- Case of a miniature dachshund with a primitive neuroectodermal tumor confined to the forebrain region treated with a combination of surgery and chemotherapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vet Med Sci 2016 Jul 18.
A miniature dachshund aged 9 years and 7 months with a history of polyuria/polydipsia and depression was referred. General physical and neurological examinations revealed no obvious abnormalities. MRI of the brain revealed a large space-occupying lesion in the left frontal lobe. This was surgically removed and pathologically diagnosed as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). Although the clinical signs had been improved, follow-up MRI revealed recurrence of the tumor. Lomustine was administered, but 1 year after surgery, the dog exhibited cluster seizures and died. This is the first reported case of a dog with PNET confined to the forebrain region treated by surgical resection in combination with chemotherapy, as observed by repeated follow-up MRI.
- A randomized phase II trial of standard dose bevacizumab versus low dose bevacizumab plus lomustine (CCNU) in adults with recurrent glioblastoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurooncol 2016 Jul 12.
Antiangiogenic therapy can rapidly reduce vascular permeability and cerebral edema but high doses of bevacizumab may induce selective pressure to promote resistance. This trial evaluated the efficacy of low dose bevacizumab in combination with lomustine (CCNU) compared to standard dose bevacizumab in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. Patients (N = 71) with recurrent glioblastoma who previously received radiation and temozolomide were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive bevacizumab monotherapy (10 mg/kg) or low dose bevacizumab (5 mg/kg) in combination with lomustine (90 mg/m(2)). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) based on a blinded, independent radiographic assessment of post-contrast T1-weighted and non-contrast T2/FLAIR weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using RANO criteria. For 69 evaluable patients, median PFS was not significantly longer in the low dose bevacizumab + lomustine arm (4.34 months, CI 2.96-8.34) compared to the bevacizumab alone arm (4.11 months, CI 2.69-5.55, p = 0.19). In patients with first recurrence, there was a trend towards longer median PFS time in the low dose bevacizumab + lomustine arm (4.96 months, CI 4.17-13.44) compared to the bevacizumab alone arm (3.22 months CI 2.5-6.01, p = 0.08). The combination of low dose bevacizumab plus lomustine was not superior to standard dose bevacizumab in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. Although the study was not designed to exclusively evaluate patients at first recurrence, a strong trend towards improved PFS was seen in that subgroup for the combination of low dose bevacizumab plus lomustine. Further studies are needed to better identify such subgroups that may most benefit from the combination treatment.
- Long-term analysis of the NOA-04 randomized phase III trial of sequential radiochemotherapy of anaplastic glioma with PCV or temozolomide. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neuro Oncol 2016 Jul 1.
Optimal treatment and precise classification for anaplastic glioma are needed.The objective for long-term follow-up of NOA-04 is to optimize the treatment sequence for patients with anaplastic gliomas. Patients were randomized 2:1:1 to receive the standard radiotherapy (RT) (arm A), procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine (PCV) (arm B1), or temozolomide (TMZ) (arm B2).Primary endpoint was time-to-treatment-failure (TTF), defined as progression after 2 lines of therapy or any time before if no further therapy was administered. Exploratory analyses examined associations of molecular marker status with TTF, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). At 9.5 (95% CI: 8.6-10.2) years, no difference between arms (A vs B1/B2) was observed: median TTF (4.6 [3.4-5.1] y vs 4.4 [3.3-5.3) y), PFS (2.5 [1.3-3.5] y vs 2.7 [1.9-3.2] y), and OS (8 [5.5-10.3] y vs 6.5 [5.4-8.3] y). Oligodendroglial versus astrocytic histology-but more so the subgroups according to CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) and 1p/19q co-deletion status-revealed a strong prognostic value of CIMP(pos) with (CIMP(codel)) versus without 1p/19 co-deletion (CIMP(non-codel)) versus CIMP(neg). but no differential efficacy of RT versus chemotherapy for any of the endpoints. PFS was better for PCV- than for TMZ-treated patients with CIMP(codel) tumors (HR B1 vs B2 0.39 [0.17-0.92], P = .031). In CIMP(neg). tumors, hypermethylation of the O6-methyl-guanyl-DNA methyltransferase promoter (MGMT) provided a risk reduction for PFS with chemotherapy.There is no differential activity of primary chemotherapy versus RT in any subgroup of anaplastic glioma. Molecular diagnosis is superior to histology.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00717210.
- Chemotherapy for Adults with Malignant Glioma: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Turk Neurosurg 2015 Aug 25.
Malignant glioma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and the survival rate has remained very low. Thus, determining the optimal treatment for patients can be challenging. To compare the efficacy of common therapies, we performed network meta-analysis to estimate the efficacy and safety among procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine, temozolomide, bevacizumab plus temozolomide, and placebo for patients with malignant glioma.Relevant studies (as of March, 2014) were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, and Central databases. The primary endpoint of the analysis was the overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of glioma patients.Nine trials with a total of 3472 patients were included in our network meta-analyses. Compared with placebo, bevacizumab plus temozolomide was associated with the highest estimates of OS and PFS for 12 and 24 months (12 month OS odds ratio [OR]: 2.44; 95% credibility interval [CrIs]: 0.76-9.69; 24 month OS OR: 2.56; 95% CrIs: 1.12-5.24; 12 month PFS OR: 6.76; 95% CrIs: 2.80-17.34; 24 month PFS OR: 3.69; 95% CrIs: 0.62-28.63). However, bevacizumab plus temozolomide did not significantly improve OS or PFS compared to temozolomide alone.The results of this analysis suggest that bevacizumab plus temozolomide combination therapy is not significantly more effective than temozolomide alone in improving survival of glioma patients. Moreover, bevacizumab was associated with higher hematologic toxicities. Based on the results, we suggest that bevacizumab should be used with caution in glioma patients. Additional randomized controlled trials are required to confirm this finding.
- A retrospective evaluation of lomustine (CeeNU) in 32 treatment naïve cats with intermediate to large cell gastrointestinal lymphoma (2006-2013). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Comp Oncol 2016 Jun 9.
Multi-drug chemotherapy protocols for feline lymphoma have demonstrated variable efficacy and tolerability. In phase I trials, lomustine has demonstrated efficacy for cats with lymphoma though its use for treatment naïve feline intermediate/large cell gastrointestinal (GI) lymphoma remains unknown. This study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of lomustine for the treatment of feline GI lymphoma. Thirty-two cats with histologically or cytologically confirmed intermediate/large cell GI lymphoma were evaluated retrospectively. Factors assessed included clinical signs, hematologic/biochemical parameters and use of l-asparaginase at induction. A response rate of 50% (16/32), with median duration of response of 302 days (range 64-1450 days), was found. Median progression-free interval was 132 days (range 31-1450 days), with overall median survival time of 108 days (range 4-1488 days). History of hyporexia, presence of anaemia and dose of lomustine were significantly associated with progression-free survival. Overall, lomustine is a well-tolerated and effective treatment for feline GI lymphoma.
- Multi-Center Randomized Phase II Study Comparing Cediranib plus Gefitinib with Cediranib plus Placebo in Subjects with Recurrent/Progressive Glioblastoma. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2016; 11(5):e0156369.
Cediranib, an oral pan-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, failed to show benefit over lomustine in relapsed glioblastoma. One resistance mechanism for cediranib is up-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This study aimed to determine if dual therapy with cediranib and the oral EGFR inhibitor gefitinib improved outcome in recurrent glioblastoma.This was a multi-center randomized, two-armed, double-blinded phase II study comparing cediranib plus gefitinib versus cediranib plus placebo in subjects with first relapse/first progression of glioblastoma following surgery and chemoradiotherapy. The primary outcome measure was progression free survival (PFS). Secondary outcome measures included overall survival (OS) and radiologic response rate. Recruitment was terminated early following suspension of the cediranib program. 38 subjects (112 planned) were enrolled with 19 subjects in each treatment arm. Median PFS with cediranib plus gefitinib was 3.6 months compared to 2.8 months for cediranib plus placebo (HR; 0.72, 90% CI; 0.41 to 1.26). Median OS was 7.2 months with cediranib plus gefitinib and 5.5 months with cediranib plus placebo (HR; 0.68, 90% CI; 0.39 to 1.19). Eight subjects (42%) had a partial response in the cediranib plus gefitinib arm versus five patients (26%) in the cediranib plus placebo arm.Cediranib and gefitinib in combination is tolerated in patients with glioblastoma. Incomplete recruitment led to the study being underpowered. However, a trend towards improved survival and response rates with the addition of gefitinib to cediranib was observed. Further studies of the combination incorporating EGFR and VEGF inhibition are warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01310855.
- Toca 511 plus 5-fluorocytosine in combination with lomustine shows chemotoxic and immunotherapeutic activity with no additive toxicity in rodent glioblastoma models. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neuro Oncol 2016 May 10.
Toca 511, a gamma retroviral replicating vector encoding cytosine deaminase, used in combination with 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) kills tumor by local production of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), inducing local and systemic immunotherapeutic response resulting in long-term survival after cessation of 5-FC. Toca 511 and Toca FC (oral extended-release 5-FC) are under investigation in patients with recurrent high-grade glioma. Lomustine is a treatment option for patients with high-grade glioma.We investigated the effects of lomustine combined with Toca 511 + 5-FC in syngeneic orthotopic glioma models. Safety and survival were evaluated in immune-competent rat F98 and mouse Tu-2449 models comparing Toca 511 + 5-FC to lomustine + 5-FC or the combination of Toca 511 + 5-FC + lomustine. After intracranial implantation of tumor, Toca 511 was delivered transcranially followed by cycles of intraperitoneal 5-FC with or without lomustine at the first or fourth cycle.Coadministration of 5-FC with lomustine was well tolerated. In F98, combination Toca 511 + 5-FC and lomustine increased median survival, but "cures" were not achieved. In Tu-2449, combination Toca 511 + 5-FC and lomustine increased median survival and resulted in high numbers of cure. Rejection of tumor rechallenge occurred after treatment with Toca 511 + 5-FC or combined with lomustine, but not with lomustine + 5-FC. Mixed lymphocyte-tumor cell reactions using splenocytes from cured animals showed robust killing of target cells in an effector:target ratio-dependent manner with Toca 511 + 5-FC and Toca 511 + 5-FC + lomustine day 10.The combination of Toca 511 + 5-FC and lomustine shows promising efficacy with no additive toxicity in murine glioma models. Immunotherapeutic responses resulting in long-term survival were preserved despite lomustine-related myelosuppression.
- Selective Estrogen Receptor β Agonist LY500307 as a Novel Therapeutic Agent for Glioblastoma. [Journal Article]
- Sci Rep 2016.:24185.
Glioblastomas (GBM), deadly brain tumors, have greater incidence in males than females. Epidemiological evidence supports a tumor suppressive role of estrogen; however, estrogen as a potential therapy for GBM is limited due to safety concerns. Since GBM express ERβ, a second receptor for estrogen, targeting ERβ with a selective agonist may be a potential novel GBM therapy. In the present study, we examined the therapeutic effect of the selective synthetic ERβ agonist LY500307 using in vitro and in vivo GBM models. Treatment with LY500307 significantly reduced the proliferation of GBM cells with no activity on normal astrocytes in vitro. ERβ agonists promoted apoptosis of GBM cells, and mechanistic studies using RNA sequencing revealed that LY500307 modulated several pathways related to apoptosis, cell cycle, and DNA damage response. Further, LY500307 sensitized GBM cells to several FDA-approved chemotherapeutic drugs including cisplatin, lomustine and temozolomide. LY500307 treatment significantly reduced the in vivo tumor growth and promoted apoptosis of GBM tumors in an orthotopic model and improved the overall survival of tumor-bearing mice in the GL26 syngeneic glioma model. Our results demonstrate that LY500307 has potential as a therapeutic agent for GBM.
- Chemotherapy for intracranial ependymoma in adults. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- BMC Cancer 2016.:287.
Ependymal tumors in adults are rare, accounting for less than 4% of primary tumors of the central nervous system in this age group. The low prevalence of intracranial ependymoma in adults limits the ability to perform clinical trials. Therefore, treatment decisions are based on small, mostly retrospective studies and the role of chemotherapy has remained unclear.We performed a retrospective study on 17 adult patients diagnosed with intracranial World Health Organisation grade II or III ependymoma, who were treated with chemotherapy at any time during the disease course. Benefit from chemotherapy was estimated by applying Macdonald criteria. Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated from start of chemotherapy, using the Kaplan-Meier method.Eleven patients had supratentorial and 6 infratentorial tumors. Ten patients were treated with temozolomide (TMZ), 3 with procarbazine/lomustine/vincristine (PCV), 3 with platinum-based chemotherapy and 1 patient received epirubicin/ifosfamide. Response rates were as follows: TMZ 8/10 stable disease; PCV 3/3 stable disease; platinum-based chemotherapy 1/3 partial response; epirubicin/ifosfamide 1/1 complete response. PFS rates at 6, 12 and 24 months were 52.9, 35.3 and 23.5%. OS rates at 6, 12 and 24 months were 82.4, 82.4 and 70.1%. There was no indication for a favourable prognostic role of O(6)-methylguanyl-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation which was detected in 3/12 investigated tumors.Survival outcomes in response to chemotherapy in adult intracranial ependymoma patients vary substantially, but individual patients may respond to any kind of chemotherapy. There were too few patients to compare survival data between chemotherapeutic subgroups.
- Disease progression in recurrent glioblastoma patients treated with the VEGFR inhibitor axitinib is associated with increased regulatory T cell numbers and T cell exhaustion. [Journal Article]
- Cancer Immunol Immunother 2016 Jun; 65(6):727-40.
Recurrent glioblastoma is associated with a poor overall survival. Antiangiogenic therapy results in a high tumor response rate but has limited impact on survival. Immunotherapy has emerged as an efficient treatment modality for some cancers, and preclinical evidence indicates that anti-VEGF(R) therapy can counterbalance the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.We collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with recurrent glioblastoma treated in a randomized phase II clinical trial comparing the effect of axitinib with axitinib plus lomustine and analyzed the immunophenotype of PBMC, the production of cytokines and expression of inhibitory molecules by circulating T cells.PBMC of 18 patients were collected at baseline and at 6 weeks after initiation of study treatment. Axitinib increased the number of naïve CD8(+) T cells and central memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and reduced the TIM3 expression on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Patients diagnosed with progressive disease on axitinib had a significantly increased number of regulatory T cells and an increased level of PD-1 expression on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. In addition, reduced numbers of cytokine-producing T cells were found in progressive patients as compared to patients responding to treatment.Our results suggest that axitinib treatment in patients with recurrent glioblastoma has a favorable impact on immune function. At the time of acquired resistance to axitinib, we documented further enhancement of a preexisting immunosuppression. Further investigations on the role of axitinib as potential combination partner with immunotherapy are necessary.