(Clindamycin Systemic ) articles in PubMed
- A Systemic Review on Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS): A Rare and Critical Disease of Neonates. [Journal Article]
- Open Microbiol J 2016; 10:150-9OM
- The symptoms of Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) include blistering of skin on superficial layers due to the exfoliative toxins released from Staphylococcus aureus. After the acute exfolia...
The symptoms of Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) include blistering of skin on superficial layers due to the exfoliative toxins released from Staphylococcus aureus. After the acute exfoliation of skin surface, erythematous cellulitis occurs. The SSSS may be confined to few blisters localized to the infection site and spread to severe exfoliation affecting complete body. The specific antibodies to exotoxins and increased clearence of exotoxins decrease the frequency of SSSS in adults. Immediate medication with parenteral anti-staphylococcal antibiotics is mandatory. Mostly, SSSS are resistant to penicillin. Penicillinase resistant synthetic penicillins such as Nafcillin or Oxacillin are prescribed as emergency treatment medicine. If Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is suspected), antibiotics with MRSA coverage (e.g., Vancomycin or Linezolid) are indicated. Clindamycin is considered as drug of choice to stop the production of exotoxin from bacteria ribosome. The use of Ringer solution to to balance the fluid loss, followed by maintainence therapy with an objective to maintain the fluid loss from exfoliation of skin, application of Cotrimoxazole on topical surface are greatlly considered to treat the SSSS. The drugs that reduce renal function are avoided. Through this article, an attempt has been made to focus the source, etiology, mechanism, outbreaks, mechanism, clinical manisfestation, treatment and other detail of SSSS.
- Impact of cold atmospheric pressure argon plasma on antibiotic sensitivity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in vitro. [Journal Article]
- GMS Hyg Infect Control 2016; 11:Doc17GH
- CONCLUSIONS: Because CAP can influence the antibiotic susceptibility of S. aureus, before conducting combined treatment with local plasma application on wounds and systemic antibiotics, their interaction must be analysed in vitro to exclude unwanted combination effects.
- ECIL guidelines for treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in non-HIV-infected haematology patients. [Review]
- J Antimicrob Chemother 2016; 71(9):2405-13JA
- The initiation of systemic antimicrobial treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is triggered by clinical signs and symptoms, typical radiological and occasionally laboratory findings in ...
The initiation of systemic antimicrobial treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is triggered by clinical signs and symptoms, typical radiological and occasionally laboratory findings in patients at risk of this infection. Diagnostic proof by bronchoalveolar lavage should not delay the start of treatment. Most patients with haematological malignancies present with a severe PCP; therefore, antimicrobial therapy should be started intravenously. High-dose trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is the treatment of choice. In patients with documented intolerance to this regimen, the preferred alternative is the combination of primaquine plus clindamycin. Treatment success should be first evaluated after 1 week, and in case of clinical non-response, pulmonary CT scan and bronchoalveolar lavage should be repeated to look for secondary or co-infections. Treatment duration typically is 3 weeks and secondary anti-PCP prophylaxis is indicated in all patients thereafter. In patients with critical respiratory failure, non-invasive ventilation is not significantly superior to intubation and mechanical ventilation. The administration of glucocorticoids must be decided on a case-by-case basis.
- Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to tympanoplasty for contaminated cholesteatoma. [Journal Article]
- Laryngoscope 2016; 126(10):2363-6L
- CONCLUSIONS: Administration of preoperative antibiotics to cover staphylococcal and pseudomonal species may prevent surgical site infections with tympanoplasty ± mastoidectomy for contaminated cholesteatoma.
- Patch testing - a valuable tool for investigating non-immediate cutaneous adverse drug reactions to antibiotics. [Journal Article]
- J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2016 Aug 1JE
- CONCLUSIONS: Although oral rechallenge is considered the gold standard for confirming drug imputability in CADR, patch testing could be suggested as a first choice in the study of non-immediate reactions, since it is a safe and valuable procedure.
- NASOPHARYNGEAL CARRIAGE OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE IN HEALTHY CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS OLD IN CENTRAL LOMBOK REGENCY, INDONESIA. [Journal Article]
- Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2016; 47(3):485-93SA
- Colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae is mostly symptomless, but can progress to respiratory or even systemic disease. We investigated nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in heal...
Colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae is mostly symptomless, but can progress to respiratory or even systemic disease. We investigated nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy children under five years of age in Central Lombok Regency, Indonesia. This cross sectional study was carried out in 2012 among 1,200 healthy children aged 2 to 60 months. A multiplex sequential PCR was employed to determine serotype of cultured S. pneumoniae and a disk diffusion method to assess susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. S. pneumoniae was cultured from 554 children and the most frequent serotypes found were 6A/B (22% of pneumococcal strains), 19F (11%), 23F (10%), 15B/C (8%), and 19A and 14 (4% each). The majority of strains were still susceptible to clindamycin (97%), erythromycin (87%), chloramphenicol (81%), and penicillin (72%), with only 41% and 38% susceptible to tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, respectively. Continuous surveillance of S. pneumoniae carriage is important for future pneumococcal vaccination programs in Indonesia.
- Mixed Pulmonary Infection with Penicillium notatum and Pneumocystis jiroveci in a Patient with Acute Myeloid Leukemia. [Journal Article]
- Tanaffos 2016; 15(1):53-6T
- CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights P. notatum as a cause of infection in immunocompromised patients. To the best of our knowledge, mixed lung infection with P. notatum and P. jiroveci in a patient with AML has not been previously reported.
- Empiric systemic antibiotics for hospitalized patients with severe odontogenic infections. [Journal Article]
- J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2016; 44(8):1081-8JC
- CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates ampicillin/sulbactam in addition to surgical intervention is a good standard in treatment of severe odontogenic neck infections. Cephalosporins seem to be a considerable option as well. If beta-lactam allergy is diagnosed co-trimoxazol and moxifloxacin represent relevant alternatives.Age, allergic profile and bacteria' resistance patterns for empiric antibiotics have an influence on patients in-hospital stay. Ampicillin/sulbactam proves itself to be good for empiric antibiosis in severe odontogenic infections. Furthermore cephalosporins could be considered as another option in treatment. However moxifloxacin and co-trimoxazol deserves further investigation as empiric antibiosis in odontogenic infections if beta-lactam allergy is diagnosed.
- Nailed It: Conservative Management of Penetrating Injury and Potential Infection of a Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device. [Case Reports]
- Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2016 May 31PC
- A 47 year old man with a history of ischemic cardiomyopathy and chronic systolic heart failure presented after he inadvertently shot himself in the left upper chest with a pneumatic nail gun, penetra...
A 47 year old man with a history of ischemic cardiomyopathy and chronic systolic heart failure presented after he inadvertently shot himself in the left upper chest with a pneumatic nail gun, penetrating his implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) generator. The device was non-interrogable consistent with device failure. A new ICD was attached to the existing right ventricular lead, which showed no evidence of traumatic damage and normal lead parameters on interrogation. Aggressive debridement and antibiotic irrigation of the ICD pocket was performed and an antibacterial envelope was used. Bacterial culture of the ICD pocket grew Bacillus species. The patient completed a course of at least 14 days of oral clindamycin. At follow-up, there were no signs or symptoms of systemic or local wound infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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- Clostridium difficile infection following systemic antibiotic administration in randomised controlled trials: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Review]
- Int J Antimicrob Agents 2016; 48(1):1-10IJ
- Antibiotics have been the most important risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). However, only data from non-randomised studies have been reviewed. We sought to evaluate the risk for d...
Antibiotics have been the most important risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). However, only data from non-randomised studies have been reviewed. We sought to evaluate the risk for development of CDI associated with the major antibiotic classes by analysing data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus databases were searched and the references of selected RCTs were also hand-searched. Eligible studies should have compared only one antibiotic versus another administered systemically. Inclusion of studies comparing combinations of antibiotics was allowed only if the second antibiotic was the same or from the same class or if it was administered in a subset of the enrolled patients who were equally distributed in the two arms. Only a minority of the selected RCTs (79/1332; 5.9%) reported CDI episodes. Carbapenems were associated with more CDI episodes than fluoroquinolones [risk ratio (RR) = 2.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-4.49] and cephalosporins (RR = 2.24, 95% CI 1.46-3.42), but not penicillins (RR = 2.53, 95% CI 0.87-7.41). Cephalosporins were associated with more CDIs than penicillins (RR = 2.36, 95% CI 1.32-4.23) and fluoroquinolones (RR = 2.84, 95% CI 1.60-5.06). There was no difference in CDI frequency between fluoroquinolones and penicillins (RR = 1.34, 95% CI 0.55-3.25). Finally, clindamycin was associated with more CDI episodes than cephalosporins and penicillins (RR = 3.92, 95% CI 1.15-13.43). In conclusion, data from RCTs showed that clindamycin and carbapenems were associated with more CDIs than other antibiotics.