Clindamycin Systemic [keywords]
- ECIL guidelines for treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in non-HIV-infected haematology patients. [Journal Article, Review]
- J Antimicrob Chemother 2016 Sep; 71(9):2405-13.
The initiation of systemic antimicrobial treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is triggered by clinical signs and symptoms, typical radiological and occasionally laboratory findings in patients at risk of this infection. Diagnostic proof by bronchoalveolar lavage should not delay the start of treatment. Most patients with haematological malignancies present with a severe PCP; therefore, antimicrobial therapy should be started intravenously. High-dose trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is the treatment of choice. In patients with documented intolerance to this regimen, the preferred alternative is the combination of primaquine plus clindamycin. Treatment success should be first evaluated after 1 week, and in case of clinical non-response, pulmonary CT scan and bronchoalveolar lavage should be repeated to look for secondary or co-infections. Treatment duration typically is 3 weeks and secondary anti-PCP prophylaxis is indicated in all patients thereafter. In patients with critical respiratory failure, non-invasive ventilation is not significantly superior to intubation and mechanical ventilation. The administration of glucocorticoids must be decided on a case-by-case basis.
- Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to tympanoplasty for contaminated cholesteatoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Laryngoscope 2016 Aug 6.
To evaluate the efficacy of combined antistaphylococcal and antipseudomonal preoperative antibiotics for preventing surgical site infections following tympanoplasty and mastoidectomy with contaminated cholesteatoma.Retrospective chart review.Medical records of patients who underwent tympanoplasty ± mastoidectomy for cholesteatoma were reviewed. Only cases considered to have contaminated or dirty surgical fields were included. The primary outcome measure was occurrence of postoperative surgical site infections, perichondritis, pinna abscess, periotic cellulitis, or periotic abscess requiring systemic antibiotic therapy or surgical intervention.The charts of 326 patients who underwent tympanoplasty ± mastoidectomy were reviewed. Of those, 195 met inclusion criteria. Preoperative antibiotics included clindamycin and ceftazidime or gentamicin. Patients treated with no perioperative antibiotics had a surgical site infection rate of 11%, and those treated with perioperative antibiotics had a rate of 1% (P = 0.02).Administration of preoperative antibiotics to cover staphylococcal and pseudomonal species may prevent surgical site infections with tympanoplasty ± mastoidectomy for contaminated cholesteatoma.4. Laryngoscope, 2016.
- Patch testing - a valuable tool for investigating non-immediate cutaneous adverse drug reactions to antibiotics. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2016 Aug 1.
Antibiotics are among the most frequent causes of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR); patch testing may be an important tool in their evaluation and management. We assessed the role of patch testing as a diagnostic tool in non-immediate CADR to antibiotics, and evaluated cross-reactivity among them.We reviewed data from all patients with non-immediate CADR attributed to antibiotics, which were patch tested between 2000 and 2014 at our dermatology department.Patch tests were performed in 260 patients, and showed overall reactivity to antibiotics of 21.5%, especially in the context of drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) (31.6%), maculopapular exanthema (MPE) (21.8%), Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (20%) and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) (18.1%). Patch test reactivity was higher for amoxicillin, mainly in DRESS (44.4%) and MPE (25.6%), and dicloxacillin (50% in AGEP and 37.5% in MPE). Reactivity to clindamycin occurred, especially in the setting of MPE (23.2%). In AGEP and DRESS, patch tests were useful in detecting reactivity to quinolones (50-100%). Overall reactivity was lower for vancomycin (9.1%), co-trimoxazole (8.6%), macrolides (4.8%) and cephalosporins (4.4%). Positive patch tests for more than one antibiotic occurred in 29/56 cases (51.8%), mostly explained by cross-reactions. Twenty of 24 cases reacted to both amoxicillin and ampicillin. All five cases reacting to ciprofloxacin cross-reacted with other quinolones.Although oral rechallenge is considered the gold standard for confirming drug imputability in CADR, patch testing could be suggested as a first choice in the study of non-immediate reactions, since it is a safe and valuable procedure.
- NASOPHARYNGEAL CARRIAGE OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE IN HEALTHY CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS OLD IN CENTRAL LOMBOK REGENCY, INDONESIA. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2016 May; 47(3):485-93.
Colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae is mostly symptomless, but can progress to respiratory or even systemic disease. We investigated nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy children under five years of age in Central Lombok Regency, Indonesia. This cross sectional study was carried out in 2012 among 1,200 healthy children aged 2 to 60 months. A multiplex sequential PCR was employed to determine serotype of cultured S. pneumoniae and a disk diffusion method to assess susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. S. pneumoniae was cultured from 554 children and the most frequent serotypes found were 6A/B (22% of pneumococcal strains), 19F (11%), 23F (10%), 15B/C (8%), and 19A and 14 (4% each). The majority of strains were still susceptible to clindamycin (97%), erythromycin (87%), chloramphenicol (81%), and penicillin (72%), with only 41% and 38% susceptible to tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, respectively. Continuous surveillance of S. pneumoniae carriage is important for future pneumococcal vaccination programs in Indonesia.
- Mixed Pulmonary Infection with Penicillium notatum and Pneumocystis jiroveci in a Patient with Acute Myeloid Leukemia. [Journal Article]
- Tanaffos 2016; 15(1):53-6.
Penicillium notatum is a fungus that widely exists in the environment and is often non-pathogenic to humans. However, in immunocompromised hosts it may be recognized as a cause of systemic mycosis. A 44-year-old man with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was admitted to our hospital with fever and neutropenia. Due to no improvement after initial treatment, he underwent bronchoscopy. The patient was found to have P. notatum and Pneumocystis jiroveci infection, and therefore was given voriconazole, primaquine and clindamycin. The patient was successfully treated and suffered no complications.This case highlights P. notatum as a cause of infection in immunocompromised patients. To the best of our knowledge, mixed lung infection with P. notatum and P. jiroveci in a patient with AML has not been previously reported.
- Empiric systemic antibiotics for hospitalized patients with severe odontogenic infections. [Journal Article]
- J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2016 Aug; 44(8):1081-8.
Odontogenic infections may lead to severe head and neck infections with potentially great health risk. Age, location of purulent affected sites and beta-lactam allergy are some mentionable factors regarding patients' in-hospital stay and course of disease. Are there new challenges regarding bacteria' antibiotic resistance for empiric treatment and what influences do they have on patients' clinical course?We analyzed in a 4-year retrospective study the medical records of 294 in-hospital patients with severe odontogenic infections. On a routine base bacteria were identified and susceptibility testing was performed. Length of stay in-hospital was evaluated regarding patients' age, beta-lactam allergy profile, affected sites and bacteria susceptibility to empiric antibiotics.Length of stay in-hospital was detected to be associated with affected space and penicillin allergy as well (p < 0.05). Isolates presented large amounts of aerobic gram-positive bacteria (64.2%), followed by facultative anaerobic bacteria (gram+/15.8%, gram-/12.7%). Tested ampicillin in combination with sulbactam (or without) and cephalosporins displayed high susceptibility rates, revealing distinguished results regarding clindamycin (p < 0.05). Co-trimoxazol and moxifloxacin showed high overall susceptibility rates (MOX: 94.7%, COTRIM: 92.6%).This study demonstrates ampicillin/sulbactam in addition to surgical intervention is a good standard in treatment of severe odontogenic neck infections. Cephalosporins seem to be a considerable option as well. If beta-lactam allergy is diagnosed co-trimoxazol and moxifloxacin represent relevant alternatives.Age, allergic profile and bacteria' resistance patterns for empiric antibiotics have an influence on patients in-hospital stay. Ampicillin/sulbactam proves itself to be good for empiric antibiosis in severe odontogenic infections. Furthermore cephalosporins could be considered as another option in treatment. However moxifloxacin and co-trimoxazol deserves further investigation as empiric antibiosis in odontogenic infections if beta-lactam allergy is diagnosed.
- Nailed It: Conservative Management of Penetrating Injury and Potential Infection of a Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device. [CASE REPORTS]
- Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2016 May 31.
A 47 year old man with a history of ischemic cardiomyopathy and chronic systolic heart failure presented after he inadvertently shot himself in the left upper chest with a pneumatic nail gun, penetrating his implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) generator. The device was non-interrogable consistent with device failure. A new ICD was attached to the existing right ventricular lead, which showed no evidence of traumatic damage and normal lead parameters on interrogation. Aggressive debridement and antibiotic irrigation of the ICD pocket was performed and an antibacterial envelope was used. Bacterial culture of the ICD pocket grew Bacillus species. The patient completed a course of at least 14 days of oral clindamycin. At follow-up, there were no signs or symptoms of systemic or local wound infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Clostridium difficile infection following systemic antibiotic administration in randomised controlled trials: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Journal Article, Review]
- Int J Antimicrob Agents 2016 Jul; 48(1):1-10.
Antibiotics have been the most important risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). However, only data from non-randomised studies have been reviewed. We sought to evaluate the risk for development of CDI associated with the major antibiotic classes by analysing data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus databases were searched and the references of selected RCTs were also hand-searched. Eligible studies should have compared only one antibiotic versus another administered systemically. Inclusion of studies comparing combinations of antibiotics was allowed only if the second antibiotic was the same or from the same class or if it was administered in a subset of the enrolled patients who were equally distributed in the two arms. Only a minority of the selected RCTs (79/1332; 5.9%) reported CDI episodes. Carbapenems were associated with more CDI episodes than fluoroquinolones [risk ratio (RR) = 2.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-4.49] and cephalosporins (RR = 2.24, 95% CI 1.46-3.42), but not penicillins (RR = 2.53, 95% CI 0.87-7.41). Cephalosporins were associated with more CDIs than penicillins (RR = 2.36, 95% CI 1.32-4.23) and fluoroquinolones (RR = 2.84, 95% CI 1.60-5.06). There was no difference in CDI frequency between fluoroquinolones and penicillins (RR = 1.34, 95% CI 0.55-3.25). Finally, clindamycin was associated with more CDI episodes than cephalosporins and penicillins (RR = 3.92, 95% CI 1.15-13.43). In conclusion, data from RCTs showed that clindamycin and carbapenems were associated with more CDIs than other antibiotics.
- [Plasmodium falciparum malaria: evaluation of three imported cases]. [Case Reports, English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Mikrobiyol Bul 2016 Apr; 50(2):328-32.
Among Plasmodium species the causative agent of malaria in Turkey is P.vivax, however the incidence of imported falciparum malaria cases is steadily increasing. P.falciparum may cause severe malaria with the involvement of central nervous system, acute renal failure, severe anemia or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Furhermore most of the casualties due to malaria are related with P.falciparum. There is recently, a considerable increase in malaria infections especially in tropical areas. In this report, three cases, who have admitted to our hospital with three different clinical presentations of falciparum malaria, and all shared common history of travelling to Africa were presented. First case was a 27 years old, male patient who returned from Malawi seven days ago where he stayed for two weeks. He admitted to our hospital with the complaints of sensation of cold, shivering and fever. In physical examination his body temperature was 37.9°C, C-reactive protein level was high, and the other systemic results were normal. The second case was a 25 years old, male patient who returned from Gambia two weeks ago. He was suffering from fever, headache, shivering and unable to maintain his balance. The patient's body temperature was 38°C. Laboratory tests revealed hyperbilirubinemia and thrombocytopenia. Parasitological examination of the Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smear of these two patients demonstrated ring forms compatible with P.falciparum. Treatment was commenced with arthemeter plus lumefantrine, resulting with complete cure. Third case was a 46 years old, male patient who had been working in Uganda, and returned to Turkey two weeks ago. He had sudden onset of fever, headache, nausea and vomiting and impaired consciousness. His peripheral blood smear revealed ring-formed trophozoites and banana-shaped gametocytes of P.falciparum. Arthemeter plus lumefantrine therapy was started, however, he developed severe thrombocytopenia and jaundice under treatment. His general condition was detoriated and the patient lost his consciousness. As the patient's clinical signs were compatible with sepsis ceftriaxone plus clindamycin were added to the antiparasitic treatment emprically. Due to the development of acute tubular necrosis, the patient have undergone hemodialysis. On the 9th day of therapy the complaints and laboratory findings of the patient have improved, so he was discharged. However, visual defects due to retinopathy and severe neurocognitive impairment that were thought to be the complications of malaria continued in his follow-ups. As a result, it should be keep in mind that both the African students who have come to our country for education from endemic regions and as well as the returned citizens of our country who have gone to work in endemic areas, are under risk of malaria and it is very important to consider malaria in the distinctive diagnosis of patients with the complaints of fever, headache, nausea, vomiting and muscle pain.
- Comparison effect of azithromycin gel 2% with clindamycin gel 1% in patients with acne. [Journal Article]
- Adv Biomed Res 2016.:72.
Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease. Local and systemic antimicrobial drugs are used for its treatment. But increasing resistance of Propionibacterium acnes to antibiotics has been reported.In a double-blind clinical trial, 40 patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris were recruited. one side of the face was treated with Clindamycin Gel 1% and the other side with Azithromycin Topical Gel 2% BID for 8 weeks and then they were assessed.Average age was 21. 8 ± 7 years. 82.5% of them were female. Average number of papules, pustules and comedones was similarly reduced in both groups and, no significant difference was observed between the two groups (P > 0.05, repeated measurs ANOVA). The mean indexes of ASI and TLC also significantly decreased during treatment in both groups, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. (P > 0.05, repeated measurs ANOVA). Also, impact of both drugs on papules and pustules was 2-3 times greater than the effect on comedones. Average satisfaction score was not significant between the two groups (P = 0.6, repeated measurs ANOVA). finally, frequency distribution of complications was not significant between the two groups (P > 0.05, Fisher Exact test).Azithromycin gel has medical impact at least similar to Clindamycin Gel in treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris, and it may be consider as suitable drug for resistant acne to conventional topical therapy.