Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Cheyne Stokes respiration [keywords]
- Brainstem involvement as a cause of central sleep apnea: pattern of microstructural cerebral damage in patients with cerebral microangiopathy. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(4):e60304.
The exact underlying pathomechanism of central sleep apnea with Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSA-CSR) is still unclear. Recent studies have demonstrated an association between cerebral white matter changes and CSA. A dysfunction of central respiratory control centers in the brainstem was suggested by some authors. Novel MR-imaging analysis tools now allow far more subtle assessment of microstructural cerebral changes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and what severity of subtle structural cerebral changes could lead to CSA-CSR, and whether there is a specific pattern of neurodegenerative changes that cause CSR. Therefore, we examined patients with Fabry disease (FD), an inherited, lysosomal storage disease. White matter lesions are early and frequent findings in FD. Thus, FD can serve as a "model disease" of cerebral microangiopathy to study in more detail the impact of cerebral lesions on central sleep apnea.Genetically proven FD patients (n = 23) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 44) underwent a cardio-respiratory polysomnography and brain MRI at 3.0 Tesla. We applied different MR-imaging techniques, ranging from semiquantitative measurement of white matter lesion (WML) volumes and automated calculation of brain tissue volumes to VBM of gray matter and voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis.In 5 of 23 Fabry patients (22%) CSA-CSR was detected. Voxel-based DTI analysis revealed widespread structural changes in FD patients when compared to the healthy controls. When calculated as a separate group, DTI changes of CSA-CSR patients were most prominent in the brainstem. Voxel-based regression analysis revealed a significant association between CSR severity and microstructural DTI changes within the brainstem.Subtle microstructural changes in the brainstem might be a neuroanatomical correlate of CSA-CSR in patients at risk of WML. DTI is more sensitive and specific than conventional structural MRI and other advanced MR analyses tools in demonstrating these abnormalities.
- Reply: surprisingly powerful effect of continuous positive airway pressure on ventilatory instability in a pediatric patient with Cheyne-Stokes respiration. [Comment, Letter]
- Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2013 Mar 1; 187(5):553-4.
- Rationale and design of the SERVE-HF study: treatment of sleep-disordered breathing with predominant central sleep apnoea with adaptive servo-ventilation in patients with chronic heart failure. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Heart Fail 2013 Mar 27.
AIMS:Central sleep apnoea/Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSA/CSR) is a risk factor for increased mortality and morbidity in heart failure (HF). Adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) is a non-invasive ventilation modality for the treatment of CSA/CSR in patients with HF.MethodsSERVE-HF is a multinational, multicentre, randomized, parallel trial designed to assess the effects of addition of ASV (PaceWave™, AutoSet CS™; ResMed) to optimal medical management compared with medical management alone (control group) in patients with symptomatic chronic HF, LVEF ≤45%, and predominant CSA. The trial is based on an event-driven group sequential design, and the final analysis will be performed when 651 events have been observed or the study is terminated at one of the two interim analyses. The aim is to randomize ∼1200 patients to be followed for a minimum of 2 years. Patients are to stay in the trial up to study termination. The first patient was randomized in February 2008 and the study is expected to end mid 2015. The primary combined endpoint is the time to first event of all-cause death, unplanned hospitalization (or unplanned prolongation of a planned hospitalization) for worsening (chronic) HF, cardiac transplantation, resuscitation of sudden cardiac arrest, or appropriate life-saving shock for ventricular fibrillation or fast ventricular tachycardia in implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients.PerspectivesThe SERVE-HF study is a randomized study that will provide important data on the effect of treatment with ASV on morbidity and mortality, as well as the cost-effectiveness of this therapy, in patients with chronic HF and predominantly CSA/CSR.Trial registrationISRCTN19572887.
- Therapeutic strategies for sleep apnea in hypertension and heart failure. [Journal Article]
- Pulm Med 2013.:814169.
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) causes hypoxemia, negative intrathoracic pressure, and frequent arousal, contributing to increased cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is linked to hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and cardiac arrhythmias. Successful continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment has a beneficial effect on hypertension and improves the survival rate of patients with cardiovascular disease. Thus, long-term compliance with CPAP treatment may result in substantial blood pressure reduction in patients with resistant hypertension suffering from OSAS. Central sleep apnea and Cheyne-Stokes respiration occur in 30-50% of patients with heart failure (HF). Intermittent hypoxemia, nocturnal surges in sympathetic activity, and increased left ventricular preload and afterload due to negative intrathoracic pressure all lead to impaired cardiac function and poor life prognosis. SDB-related HF has been considered the potential therapeutic target. CPAP, nocturnal O2 therapy, and adaptive servoventilation minimize the effects of sleep apnea, thereby improving cardiac function, prognosis, and quality of life. Early diagnosis and treatment of SDB will yield better therapeutic outcomes for hypertension and HF.
- Issues applying a math model to estimate continuous positive airway pressure response in Cheyne-Stokes respiration. [Comment, Letter]
- Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2013 Mar 1; 187(5):553.
- Periodic breathing during ascent to extreme altitude quantified by spectral analysis of the respiratory volume signal. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2012.:707-10.
High altitude periodic breathing (PB) shares some common pathophysiologic aspects with sleep apnea, Cheyne-Stokes respiration and PB in heart failure patients. Methods that allow quantifying instabilities of respiratory control provide valuable insights in physiologic mechanisms and help to identify therapeutic targets. Under the hypothesis that high altitude PB appears even during physical activity and can be identified in comparison to visual analysis in conditions of low SNR, this study aims to identify PB by characterizing the respiratory pattern through the respiratory volume signal. A number of spectral parameters are extracted from the power spectral density (PSD) of the volume signal, derived from respiratory inductive plethysmography and evaluated through a linear discriminant analysis. A dataset of 34 healthy mountaineers ascending to Mt. Muztagh Ata, China (7,546 m) visually labeled as PB and non periodic breathing (nPB) is analyzed. All climbing periods within all the ascents are considered (total climbing periods: 371 nPB and 40 PB). The best crossvalidated result classifying PB and nPB is obtained with Pm (power of the modulation frequency band) and R (ratio between modulation and respiration power) with an accuracy of 80.3% and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 84.5%. Comparing the subjects from 1(st) and 2(nd) ascents (at the same altitudes but the latter more acclimatized) the effect of acclimatization is evaluated. SaO(2) and periodic breathing cycles significantly increased with acclimatization (p-value < 0.05). Higher Pm and higher respiratory frequencies are observed at lower SaO(2), through a significant negative correlation (p-value < 0.01). Higher Pm is observed at climbing periods visually labeled as PB with > 5 periodic breathing cycles through a significant positive correlation (p-value < 0.01). Our data demonstrate that quantification of the respiratory volume signal using spectral analysis is suitable to identify effects of hypobaric hypoxia on control of breathing.
- Is Cheyne-Stokes respiration friend or foe of heart failure? [Comment, Letter]
- Thorax 2013 Jan; 68(1):106-7.
- Short-term use of adaptive servo ventilation improves renal function in heart failure patients with sleep-disordered breathing. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Heart Vessels 2012 Nov 2.
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) deteriorates the prognosis of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Adaptive servo ventilation (ASV) is a new therapeutic modality to treat SDB including Cheyne-Stokes respiration associated with central sleep apnea. Renal function plays critical roles in the progression of CHF and is a strong predictor of clinical outcomes. Cystatin C is a marker of renal function, and more sensitive than serum creatinine. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether ASV is effective for cardiac overload and renal dysfunction in CHF patients with SDB. Fifty patients with CHF and SDB (mean left ventricular ejection fraction 34.0 %, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 62.8 ml/min/1.73 cm(2)) were examined. We performed polysomnography for two consecutive days (baseline and on ASV), and measured levels of serum N terminal-pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP), cystatin C, and estimated glomerular filtration rate based on cystatin C (eGFR Cyst C). ASV significantly improved the apnea hypopnea index, central apnea index, obstructive apnea index, arousal index, mean SPO(2), and lowest SPO(2) compared to baseline. ASV decreased NT-pro BNP (1,109.0 (2,173.2) to 912.8 (1,576.7) pg/ml, p < 0.05), cystatin C (1.391 ± 0.550-1.348 ± 0.489 mg/l, p < 0.05), and increased eGFR Cyst C (61.9 ± 30.8-65.7 ± 33.8 ml/min/1.73 cm(2), p < 0.01). ASV improved SDB, reduced cardiac overload, and ameliorated renal function in CHF patients with SDB. ASV has short-term beneficial effects on not only SDB but also cardio-renal function. ASV might be a promising useful tool for CHF as an important non-pharmacotherapy with cardio-renal protection.
- Rules for scoring respiratory events in sleep: update of the 2007 AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events. Deliberations of the Sleep Apnea Definitions Task Force of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. [Journal Article, Practice Guideline]
- J Clin Sleep Med 2012 Oct 15; 8(5):597-619.
The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) Sleep Apnea Definitions Task Force reviewed the current rules for scoring respiratory events in the 2007 AASM Manual for the Scoring and Sleep and Associated Events to determine if revision was indicated. The goals of the task force were (1) to clarify and simplify the current scoring rules, (2) to review evidence for new monitoring technologies relevant to the scoring rules, and (3) to strive for greater concordance between adult and pediatric rules. The task force reviewed the evidence cited by the AASM systematic review of the reliability and validity of scoring respiratory events published in 2007 and relevant studies that have appeared in the literature since that publication. Given the limitations of the published evidence, a consensus process was used to formulate the majority of the task force recommendations concerning revisions.The task force made recommendations concerning recommended and alternative sensors for the detection of apnea and hypopnea to be used during diagnostic and positive airway pressure (PAP) titration polysomnography. An alternative sensor is used if the recommended sensor fails or the signal is inaccurate. The PAP device flow signal is the recommended sensor for the detection of apnea, hypopnea, and respiratory effort related arousals (RERAs) during PAP titration studies. Appropriate filter settings for recording (display) of the nasal pressure signal to facilitate visualization of inspiratory flattening are also specified. The respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) signals to be used as alternative sensors for apnea and hypopnea detection are specified. The task force reached consensus on use of the same sensors for adult and pediatric patients except for the following: (1) the end-tidal PCO(2) signal can be used as an alternative sensor for apnea detection in children only, and (2) polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) belts can be used to monitor respiratory effort (thoracoabdominal belts) and as an alternative sensor for detection of apnea and hypopnea (PVDFsum) only in adults.The task force recommends the following changes to the 2007 respiratory scoring rules. Apnea in adults is scored when there is a drop in the peak signal excursion by ≥ 90% of pre-event baseline using an oronasal thermal sensor (diagnostic study), PAP device flow (titration study), or an alternative apnea sensor, for ≥ 10 seconds. Hypopnea in adults is scored when the peak signal excursions drop by ≥ 30% of pre-event baseline using nasal pressure (diagnostic study), PAP device flow (titration study), or an alternative sensor, for ≥ 10 seconds in association with either ≥ 3% arterial oxygen desaturation or an arousal. Scoring a hypopnea as either obstructive or central is now listed as optional, and the recommended scoring rules are presented. In children an apnea is scored when peak signal excursions drop by ≥ 90% of pre-event baseline using an oronasal thermal sensor (diagnostic study), PAP device flow (titration study), or an alternative sensor; and the event meets duration and respiratory effort criteria for an obstructive, mixed, or central apnea. A central apnea is scored in children when the event meets criteria for an apnea, there is an absence of inspiratory effort throughout the event, and at least one of the following is met: (1) the event is ≥ 20 seconds in duration, (2) the event is associated with an arousal or ≥ 3% oxygen desaturation, (3) (infants under 1 year of age only) the event is associated with a decrease in heart rate to less than 50 beats per minute for at least 5 seconds or less than 60 beats per minute for 15 seconds. A hypopnea is scored in children when the peak signal excursions drop is ≥ 30% of pre-event baseline using nasal pressure (diagnostic study), PAP device flow (titration study), or an alternative sensor, for ≥ the duration of 2 breaths in association with either ≥ 3% oxygen desaturation or an arousal. In children and adults, surrogates of the arterial PCO(2) are the end-tidal PCO(2) or transcutaneous PCO(2) (diagnostic study) or transcutaneous PCO(2) (titration study). For adults, sleep hypoventilation is scored when the arterial PCO(2) (or surrogate) is > 55 mm Hg for ≥ 10 minutes or there is an increase in the arterial PCO(2) (or surrogate) ≥ 10 mm Hg (in comparison to an awake supine value) to a value exceeding 50 mm Hg for ≥ 10 minutes. For pediatric patients hypoventilation is scored when the arterial PCO(2) (or surrogate) is > 50 mm Hg for > 25% of total sleep time. In adults Cheyne-Stokes breathing is scored when both of the following are met: (1) there are episodes of ≥ 3 consecutive central apneas and/or central hypopneas separated by a crescendo and decrescendo change in breathing amplitude with a cycle length of at least 40 seconds (typically 45 to 90 seconds), and (2) there are five or more central apneas and/or central hypopneas per hour associated with the crescendo/decrescendo breathing pattern recorded over a minimum of 2 hours of monitoring.
- Exercise oscillatory ventilation in heart failure. [Journal Article, Review]
- Trends Cardiovasc Med 2012 Oct; 22(7):185-91.
Irregular breathing characterized by cyclic variation of ventilation with a period of approximately 1 min has been recognized in patients with heart failure for almost two centuries. Periodic breathing during exercise is a noninvasive parameter that is easily recognizable during submaximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Recent studies have established that periodic breathing during exercise not only signals significant impairment in resting and exercise hemodynamic parameters but also potently predicts adverse events in heart failure patients. This article reviews the mechanistic basis of periodic breathing and the clinical utility of discerning patterns of irregular breathing in patients with heart failure.