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Clindamycin Systemic [keywords]
- Current treatment of toxoplasma retinochoroiditis: an evidence-based review. [Journal Article, Review]
- J Ophthalmol 2014.:273506.
Objective.To perform an evidence-based review of treatments for Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis (TRC). Methods. A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed database and the key phrase "ocular toxoplasmosis treatment" and the filter for "controlled clinical trial" and "randomized clinical trial" as well as OVID medline (1946 to May week 2 2014) using the keyword ''ocular toxoplasmosis". The included studies were used to evaluate the various treatment modalities of TRC.
Results.The electronic search yielded a total of 974 publications of which 44 reported on the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis. There were 9 randomized controlled studies and an additional 3 comparative studies on the treatment of acute TRC with systemic or intravitreous antibiotics or on reducing the recurrences of TRC. Endpoints of studies included visual acuity improvement, inflammatory response, lesion size changes, recurrences of lesions, and adverse effects of medications.
Conclusions.There was conflicting evidence as to the effectiveness of systemic antibiotics for TRC. There is no evidence to support that one antibiotic regimen is superior to another so choice needs to be informed by the safety profile. Intravitreous clindamycin with dexamethasone seems to be as effective as systemic treatments. There is currently level I evidence that intermittent trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prevents recurrence of the disease.
- Incidence of periorbital necrotising fasciitis in the UK population: a BOSU study. [Journal Article]
- Br J Ophthalmol 2014 Sep; 98(9):1177-80.
Periorbital necrotising fasciitis (PNF) is a devastating infection of subcutaneous soft tissue and underlying fascia causing severe morbidity and even loss of life. Few case reports of PNF exist and there are no prospective epidemiological studies.A prospective observational study was undertaken using the British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit reporting system. Questionnaires were sent to reporting ophthalmologists in the UK seeking cases of PNF over a 2-year period.30 new cases were confirmed. 16 of the reported cases followed a precipitating event, 9 cases followed trauma and 3 followed surgery. β-haemolytic Streptococcus A was the causative organism identified in 76%, either alone or with concurrent infection, and antibiotic sensitivities are discussed. Systemic complications occurred in the majority of cases (66.6%), with sepsis and death occurring in 10%. Over 50% of surviving patients had subsequent morbidity, reduced acuity (<6/18) being common.PNF is a rare, dangerous condition. This study identified an incidence of 0.24 per 1 000 000 per annum in the UK. β-haemolytic Streptococcus A is the most common causative organism. Mortality remains a potential outcome, and survivors suffer significant morbidity. Early intravenous antibiotic management with a consensus favouring penicillin and clindamycin combined with debridement.
- Antibiotic Susceptibility of Periodontal Streptococcus Constellatus and Streptococcus Intermedius Clinical Isolates. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Periodontol 2014 Aug 7.:1-10.
Background: Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius in subgingival dental plaque biofilms may contribute to forms of periodontitis that resist treatment with conventional mechanical root debridement-surgical procedures, and may additionally participate in some extraoral infections. Since systemic antibiotics are often employed in these clinical situations, and little is known of the antibiotic susceptibility of subgingival isolates of these two bacterial species, this study determined the in vitro susceptibility to six antibiotics of fresh S. constellatus and S. intermedius clinical isolates from human periodontitis lesions. Methods: A total of 33 S. constellatus and 17 S. intermedius subgingival strains, each recovered from separate severe chronic periodontitis patients (N = 50) prior to treatment, were subjected to antibiotic gradient strip susceptibility testing with amoxicillin, azithromycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin and doxycycline on blood-supplemented Mueller-Hinton agar, and to the inhibitory effects of metronidazole at 16 mg/L in an enriched Brucella blood agar dilution assay. CLSI and EUCAST interpretative standards were used to assess the results. Results: Clindamycin was the most active antibiotic against S. constellatus (MIC90 = 0.25 mg/L), with amoxicillin most active against S. intermedius (MIC90 = 0.125 mg/L). A total of 30% of the S. constellatus and S. intermedius clinical isolates were resistant in vitro to doxycycline, 98% were only intermediate in susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, and 90% were resistant to metronidazole at 16 mg/L. Conclusions: Subgingival S. constellatus and S. intermedius exhibited variable antibiotic susceptibility profiles, potentially complicating empiric selection of periodontitis antibiotic therapy in species-positive patients.
- Antimicrobial susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from veterinary clinical cases in the UK. [Journal Article]
- Br J Biomed Sci 2014; 71(2):55-7.
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a leading aetiologic agent of pyoderma and other body tissue infections in dogs and cats. In recent years, an increased prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) has been reported. Isolation of MRSP in serious infections poses a major therapeutic challenge as strains are often resistant to all forms of systemic antibiotic used to treat S. pseudintermedius -related infections. This study investigates the occurrence of MRSP from a total of 7183 clinical samples submitted to the authors' laboratories over a 15-month period. Identification was based on standard microbiological identification methods, and by S. pseudintermedius-specific nuc polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methicillin resistance was confirmed by PBP2a latex agglutination and mecA PCR. Susceptibility against non-beta-lactam antibiotics was carried out using a disc-diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. In addition, susceptibility to pradofloxacin--a new veterinary fluoroquinolone--was also investigated. SCCmec types were determined by multiplex PCR. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was isolated from 391 (5%) samples and 20 were confirmed as MRSP from cases of pyoderma, otitis, wound infections, urinary tract infection and mastitis in dogs only. All 20 isolates were resistant to clindamycin and sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Nineteen were resistant to chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, marbofloxacin and pradofloxacin; additionally, seven isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Fifteen isolates carried SCCmec type II-III, four isolates had type V and one harboured type IV. To date, only a few scientific papers on clinical MRSP strains isolated from the UK have been published, thus the results from this study would provide additional baseline data for further investigations.
- A biodegradable antibiotic-impregnated scaffold to prevent osteomyelitis in a contaminated in vivo bone defect model. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Cell Mater 2014.:332-349.
Open fractures are at risk of serious infection and, if infected, require several surgical interventions and courses of systemic antibiotics. We investigated a new injectable formulation that simultaneously hardens in vivo to form a porous scaffold for bone repair and delivers antibiotics at high concentrations to the local site of infection. Duration of antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus was determined using the serial plate transfer test. Ultimate compressive strength and porosity of the material was measured with and without antibiotics. The material was evaluated in vivo in an ovine medial femoral condyle defect model contaminated with S. aureus. Sheep were sacrificed at either 2 or 13 weeks and the defect and surrounding bone assessed using micro-computed tomography and histology. Antimicrobial activity in vitro persisted for 19-21 days. Sheep with antibiotic-free material and bacteria became infected, while those with antibiotic-containing material and bacteria did not. Similarly, new bone growth was seen in uninoculated animals with plain polymer, and in those with antibiotic polymer with bacteria, but not in sheep with plain polymer and bacteria. The antibiotic-impregnated scaffolds were effective in preventing S. aureus infections whilst supporting bone growth and repair. If translated into clinical practice, this approach might reduce the need for systemic antibiotics.
- Treatment of aggressive periodontitis. [Journal Article]
- Periodontol 2000 2014 Jun; 65(1):107-33.
Despite etiological differences between aggressive and chronic periodontitis, the treatment concept for aggressive periodontitis is largely similar to that for chronic periodontitis. The goal of treatment is to create a clinical condition that is conducive to retaining as many teeth as possible for as long as possible. When a diagnosis has been made and risk factors have been identified, active treatment is commenced. The initial phase of active treatment consists of mechanical debridement, either alone or supplemented with antimicrobial drugs. Scaling and root planing has been shown to be effective in improving clinical indices, but does not always guarantee long-term stability. Antimicrobials can play a significant role in controlling aggressive periodontitis. Few studies have been published on this subject for localized aggressive periodontitis, but generalized aggressive periodontitis has been subject to more scrutiny. Studies have demonstrated that systemic antibiotics as an adjuvant to scaling and root planing are more effective in controlling disease compared with scaling and root planing alone or with supplemental application of local antibiotics or antiseptics. It has also become apparent that antibiotics ought to be administered with, or just after, mechanical debridement. Several studies have shown that regimens of amoxicillin combined with metronidazole or regimens of clindamycin are the most effective and are preferable to regimens containing doxycycline. Azithromycin has been shown to be a valid alternative to the regimen of amoxicillin plus metronidazole. A limited number of studies have been published on surgical treatment in patients with aggressive periodontitis, but the studies available show that the effect can be comparable with the effect on patients with chronic periodontitis, provided that proper oral hygiene is maintained, a strict maintenance program is followed and modifiable risk factors are controlled. Both access surgery and regenerative techniques have shown good results in patients with aggressive periodontitis. Once good periodontal health has been obtained, patients must be enrolled in a strict maintenance program that is directed toward controlling risk factors for disease recurrence and tooth loss. The most significant risk factors are noncompliance with regular maintenance care, smoking, high gingival bleeding index and poor plaque control. There is no evidence to suggest that daily use of antiseptic agents should be part of the supportive periodontal therapy for aggressive periodontitis.
- SAPHO Syndrome in an Adolescent: A Clinical Case With Unusual Severe Systemic Impact. [Journal Article]
- J Adolesc Health 2014 Aug; 55(2):304-6.
SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) syndrome includes both dermatological and rheumatologic symptoms. Being a rare condition, the diagnosis is frequently late. The authors report a case of a 13-year-old boy diagnosed with synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis syndrome with unusual severe systemic repercussions. The patient presented with acne conglobata, inability to walk due to pain and weakness and weight loss. Bone scintigraphy was suggestive of sacroiliitis, and lumbar spine x-ray showed signs of hyperostosis. His clinical state improved after treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, methotrexate, clindamycin, and isotretinoin. A review of the clinical aspects of this syndrome is presented, emphasizing how this underdiagnosed syndrome can lead to severe weight loss and significant functional and psychological impairment at an early age.
- [Phagotherapy faced with Staphylococcus aureus methicilin resistant infections in mice]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 2014 Mar; 31(1):69-77.
Objectives:To assess the bacteriophage activity in localized and systemic infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus resistant to methicilin (MRSA). Materials and methods. An experimental study was performed in 45 mice of the Balb/c strain divided in nine groups of five individuals. Ten naive bacteriophages were isolated through clinical samples and hospital effluents. Lytic capacity and spectrum activity was evaluated on the basis of which six phages were selected for phagotherapy trials. Additionally, a commercial bacteriophage was used. The phagotherapy was evaluated through prophylaxis, and therapy of localized and systemic infections caused by MRSA by subcutaneous and intravenous inoculation, respectively. The effectiveness of three therapeutic schemes was tested: monotherapy, phage cocktail in multiple doses and phage cocktail in a single dose. The therapeutic activity of the phages was also compared with vancomycin and clindamycin.
Results.The phage cocktail and the diverse dose therapy were effective in preventing and controlling MRSA localized infections; its activity was similar to the vancomycin and clindamycin activity. The single dose phage cocktail failed to control localized infection and phagotherapy was not effective in systemic infections.
Conclusions.Phagotherapy could be a viable alternative for infections caused by MRSA. Further studies that assess related aspects to phages and patient safety are required.
- Gut dysbiosis promotes M2 macrophage polarization and allergic airway inflammation via fungi-induced PGE₂. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Cell Host Microbe 2014 Jan 15; 15(1):95-102.
Although imbalances in gut microbiota composition, or "dysbiosis," are associated with many diseases, the effects of gut dysbiosis on host systemic physiology are less well characterized. We report that gut dysbiosis induced by antibiotic (Abx) treatment promotes allergic airway inflammation by shifting macrophage polarization in the lung toward the alternatively activated M2 phenotype. Adoptive transfer of alveolar macrophages derived from Abx-treated mice was sufficient to increase allergic airway inflammation. Abx treatment resulted in the overgrowth of a commensal fungal Candida species in the gut and increased plasma concentrations of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), which induced M2 macrophage polarization in the lung. Suppression of PGE₂ synthesis by the cyclooxygenase inhibitors aspirin and celecoxib suppressed M2 macrophage polarization and decreased allergic airway inflammatory cell infiltration in Abx-treated mice. Thus, Abx treatment can cause overgrowth of particular fungal species in the gut and promote M2 macrophage activation at distant sites to influence systemic responses including allergic inflammation.
- Treatment of acne vulgaris in pregnant patients. [Journal Article, Review]
- Dermatol Ther 2013 Jul-Aug; 26(4):302-11.
The management of acne vulgaris in the setting of pregnancy raises important clinical considerations regarding the efficacy and safety of acne treatments in this special patient population. Particular challenges include the absence of safety data, discrepancy in safety data between different safety rating systems, and lack of evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of acne during pregnancy. Nonetheless, many therapeutic options exist, and the treatment of acne in pregnant women can be safely and often effectively accomplished. For mild or moderate disease, patients can be treated with topical antimicrobial agents, anti-inflammatory agents, as well as glycolic and salicylic acid. Several topical agents, notably benzoyl peroxide, previously viewed as potentially dangerous are cited by many sources as being considered safe. When necessary, systemic therapies that can be safely added include penicillins, amoxicillin, cephalosporins, erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracyclines or sulfonamides, depending on the stage of fetal development. Adjunct therapy may include phototherapy or laser treatments. Physicians should work with this often highly motivated, safety-conscious patient population to tailor an individualized treatment regimen. This treatment regimen will likely shift throughout the different stages of fetal development, as distinct safety considerations are raised prior to conception as well as during each of the trimesters of pregnancy. Important considerations regarding acne management in breast-feeding mothers is also discussed.