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Clinical Problems of Aging [keywords]
- Can social dancing prevent falls in older adults? a protocol of the Dance, Aging, Cognition, Economics (DAnCE) fall prevention randomised controlled trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Public Health 2013 May 15; 13(1):477.
BACKGROUND:Falls are one of the most common health problems among older people and pose a major economic burden on health care systems. Exercise is an accepted stand-alone fall prevention strategy particularly if it is balance training or regular participation in Tai chi. Dance shares the 'holistic' approach of practices such as Tai chi. It is a complex sensorimotor rhythmic activity integrating multiple physical, cognitive and social elements. Small-scale randomised controlled trials have indicated that diverse dance styles can improve measures of balance and mobility in older people, but none of these studies has examined the effect of dance on falls or cognition. This study aims to determine whether participation in social dancing: i) reduces the number of falls; and ii) improves cognitive functions associated with fall risk in older people.Methods/design: A single-blind, cluster randomised controlled trial of 12 months duration will be conducted. Approximately 450 participants will be recruited from 24 self-care retirement villages that house at least 60 residents each in Sydney, Australia. Village residents without cognitive impairment and obtain medical clearance will be eligible. After comprehensive baseline measurements including physiological and cognitive tests and self-completed questionnaires, villages will be randomised to intervention sites (ballroom or folk dance) or to a wait-listed control using a computer randomisation method that minimises imbalances between villages based on two baseline fall risk measures. Main outcome measures are falls, prospectively measured, and the Trail Making cognitive function test. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses will be performed.
DISCUSSION:This study offers a novel approach to balance training for older people. As a community-based approach to fall prevention, dance offers older people an opportunity for greater social engagement, thereby making a major contribution to healthy ageing. Providing diversity in exercise programs targeting seniors recognises the heterogeneity of multicultural populations and may further increase the number of taking part in dance classes.Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000889853The trial is now in progress with 12 villages already have been randomised.
- Insight in Alzheimer's disease and its relation to psychiatric and behavioral disturbances. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2013 May 14.
OBJECTIVE:Individuals suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) often have impaired awareness or a lack of insight into their cognitive deficits and functional abilities, especially in the later stages of the disease. Previous research has documented a relationship between depression and insight in AD, such that greater awareness of one's disease has been associated with a higher degree of depression. However, little is known about the relationship between insight, cognitive decline, and other psychiatric or behavioral problems associated with AD.
METHODS:This study included 107 outpatients who met criteria for probable AD. Instruments included the Neurobehavioral Rating Scale, the Apathy Evaluation Scale, and the mini mental state exam. A series of hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between insight and depressed mood, anxiety, psychosis, apathy, agitation, and behavioral retardation in AD patients after controlling for cognitive skills.
RESULTS:Insight was found to significantly predict depressed mood, anxiety, and apathy even after controlling for global cognition. Greater insight was found to be associated with depressed mood and anxiety. However, impaired insight was associated with higher levels of apathy.
CONCLUSION:Insight may be differentially related to mood symptoms and apathy within AD, such that patients with intact insight are more depressed, whereas patients with impaired insight are more apathetic. This suggests that assessment of insight in AD may complement the clinical evaluation of depression and apathy in AD and help guide the most appropriate interventions. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
- Renal diseases in haemophilic patients: pathogenesis and clinical management. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Haematol 2013 May 8.
Haemophilia A and B are genetic X-linked bleeding disorders, caused by mutations in genes encoding factor VIII and IX, respectively. Clinical manifestations of haemophilia are spontaneous haemorrhage or acute bleeding caused by minor trauma, resulting in severe functional consequences that can culminate in a debilitating arthropathy. Life expectancy and quality of life of haemophilic patients have dramatically improved over the last years, mainly for new therapeutic options and the awareness to the risk of HCV and HIV infections. Different clinical problems arise from this important change in history of haemophilic patients. In particular, aging-related diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, cancer and chronic viral infections, are emerging as new challenges in this patient population. Among the different types of chronic illnesses, renal diseases are of special interest since they involve some difficult management issues. In fact, decisions regarding adequate preventive strategies and viral infection treatment, the choice of the dialytic modality, placement of vascular access and prescription of dialytic treatments are particularly complicated, also because only few data are available. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis of renal damage in haemophilic patients, especially in those with blood transmitted viral infections, and the major issues about the management of renal diseases, including problems related to dialytic treatment and kidney transplantation, providing practical algorithms to guide the clinical decision-making process. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Sexual activity and function among middle-aged and older men and women with hypertension. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Hypertens 2013 Jun; 31(6):1096-1105.
OBJECTIVE::To determine the association of hypertension (HTN) and its treatment with sexual function in middle-aged and older adults.
METHODS::We studied a nationally representative sample of community-residing adults aged 57-85 years (n = 3005) from the National Social Health, Life and Aging Project. Adults were categorized by HTN status (treated, untreated, and no HTN). Antihypertensive medication use was classified into calcium channel blocker; β-blocker; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker; diuretic; and α-blocker. For each HTN and medication group, we determined the prevalence and adjusted odds of being sexually active and of having any sexual problem.
RESULTS::Among men, comparing treated HTN with untreated HTN and no HTN, sexual activity was less prevalent (66.5 vs. 75.9 vs.71.5%, P <0.01) and sexual problems were more prevalent (69.1 vs. 57.7 vs. 54.3%; P ≤ 0.01). There was no association between treated HTN and sexual activity [odds ratio, OR = 0.86 (95% confidence interval 0.51-1.45)] and a nonsignificant association between treated HTN and sexual problems [OR = 1.49 (0.94-2.37)]. Among women, the prevalence of sexual activity was lower in the treated and untreated HTN groups than the no HTN group (35.2 vs. 38.3 vs. 58.0%, P <0.01); the prevalence of sexual problems was similar (73.7 vs. 65.3 vs. 71.7%; P = 0.301). Women in the treated HTN [OR = 0.61 (0.39-0.95)] and untreated HTN [0.54 (0.30-0.96)] groups had a lower odds of sexual activity compared with no HTN. There were no significant associations between antihypertensive medication class and sexual activity or problems in men or women.
CONCLUSION:: The relationship between HTN and sexual health is different for older men and women. Prospective, comparative effectiveness trials are needed.
- Ageing and Brugada syndrome: considerations and recommendations. [Journal Article]
- J Geriatr Cardiol 2013 Mar; 10(1):75-81.
Brugada syndrome is an inherited disease associated with an increased risk of lethal ventricular arrhythmias. Such arrhythmias stem from innate disruptions in cardiac electrophysiology. Typically, such arrhythmias occur in the third or fourth decade of life. However, Brugada syndrome may also affect geriatric patients. In this paper, we focus on the ageing patient with Brugada syndrome, and specifically, on the interaction between Brugada syndrome and the more usually acquired clinical problems that may occur with increasing age, such as the use of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular drugs, or the need for surgery. Such common conditions may also disrupt cardiac electrophysiology, thereby conferring added risk for Brugada syndrome patients. We present some considerations and recommendations that may serve as guidance to address these complexities.
- Inhibition of Lung Metastasis by Chemokine CCL17-mediated In Vivo Silencing of Genes in CCR4+ Tregs. [Journal Article]
- J Immunother 2013 May; 36(4):258-67.
Despite significant attractiveness of antisense oligonucleotide/RNAi technology, its clinical application has been precluded by a lack of methods for targeted delivery and transduction of primary immune cells in vivo. Here, we devised a chemokine CCL17-based strategy (TARC-arp) that transiently silences expression of genes in immune cells by delivering inhibitory oligonucleotides through their chemokine receptors. In modeling studies using mice with established 4T1.2 breast cancer, we show that IL10 produced by CCR4 cells, in particular FoxP3 regulatory T cells (Tregs), plays an important role in lung metastasis. As such, TARC-arp-mediated silencing of IL10 or FoxP3 in CCR4 Tregs is sufficient to block lung metastasis. Thus, we provide a simple solution that circumvents the problems of RNAi use in vivo, indicating that a disease outcome can be successfully controlled by delivering inhibitory oligonucleotides with chemokines to inactivate a selective subset of immune cells.
- [Aβ immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Brain Nerve 2013 Apr; 65(4):461-8.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the deposition of amyloid-β-protein (Aβ) as senile plaques in the brain parenchyma and phosphorylated-tau accumulation as neurofibrillary tangles in the neurons. Although details of the disease pathomechanisms remain unclear, Aβ likely acts as a key protein for AD initiation and progression, followed by abnormal tau phosphorylation and neuronal death (amyloid-cascade hypothesis). According to this hypothesis, Aβ immunization therapies are created to eliminate Aβ from the brain, and to prevent the neurons from damage by these pathogenic proteins. There are two methods for Aβ immunotherapies: active and passive immunization. Previous studies have shown Aβ removal and improved cognitive function in animal models of AD. Clinical trials on various drugs, including AN1792, bapineuzumab, and solanezumab, have been carried out; however, all trials have failed to demonstrate apparent clinical benefits. On the contrary, side effects emerged, such as meningoencephalitis, vasogenic edema, which are currently called amyloid related imaging abnormalities (ARIA)-E and microhemorrhage (ARIA-H). In neuropathological studies of immunized cases, Aβ was removed from the brain parenchyma and phosphorylated-tau was reduced in the neuronal processes. Moreover, deterioration of the cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and an increase of microhemorrhages and microinfarcts were described. Aβ is cleared from the brain mainly via the lymphatic drainage pathway. ARIA could stem from severe CAA due to dysfunction of the drainage pathway after immunotherapy. Aβ immunization has a potential of cure for AD patients, although the above-described problems must be overcome before applying this therapy in clinical treatment.
- Burden of disease due to dementia in the elderly population of Korea: present and future. [Journal Article]
- BMC Public Health 2013.:293.
With the rapid aging of populations around the world, dementia has become one of the most important public health problems in Eastern Asian countries. The purpose of the present study was to provide an estimate of the burden of dementia and forecast its future burden, as generalized to the Korean population, and to provide detailed gender- and age-specific information regarding the burden of dementia in the elderly population of Korea.'Disability-adjusted life years' (DALYs) were used to estimate the burden of dementia. Epidemiologic data from national statistics and nationwide epidemiologic studies in the year 2008 were used to obtain representative outcomes for the Korean population. We estimated the DALYs due to dementia from the years 2010 to 2050 by applying demographic structure projections in terms of 5-year age groups in Korea.The burden of disease due to dementia in Korea is 528 per 100,000 population (males: 435, females: 622) and 5,117 per 100,000 in those over the age of 65 years (males: 5,228; females: 5,041); this accounts for 4.5% of the total burden of disease in the year 2008. In the year 2050, DALYs due to dementia (814,629) are expected to be 3.0 times higher than those in the year 2010 (274,849).Dementia has the highest burden of disease in the elderly Korean population, and this burden will increase sharply with the aging of the population. More comprehensive and multi-dimensional approaches, including clinical, psychological, social, and political means will be needed for the management of the dramatically increasing burden of dementia.
- Hippocampal sulcal cavities in depression and healthy individuals. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2013 Mar 26.
BACKGROUND:A literature review suggested age and cognitive problems to be related to an increased prevalence of small areas of signal variation within the hippocampus observed on MRI, described as hippocampal sulcal cavities (HSCs; (Maller et al., 2011)). The current study aimed to describe the prevalence of HSCs in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and healthy controls over a large age-range.
METHODS:115 TRD patients and 86 controls underwent MRI brain scanning. Right and left HSCs were rated separately for prevalence and length.
RESULTS:HSCs were observed in 73.04% of those with TRD, statistically more prevalent (p=0.001) than amongst controls (51.16%). These findings are consistent with our review (66% prevalence in memory disorders and 47% in healthy controls). Furthermore, HSC presence and length was associated with aging.
LIMITATIONS:The study was cross-sectional so its implications for aging are tentative. A larger sample scanned longitudinally will allow for more sophisticated statistical methods by which to investigate the relationship between HSCs, aging, and TRD.
CONCLUSIONS:Although their clinical significance remains uncertain, the results of the current study suggest that HSCs are related with age and those with TRD have more aged brains than their peers.
- Vitamin D supplementation in older adults: searching for specific guidelines in nursing homes. [Journal Article]
- J Nutr Health Aging 2013 Apr; 17(4):402-12.
The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency is very high in the nursing home (NH) population. Paradoxically, vitamin D insufficiency is rarely treated despite of strong clinical evidence and recommendations for supplementation. This review aims at reporting the current knowledge of vitamin D supplementation in NH and proposing recommendations adapted to the specificities of this institutional setting.Current literature on vitamin D supplementation for NH residents was narratively presented and discussed by the French Group of Geriatrics and Nutrition.Vitamin D supplementation is a safe and well-tolerated treatment. Most residents in NH have vitamin D insufficiency, and would benefit from vitamin D supplement. However, only few residents are actually treated. Current specific and personalized protocols for vitamin D supplementation may not be practical for use in NH settings (e.g., assessment of serum vitamin D concentrations before and after supplementation). Therefore, our group proposes a model of intervention based on the systematic supplementation of vitamin D (1,000 IU/day) since the patient's admission to the NH and throughout his/her stay without the need of a preliminary evaluation of the baseline levels. Calcium should be prescribed only in case of poor dietary calcium intake.A population-based rather than individual-based approach may probably improve the management of vitamin D insufficiency in the older population living in NH, without increasing the risks of adverse health problems. The clinical relevance and cost effectiveness of this proposal should be assessed under NH real-world conditions to establish its feasibility.