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Clindamycin Systemic [keywords]
- Antimicrobial susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from veterinary clinical cases in the UK. [Journal Article]
- Br J Biomed Sci 2014; 71(2):55-7.
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a leading aetiologic agent of pyoderma and other body tissue infections in dogs and cats. In recent years, an increased prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) has been reported. Isolation of MRSP in serious infections poses a major therapeutic challenge as strains are often resistant to all forms of systemic antibiotic used to treat S. pseudintermedius -related infections. This study investigates the occurrence of MRSP from a total of 7183 clinical samples submitted to the authors' laboratories over a 15-month period. Identification was based on standard microbiological identification methods, and by S. pseudintermedius-specific nuc polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methicillin resistance was confirmed by PBP2a latex agglutination and mecA PCR. Susceptibility against non-beta-lactam antibiotics was carried out using a disc-diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. In addition, susceptibility to pradofloxacin--a new veterinary fluoroquinolone--was also investigated. SCCmec types were determined by multiplex PCR. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was isolated from 391 (5%) samples and 20 were confirmed as MRSP from cases of pyoderma, otitis, wound infections, urinary tract infection and mastitis in dogs only. All 20 isolates were resistant to clindamycin and sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Nineteen were resistant to chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, marbofloxacin and pradofloxacin; additionally, seven isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Fifteen isolates carried SCCmec type II-III, four isolates had type V and one harboured type IV. To date, only a few scientific papers on clinical MRSP strains isolated from the UK have been published, thus the results from this study would provide additional baseline data for further investigations.
- Treatment of aggressive periodontitis. [Journal Article]
- Periodontol 2000 2014 Jun; 65(1):107-33.
Despite etiological differences between aggressive and chronic periodontitis, the treatment concept for aggressive periodontitis is largely similar to that for chronic periodontitis. The goal of treatment is to create a clinical condition that is conducive to retaining as many teeth as possible for as long as possible. When a diagnosis has been made and risk factors have been identified, active treatment is commenced. The initial phase of active treatment consists of mechanical debridement, either alone or supplemented with antimicrobial drugs. Scaling and root planing has been shown to be effective in improving clinical indices, but does not always guarantee long-term stability. Antimicrobials can play a significant role in controlling aggressive periodontitis. Few studies have been published on this subject for localized aggressive periodontitis, but generalized aggressive periodontitis has been subject to more scrutiny. Studies have demonstrated that systemic antibiotics as an adjuvant to scaling and root planing are more effective in controlling disease compared with scaling and root planing alone or with supplemental application of local antibiotics or antiseptics. It has also become apparent that antibiotics ought to be administered with, or just after, mechanical debridement. Several studies have shown that regimens of amoxicillin combined with metronidazole or regimens of clindamycin are the most effective and are preferable to regimens containing doxycycline. Azithromycin has been shown to be a valid alternative to the regimen of amoxicillin plus metronidazole. A limited number of studies have been published on surgical treatment in patients with aggressive periodontitis, but the studies available show that the effect can be comparable with the effect on patients with chronic periodontitis, provided that proper oral hygiene is maintained, a strict maintenance program is followed and modifiable risk factors are controlled. Both access surgery and regenerative techniques have shown good results in patients with aggressive periodontitis. Once good periodontal health has been obtained, patients must be enrolled in a strict maintenance program that is directed toward controlling risk factors for disease recurrence and tooth loss. The most significant risk factors are noncompliance with regular maintenance care, smoking, high gingival bleeding index and poor plaque control. There is no evidence to suggest that daily use of antiseptic agents should be part of the supportive periodontal therapy for aggressive periodontitis.
- SAPHO Syndrome in an Adolescent: A Clinical Case With Unusual Severe Systemic Impact. [Journal Article]
- J Adolesc Health 2014 Aug; 55(2):304-6.
SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) syndrome includes both dermatological and rheumatologic symptoms. Being a rare condition, the diagnosis is frequently late. The authors report a case of a 13-year-old boy diagnosed with synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis syndrome with unusual severe systemic repercussions. The patient presented with acne conglobata, inability to walk due to pain and weakness and weight loss. Bone scintigraphy was suggestive of sacroiliitis, and lumbar spine x-ray showed signs of hyperostosis. His clinical state improved after treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, methotrexate, clindamycin, and isotretinoin. A review of the clinical aspects of this syndrome is presented, emphasizing how this underdiagnosed syndrome can lead to severe weight loss and significant functional and psychological impairment at an early age.
- [Phagotherapy faced with Staphylococcus aureus methicilin resistant infections in mice]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 2014 Mar; 31(1):69-77.
Objectives:To assess the bacteriophage activity in localized and systemic infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus resistant to methicilin (MRSA). Materials and methods. An experimental study was performed in 45 mice of the Balb/c strain divided in nine groups of five individuals. Ten naive bacteriophages were isolated through clinical samples and hospital effluents. Lytic capacity and spectrum activity was evaluated on the basis of which six phages were selected for phagotherapy trials. Additionally, a commercial bacteriophage was used. The phagotherapy was evaluated through prophylaxis, and therapy of localized and systemic infections caused by MRSA by subcutaneous and intravenous inoculation, respectively. The effectiveness of three therapeutic schemes was tested: monotherapy, phage cocktail in multiple doses and phage cocktail in a single dose. The therapeutic activity of the phages was also compared with vancomycin and clindamycin.
Results.The phage cocktail and the diverse dose therapy were effective in preventing and controlling MRSA localized infections; its activity was similar to the vancomycin and clindamycin activity. The single dose phage cocktail failed to control localized infection and phagotherapy was not effective in systemic infections.
Conclusions.Phagotherapy could be a viable alternative for infections caused by MRSA. Further studies that assess related aspects to phages and patient safety are required.
- Gut dysbiosis promotes M2 macrophage polarization and allergic airway inflammation via fungi-induced PGE₂. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Cell Host Microbe 2014 Jan 15; 15(1):95-102.
Although imbalances in gut microbiota composition, or "dysbiosis," are associated with many diseases, the effects of gut dysbiosis on host systemic physiology are less well characterized. We report that gut dysbiosis induced by antibiotic (Abx) treatment promotes allergic airway inflammation by shifting macrophage polarization in the lung toward the alternatively activated M2 phenotype. Adoptive transfer of alveolar macrophages derived from Abx-treated mice was sufficient to increase allergic airway inflammation. Abx treatment resulted in the overgrowth of a commensal fungal Candida species in the gut and increased plasma concentrations of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), which induced M2 macrophage polarization in the lung. Suppression of PGE₂ synthesis by the cyclooxygenase inhibitors aspirin and celecoxib suppressed M2 macrophage polarization and decreased allergic airway inflammatory cell infiltration in Abx-treated mice. Thus, Abx treatment can cause overgrowth of particular fungal species in the gut and promote M2 macrophage activation at distant sites to influence systemic responses including allergic inflammation.
- Treatment of acne vulgaris in pregnant patients. [Journal Article, Review]
- Dermatol Ther 2013 Jul-Aug; 26(4):302-11.
The management of acne vulgaris in the setting of pregnancy raises important clinical considerations regarding the efficacy and safety of acne treatments in this special patient population. Particular challenges include the absence of safety data, discrepancy in safety data between different safety rating systems, and lack of evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of acne during pregnancy. Nonetheless, many therapeutic options exist, and the treatment of acne in pregnant women can be safely and often effectively accomplished. For mild or moderate disease, patients can be treated with topical antimicrobial agents, anti-inflammatory agents, as well as glycolic and salicylic acid. Several topical agents, notably benzoyl peroxide, previously viewed as potentially dangerous are cited by many sources as being considered safe. When necessary, systemic therapies that can be safely added include penicillins, amoxicillin, cephalosporins, erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracyclines or sulfonamides, depending on the stage of fetal development. Adjunct therapy may include phototherapy or laser treatments. Physicians should work with this often highly motivated, safety-conscious patient population to tailor an individualized treatment regimen. This treatment regimen will likely shift throughout the different stages of fetal development, as distinct safety considerations are raised prior to conception as well as during each of the trimesters of pregnancy. Important considerations regarding acne management in breast-feeding mothers is also discussed.
- Recurrent furunculosis: Efficacy of the CMC regimen--skin disinfection (chlorhexidine), local nasal antibiotic (mupirocin), and systemic antibiotic (clindamycin). [Journal Article]
- Scand J Infect Dis 2013 Nov; 45(11):837-41.
The treatment of recurrent furunculosis is poorly documented and represents a public health challenge. The medical care of this disease is often disappointing, especially as the disease evolution is uncertain and relapses occur. We report the efficacy and safety of our CMC regimen: skin disinfection (chlorhexidine), local nasal antibiotic (mupirocin), and systemic antibiotic (clindamycin).Patients attending our institution during the period 2006-2012 for recurrent furunculosis (≥ 4 episodes/y) were enrolled in the study. Clinical and bacteriological data were collected. Staphylococcus aureus colonization was also investigated in close contacts, and carriers were treated. Patients were treated with the CMC regimen: skin disinfection with chlorhexidine for 21 days, nasal mupirocin ointment for 5 days, and oral clindamycin 1800-2400 mg for 21 days.Nineteen patients were included. Their mean age was 36 ± 14.5 y and the male to female sex ratio was 1.1. Screening swabs from all sites were S. aureus-positive in 63% (n = 12), including 4 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Before the CMC regimen, the median time to relapse was 31 days (mean 52 days). The mean number of recurrences was 5.5 ± 2.4/y. After the CMC regimen, among 16 patients who had a complete follow-up, 14 were healed beyond 9 months. Two recurrences occurred, 1 in an MRSA carrier and 1 in a patient with an insufficiently treated dermatosis. No serious side effect occurred that required the cessation of treatment.There are 2 major routes involved in recurrent furunculosis: risk factors and staphylococcal colonization of close contacts. Our procedure is safe and effective, with 87% remission beyond 9 months. It merits testing on larger numbers of participants.
- Corticosteroids in peritonsillar abscess treatment: a blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial. [Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial]
- Laryngoscope 2014 Jan; 124(1):97-103.
Sore throat is a common, benign emergency department (ED) presentation; however, peritonsillar abscess (PTA) is a complication that requires aggressive management. Use of systemic corticosteroids (SCSs) in PTA is occurring without clear evidence of benefit. This study examined the efficacy and safety of SCS treatment for patients with PTA.Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.A controlled trial with concealed allocation and double-blinding was conducted at two Canadian EDs. Following written informed consent, eligible patients received 48 hours of intravenous clindamycin and a single dose of the study drug (dexamethasone [DEX] or placebo [PLAC], intravenously [IV]). Follow-up occurred at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 7 days. The primary outcome was pain; other outcomes were side effects and return to normal activities/diet.A total of 182 patients were screened for eligibility; 41 patients were enrolled (21 DEX; 20 PLAC). At 24 hours, those receiving DEX reported lower pain scores (1.4 vs. 5.1; P = .009); however, these differences disappeared by 48 hours (P = .22) and 7 days (P = .4). At 24 hours, more patients receiving DEX returned to normal activities (33% vs. 11%) and dietary intake (38% vs 25%); however, these differences were not significant and disappeared by 48 hours and 7 days. Side effects were rare and did not differ between groups (P > .05).Combined with PTA drainage and IV antibiotics, 10 mg IV DEX resulted in less pain at 24 hours when compared to PLAC, without any serious side effects. This effect is short-lived, and further research is required on factors associated with PTA treatment success.
- Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing of MRSA in cystic fibrosis. [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Pulmonol 2014 Mar; 49(3):230-7.
The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients in the United States is approximately 25%. Little is known about the relative proportion of hospital- versus community-associated strains or the antimicrobial susceptibility of MRSA in different CF centers. We hypothesized that the majority of MRSA isolates obtained from children with CF are those endemic in the hospital and that those associated with community acquisition (SCCmec IV) would be more resistant than typically seen in non-CF MRSA isolates.We studied MRSA strains from seven pediatric CF centers to determine the clonal distribution based on DNA sequencing of the staphylococcal protein A gene (spa typing), the type of staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec), and the proportion of strains with Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). Antimicrobial susceptibility to systemic and topical antibiotics was compared between different MRSA types.We analyzed 277 MRSA isolates from unique patients (mean age 11.15 ± 4.77 years, 55% male). Seventy % of isolates were SCCmec II PVL negative and the remainder SCCmec IV. Overall 17% MRSA strains were PVL positive (all SCCmec IV). Spa typing of 118 isolates showed most of the SCCmec II strains being t002, while SCCmec IV PVL positive isolates were t008, and SCCmec IV PVL negative isolates represented a variety of spa-types. The proportions of SCCmec II strains and spa-types were similar among centers. Overall rates of resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (4%), tetracycline (7%), tigecycline (0.4%), linezolid (0.4%) as well as fosfomycin (0.4%), fusidic acid (3%), and mupirocin (1%) were low. No strains were resistant to vancomycin. SCCmec II strains had higher rates of resistance to ciprofloxacin and clindamycin (P < 0.001) than SCCmec IV strains.In this U.S. study, most MRSA isolates in the pediatric CF population were SCCmec II PVL negative. Rates of resistance were low, including to older and orally available antibiotics such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.
- Skin conditions: emerging drug-resistant skin infections and infestations. [Case Reports, Journal Article, Review]
- FP Essent 2013 Apr.:17-23.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin infections are increasingly common. Automated microbiology systems are now available to detect MRSA and to determine antibiotic resistance patterns. Abscesses should be drained and antibiotics administered, with systemic antibiotics used to manage more severe infections. Until sensitivities are known and depending on local resistance rates, clindamycin is an option for empiric management of stable patients without bacteremia. For patients who are more ill, linezolid and vancomycin are alternatives, the latter being first-line treatment for children hospitalized with MRSA skin infections. Drug resistance also occurs in head lice management. Although topical permethrin is still the first-line drug management, its effectiveness has decreased due to permethrin-resistant strains. Patients who do not benefit from 2 applications of permethrin can be treated with topical malathion or topical ivermectin. Though not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treating head lice, oral ivermectin is sometimes used for difficult-to-treat cases. Permethrin is also the first-line management for scabies, though there is a concern that permethrin-resistant scabies may soon occur. For patients with scabies who do not benefit from topical treatment, oral ivermectin is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, although it is not approved by the FDA for this purpose.