Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Chest Pain [keywords]
- The Brachial Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity is Associated with the Presence of Significant Coronary Artery Disease but Not the Extent. [Journal Article]
- Korean Circ J 2013 Apr; 43(4):239-45.
Arterial stiffness is well known as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. At our institution, we assessed the association between arterial stiffness, as determined by brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD), as detected by conventional coronary angiography (CAG) in patients who visited the outpatient clinic for angina without any previous history of heart disease. In addition, we evaluated if the level of baPWV could predict the revascularization as a clinical outcome.On a retrospective basis, we analyzed the data of 651 consecutive patients who had undergone baPWV and elective CAG for suspected CAD between June 2010 and July 2011, at a single cardiovascular center.The baPWV was one of the statistically meaningful predictors of significant CAD (diameter of stenosis >50%) in addition to male gender, age, the level of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and hemoglobin A1c in multivariate analysis. However, baPWV was not the significant predictor of revascularization. When the extent of CAD was classified into following 4 groups; no significant CAD, 1-, 2- and 3-vessel disease, there was significant difference of baPWV between the significant and non-significant CAD group, but there was no difference of baPWV among the 3 significant CAD groups, although there was a trend toward the positive correlation.Although baPWV was an independent predictor of significant CAD, it was neither associated significantly with the extent of CAD nor with the risk of revascularization. Therefore, baPWV has a limited value for portending the severity of CAD in patients with chest pain.
- Clinical features in patients with pulmonary embolism at a community hospital: analysis of 4 years of data. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Thromb Thrombolysis 2013 May 17.
The aim of this study is to assess the various clinical features, risk factors, and electrocardiographic (EKG) findings associated with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Knowledge gained from the study may enable health care providers in diagnosis of PE, thus allowing them to carry out appropriate diagnostic testing and treatment after recognition of this potentially lethal disease. PE is common but frequently under-diagnosed clinical problem, associated with potentially fatal outcomes. Clinical presentation is highly variable, non-specific and most patients have an underlying identifiable risk factor. The presentation of PE can easily be confused with other cardio-pulmonary or systemic disorders. Prompt diagnosis of this potentially deadly disease is of utmost importance. Knowledge of salient features associated with PE may enable health care providers in diagnosis of PE, thus allowing them to carry out appropriate diagnostic testing and treatment after its recognition. We performed a single-center, cross-sectional descriptive study including all inpatient and emergency department encounters ≥18 years of age diagnosed with PE at our institution, a 300-bed inner city community hospital, during the dates January 2007 to December 2010. All patients were diagnosed with multi-detector 64-slice spiral computed tomography angiography. Using a standardized form, we performed simultaneous retrospective chart review to collect the necessary data required for the study. PE was confirmed in 334 patients during the 4 years study period. Mean age of subjects was 65.8 years (±16.4, range 22-98). Females represented 54 % of study subjects. Dyspnea, chest pain, and cough were present in 72, 38, and 19 % of the patients, respectively. Dyspnea was the only presenting symptom in 29 %. Tachypnea, hypoxia, tachycardia, and signs of DVT were present in 39, 35, 33, and 29 %, respectively. Cancer was most common risk factor present in 27 %, followed by prior history of venous thromboembolism (DVT or PE), immobilization, and surgery in 19, 15, and 15, respectively. EKG interpretation revealed normal sinus rhythm in 53 %, sinus tachycardia in 31 %, S1Q3T3 pattern in 6 %, and atrial fibrillation (AF) in 6 %.We also noted that 8 % of elderly patients had new onset AF at the time of diagnosis of PE. Diagnosis of PE remains a challenging task due to its variable presentation. Many of the classical features associated with this potentially fatal disease are often missing. This data re-emphasizes a wide spectrum of clinical presentation and non-specificity of symptoms of PE. Clinical suspicion of PE is a critical step and of paramount importance for further objective investigations, which would assist in the diagnosis and appropriate timely management of PE.
- Sleep Disorders in U.S. Military Personnel: A High Rate of Comorbid Insomnia and Obstructive Sleep Apnea. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Chest 2013 May 16.
BACKGROUND:Sleep disturbances are among the most common symptoms of military personnel who return from deployment. The objective of our study was to determine the presence of sleep disorders in U.S. Military Personnel referred for evaluation of sleep disturbances after deployment and examine associations between sleep disorders and service-related diagnoses of depression, mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), pain and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
METHODS:Cross-sectional study of military personnel with sleep disturbances who returned from combat within 18 months. Sleep disorder rendered by clinical evaluation and polysomnogram with validated instruments to diagnose service-related illnesses.
RESULTS:Of 110 military personnel included in our analysis, 97.3% were male (mean age 33.6 ± 8.0 years; mean BMI of 30.0 ± 4.3) and 70.9% returned from combat within 12 months. Nearly half, 47.3% met diagnostic criteria for 2 or more service-related diagnoses. Sleep disorders were diagnosed in 88.2% and 11.8% had a normal sleep evaluation and served as controls. Overall, 62.7% met diagnostic criteria for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and 63.6% for insomnia. The exclusive diagnoses of insomnia and OSA were present in 25.5% and 24.5% respectively; 38.2% had comorbid insomnia and OSA. Military personnel with comorbid insomnia and OSA were significantly more likely to meet criteria for depression (p <0.01) and PTSD (p<0.01) compared to controls and those with OSA.
CONCLUSIONS:Comorbid insomnia and OSA is a frequent diagnosis in military personnel referred for evaluation of sleep disturbances after deployment. This diagnosis, which is difficult to treat, may explain the refractory nature of many service-related diagnoses.
- The acute sick and injured patients: an overview of the emergency department patient population at a Norwegian University Hospital Emergency Department. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Emerg Med 2013 May 15.
OBJECTIVES:There is a lack of knowledge of the emergency department (ED) population in Norway; hence, the aim of this study was to describe the ED patient population at a Norwegian University Hospital.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:Prospective data of all ED patients admitted to the main ED over a period of 2 months were collected. The patients' presenting complaint was registered using the International Classification of Primary Care-2 (ICPC-2).
RESULTS:A total of 3163 patients arrived in the ED during the study period. The majority (71%) of patients presented with a complaint that was defined as a symptom in ICPC-2. The most common symptoms were abdominal pain (13%), chest pain (13%), and dyspnea (9%). The complaints of the remaining patients (29%) were primarily traumas, infections, and other diagnoses.
CONCLUSION:ED patients have a diverse spectrum of presenting complaints and the majority of patients present with symptoms rather than a defined medical diagnosis.
- Avoidable utilization of the chest pain observation unit: evaluation of very-low-risk patients. [Journal Article]
- Crit Pathw Cardiol 2013 Jun; 12(2):59-64.
: Very-low-risk patients treated in a chest pain observation unit (CPOU) may threaten efficient care delivery. To optimize the efficiency of CPOU evaluations, it is necessary to quantify the avoidable CPOU utilization rate, examine physician variability, and determine patient and physician characteristics associated with avoidable CPOU utilization.: Consecutive chest pain patients were evaluated in an Emergency Department-based CPOU. Patients were risk stratified based on the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association framework, age, and electrocardiogram findings. Very-low-risk was defined as age <35, physician assessment of low-risk, and normal or nondiagnostic electrocardiogram. Patients identified as very-low-risk were considered avoidable CPOU evaluations. Individual physicians' avoidable CPOU utilization rates were calculated. Patients were followed for 30-day major adverse cardiac events, defined as the composite of death, acute myocardial infarction, and coronary revascularization.: Over 33 months, the registry included 1731 chest pain patients. The study definition of avoidable CPOU evaluations was met by 174 patients (10.1%, 95% confidence interval: 8.7-11.6%). The median rate of physician's avoidable CPOU utilization was 10% (interquartile range: 5.9-13.6%) and varied from 1.9% to 18.4%. None of the patients with an avoidable CPOU evaluation had a major adverse cardiac events within 30 days. Physician predictors of avoidable CPOU utilization included recent residency graduation (<5 years), part-time status, and moderate or high rates of CPOU use.: Approximately 10% of CPOU evaluations were avoidable. Wide variability exists among physicians regarding their individual rates of avoidable CPOU utilization. This variability could represent an opportunity to improve the efficiency of CPOU care delivery.
- Characteristics of hospital observation services: a society of cardiovascular patient care survey. [Journal Article]
- Crit Pathw Cardiol 2013 Jun; 12(2):45-8.
: Little is known about the setting in which observation services are provided, or how observation patients are managed in settings such as accredited cardiovascular patient care centers.: To describe the characteristics of observation services in accredited Cardiovascular Patient Care hospitals, or those seeking accreditation.: This is a cross-sectional survey of hospitals either accredited by the Society of Cardiovascular Patient Care, or considering accreditation in 2010. The survey was a web-based free service linked to an e-mail sent to Cardiovascular Patient Care coordinators at the respective institutions. The survey included 17 questions which focused on hospital characteristics and observation services, specifically management, settings, staffing, utilization, and performance data.: Of the 789 accredited hospitals, 91 hospitals (11.5%) responded to the survey. Responding hospitals had a median of 250 inpatient beds (interquartile range [IQR] 277), 32.5 emergency department (ED) beds or hall spots, with an average annual ED census of 41,660 (IQR 30,149). These hospitals had an average of 8 (IQR 9) observation unit beds whose median length of stay (LOS) was 19 hours (IQR 8.1), with a discharge rate of 89.1% (IQR 15). There was an average of 1 observation bed to 3.8 ED beds. Observation units were most commonly administered by emergency medicine (48.5%), but staffed by a broad spectrum of specialties. Nonemergency medicine units had longer LOSs, which were not significant. Most common conditions were chest pain and abdominal pain.: Accredited chest pain centers have observation units whose LOSs and discharge rates are comparable to prior studies with utilization patterns that may serve as benchmarks for similar hospitals.
- The Clinical Utility of Gene Expression Testing on the Diagnostic Evaluation of Patients Presenting to the Cardiologist With Symptoms of Suspected Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease: Results From the IMPACT (Investigation of a Molecular Personalized Coronary Gene Expression Test on Cardiology Practice Pattern) Trial. [Journal Article]
- Crit Pathw Cardiol 2013 Jun; 12(2):37-42.
Accurate, noninvasive evaluation for obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) remains challenging and inefficient. In this study, 171 patients presenting with stable chest pain and related symptoms without a history of CAD were referred to 6 cardiologists for evaluation. In the prospective cohort of 88 patients, the cardiologist's diagnostic strategy was evaluated before and after gene expression score (GES) testing. The GES is a validated, quantitative blood-based diagnostic test measuring peripheral blood cell expression levels of 23 genes to determine the likelihood of obstructive CAD (at least 1 vessel with ≥50% angiographic coronary artery stenosis). The objective of the study was to measure the effect of the GES on diagnostic testing using a pre/post study design. There were 83 prospective patients evaluable for study analysis, which included 57 (69%) women, mean age 53 ± 11 years, and mean GES 12.5 ± 9. Presenting symptoms were classified as typical angina, atypical angina, and noncardiac chest pain in 33%, 60%, and 7% of patients (n = 27, 50, and 6), respectively. After GES, changes in diagnostic testing occurred in 58% of patients (n = 48, P < 0.001). Of note, 91% (29/32) of patients with decreased testing had low GES (≤15), whereas 100% (16/16) of patients with increased testing had elevated GES (P < 0.001). A historical cohort of 83 patients, matched to the prospective cohort by clinical factors, had higher diagnostic test use compared with the post-GES prospective cohort (P < 0.001). In summary, the GES showed clinical utility in the evaluation of patients with suspected obstructive CAD presenting to the cardiologist's office.
- Transient ST-segment elevation and chest pain following percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rev Port Cardiol 2013 May 13.
Transient ST-segment elevation occurring in the context of percutaneous cardiac interventions has not been fully characterized. We present a case of an inferior ST-segment elevation associated with angina and hypotension following percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty. Coronary angiography during ST elevation found no abnormalities and no myocardial necrosis was documented. Thus, as the Inoue balloon had been reinflated and overinflated, we suggest that mechanical myocardial compression might be responsible for the transmural transient ischemia observed in some cardiac percutaneous procedures involving balloons or closure devices.
- A new algorithm in the Chest Pain Unit using the high-sensitivity troponin T. [LETTER]
- Am J Emerg Med 2013 May 13.
- Safety of β-blockers in the acute management of cocaine-associated chest pain. [LETTER]
- Am J Emerg Med 2013 May 13.