This is a stage in a woman's life in which contraception is extremely important as the risks associated with pregnancy and childbirth increase, both maternal issues associated with higher incidence of comorbidities and issues related to fetal abnormalities, mitochondrial abnormalities, or genetic syndromes. On the other hand, there is a growing number of women who have postponed motherhood and need effective contraception, but without prolonging the return to fertility. Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), low-dose oral hormonal contraceptives and non-oral contraceptives are preferred. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system is a very good alternative that can maintain endometrial protection after menopause. Definitive methods such as tubal ligation and vasectomy are options for couples that already have their offspring. In this review, we present evidence for contraceptive indication and the effects of hormonal methods on climacteric including options for contraception, control of bleeding during perimenopause and of climacteric symptoms, as well as the transition from such methods to hormone therapy if indicated.
- Increases in Endogenous or Exogenous Progestins Promote Virus-Target Cell Interactions within the Non-human Primate Female Reproductive Tract. [Journal Article]
- PLoS Pathog 2016; 12(9):e1005885PP
- Currently, there are mounting data suggesting that HIV-1 acquisition in women can be affected by the use of certain hormonal contraceptives. However, in non-human primate models, endogenous or exogen...
Currently, there are mounting data suggesting that HIV-1 acquisition in women can be affected by the use of certain hormonal contraceptives. However, in non-human primate models, endogenous or exogenous progestin-dominant states are shown to increase acquisition. To gain mechanistic insights into this increased acquisition, we studied how mucosal barrier function and CD4+ T-cell and CD68+ macrophage density and localization changed in the presence of natural progestins or after injection with high-dose DMPA. The presence of natural or injected progestins increased virus penetration of the columnar epithelium and the infiltration of susceptible cells into a thinned squamous epithelium of the vaginal vault, increasing the likelihood of potential virus interactions with target cells. These data suggest that increasing either endogenous or exogenous progestin can alter female reproductive tract barrier properties and provide plausible mechanisms for increased HIV-1 acquisition risk in the presence of increased progestin levels.
- Perception of facial profiles: influence of female sex hormones and personality traits. [Journal Article]
- Orthod Craniofac Res 2016 Sep 21OC
- CONCLUSIONS: The favorable profiles, on average, are the same regardless of the female hormonal status and personality traits.
- Pregnancy and melanoma. [Review]
- J Am Acad Dermatol 2016; 75(4):669-78JA
- Malignant melanoma is the most common malignancy during pregnancy, and is diagnosed during childbearing age in approximately one-third of women diagnosed with melanoma. The impact of hormonal changes...
Malignant melanoma is the most common malignancy during pregnancy, and is diagnosed during childbearing age in approximately one-third of women diagnosed with melanoma. The impact of hormonal changes during pregnancy and from iatrogenic hormones on melanoma is controversial. Women undergo immunologic changes during pregnancy that may decrease tumor surveillance. In addition, hormone receptors are found on some melanomas. In spite of these observations, the preponderance of evidence does not support a poorer prognosis for pregnancy-associated melanomas. There is also a lack of evidence that oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy worsens melanoma prognosis.
- Prevention of unintended pregnancy and use of contraception-important factors for preconception care. [Journal Article]
- Ups J Med Sci 2016 Sep 20; :1-4UJ
- Preservation of fertility and optimizing health before pregnancy is becoming increasingly important in societies where childbirth often is postponed. Research shows that as women postpone childbirth ...
Preservation of fertility and optimizing health before pregnancy is becoming increasingly important in societies where childbirth often is postponed. Research shows that as women postpone childbirth they achieve higher levels of education and higher incomes. This leads to advantages for their children and for society. However, as women postpone childbearing they are at risk for contracting conditions which may affect fertility and/or pregnancies, pregnancy outcome, and the newborn child. Preconception counseling is therefore becoming increasingly important. Women are often unaware of the added health benefits of contraception and have the right to be well informed so they can make decisions to fulfill their reproductive desires. Contraception can reduce the risk of unintended pregnancies, ectopic and molar pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections. In addition, hormonal contraceptives reduce the risk of some types of cancer, dysmenorrhea, heavy menstrual bleeding, and anemia and are a treatment for endometriosis. Contraception should increasingly be looked upon as a means of preserving fertility and optimizing health status before a planned pregnancy. Thus, effective contraception can provide women with a possibility of achieving their long-term reproductive goals, although childbearing is actually postponed. The most effective contraceptive methods are the long-acting reversible contraceptives, which have been shown to be highly effective especially in young women who have difficulties with adherence to user-dependent methods. Therefore, these methods should increasingly be promoted in all age groups.
- Combined hormonal contraception and its effects on mood: a critical review. [Journal Article]
- Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2016; 21(5):347-55EJ
- CONCLUSIONS: Inconsistent research methods and lack of uniform assessments make it difficult to make strong conclusions about which CHC users are at risk for adverse mood effects. Until more prospective data is available, clinicians should recognise that such effects are infrequent and CHC may be prescribed with confidence.
- Endometriosis in Adolescence: Practical Rules for an Earlier Diagnosis. [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Ann 2016 Sep 1; 45(9):e332-5PA
- Dysmenorrhea, cyclic pelvic pain, and acyclic pelvic pain are common in adolescent girls, and at least 10% of these girls are at risk for subsequent development of endometriosis. In this article we h...
Dysmenorrhea, cyclic pelvic pain, and acyclic pelvic pain are common in adolescent girls, and at least 10% of these girls are at risk for subsequent development of endometriosis. In this article we highlight practical tips for the management of dysmenorrhea and chronic pelvic pain and how to diagnose endometriosis as early as possible and detect patients at risk for developing the disease in the future. We suggest five practical rules for managing adolescents with dysmenorrhea and chronic pelvic pain: (1) Never underestimate the pain; (2) Always consider endometriosis as a possible cause of severe cyclic pain; (3) Obtain a detailed and accurate history before performing clinical evaluation and pelvic sonography; (4) Treat the pain with hormonal therapies (combined oral contraceptives or progestogen-only pill) and analgesics (acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs); and (5) Plan frequent follow-up visits to re-evaluate the patient. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(9):e332-e335.].
- [A 22-year-old mother with severe pruritus and increasing jaundice two weeks after starting hormonal contraception]. [Journal Article]
- Z Gastroenterol 2016; 54(9):1076-80ZG
- Intermittent cholestatic liver disease may indicate an inherited deficiency of bile salt transport proteins. Episodes of cholestasis may start during pregnancy or during use of oral contraceptives or...
Intermittent cholestatic liver disease may indicate an inherited deficiency of bile salt transport proteins. Episodes of cholestasis may start during pregnancy or during use of oral contraceptives or other medication. We describe the case of a 22-year-old mother with increasing jaundice and severe pruritus two weeks after starting hormonal contraception. A few months before she was suffering from intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). Liver biopsy showed bland cholestasis with canalicular bile plugs. Treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid was not effective. Finally, rifampicin induced a complete remission of the cholestasis. Genetic testing showed a heterozygous mutation in the ABCB11 gene encoding the bile salt export pump (BSEP). Rifampicin activates nuclear receptors and may induce alternative pathways for the excretion of bile salts in patients with ABCB11 deficiency.
- Urinary Incontinence in Pregnant Women: Prevalence, Associated Factors, and Its Effects on Health-Related Quality of Life. [Journal Article]
- J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2016 Sep-Oct; 43(5):511-6JW
- CONCLUSIONS: Urinary incontinence is prevalent among pregnant women. Age, parity, and gestational week were associated with an increased likelihood of UI during pregnancy. Prior use of contraceptive hormones was associated with a reduced risk of UI during pregnancy.
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- Detrimental Effects of Higher Body Mass Index and Smoking Habits on Menstrual Cycles in Korean Women. [Journal Article]
- J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2016 Sep 7JW
- CONCLUSIONS: This study substantiated that menstrual irregularity was closely associated with higher BMI and smoking habits in nondiabetic Korean women. Weight loss and smoking cessation should be recommended to promote women's reproductive health.