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- Pituitary hyperplasia: a complication of the pseudomalabsorption of thyroxine. [Journal Article]
- Int J Gen Med 2013.:335-9.
"The pseudomalabsorption of thyroxine" has been used to describe patients with hypothyroidism who fail to comply with their treatment. We describe a unique case of a 32-year-old with hypothyroidism who developed pituitary hyperplasia and hyperprolactinemia secondary to the pseudomalabsorption of thyroxine. INVESTIGATIONS AND TREATMENT: After baseline thyroid-function tests were performed, the patient was administered levothyroxine 0.5 mg under the supervision of a registered nurse. Thyroid function testing was repeated at 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes. Arrangements were made for further daily supervised loading of levothyroxine 0.1 mg.With the administration of 0.5 mg levothyroxine, free thyroxine levels increased by 120 minutes, and with daily supervised dosing of 0.1 mg there was normalization of the thyroid hormone levels and a reduction of thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Maintenance of thyroid-stimulating hormone < 15 mU/L for 2 weeks led to a reduction in prolactin levels and regression in the size of the pituitary on magnetic resonance imaging.If left untreated, these patients face significant morbidity and are at risk of developing pituitary hyperplasia, complications from an increase in pituitary size, hyperprolactinemia, and potentially myxedema coma. Recognizing pituitary hyperplasia and hyperprolactinemia as a complication from the pseudomalabsorption of levothyroxine may prevent the potential of a misdiagnosis of a prolactinoma leading to unnecessary investigations and inappropriate treatment. Patient awareness of this serious complication and the rapid, demonstrable resolution with adequate thyroid hormone replacement may provide motivation to comply with supervised dosing of levothyroxine. It has also been suggested that supervised treatment enables the individual to maintain their patient status, which may be in part the motivation behind this disorder.
- CRS-R score in disorders of consciousness is strongly related to spectral EEG at rest. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurol 2013 Jun 14.
Patients suffering from disorders of consciousness still present a diagnostic challenge due to the fact that their assessment is mainly based on behavioral scales with their motor responses often being strongly impaired. We therefore focused on resting electroencephalography (EEG) in order to reveal potential alternative measures of the patient's current state independent of rather complex abilities (e.g., language comprehension). Resting EEG was recorded in nine minimally conscious state (MCS) and eight vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) patients. Behavioral assessments were conducted using the Coma-Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). The signal was analyzed in the frequency domain and association between resting EEG and CRS-R score as well as clinical diagnosis were calculated using Pearson correlation and repeated-measures ANOVAs. The analyses revealed robust positive correlations between CRS-R score and ratios between frequencies above 8 Hz and frequencies below 8 Hz. Furthermore, the frequency of the spectral peak was also highly indicative of the patient's CRS-R score. Concerning differences between clinical diagnosis and healthy controls, it could be revealed that while VS/UWS patients showed higher delta and theta activity than controls, MCS did not differ from controls in this frequency range. Alpha activity, on the other hand, was strongly decreased in both patient groups as compared to controls. The strong relationship between various resting EEG parameters and CRS-R score provides significant clinical relevance. Not only is resting activity easily acquired at bedside, but furthermore, it does not depend on explicit cooperation of the patient. Especially in cases where behavioral assessment is difficult or ambiguous, spectral analysis of resting EEG can therefore complement clinical diagnosis.
- Beginnings of bariatric and metabolic surgery in Spain. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cir Esp 2013 Jun 11.
When bariatric and metabolic surgery initially began in Spain, it was a subject of debate, due to not knowing exactly who were the first surgeons to perform it. A study has revealed the authors of the first interventions.
- Risk Adjustment In Neurocritical care (RAIN) - prospective validation of risk prediction models for adult patients with acute traumatic brain injury to use to evaluate the optimum location and comparative costs of neurocritical care: a cohort study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Health Technol Assess 2013 Jun; 17(23):1-350.
SETTING:Sixty-seven adult critical care units.
PARTICIPANTS:Adult patients admitted to critical care following actual/suspected TBI with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of < 15.
INTERVENTIONS:Critical care delivered in a dedicated neurocritical care unit, a combined neuro/general critical care unit within a neuroscience centre or a general critical care unit outside a neuroscience centre.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Mortality, Glasgow Outcome Scale - Extended (GOSE) questionnaire and European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, 3-level version (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire at 6 months following TBI.
RESULTS:The final Risk Adjustment In Neurocritical care (RAIN) study data set contained 3626 admissions. After exclusions, 3210 patients with acute TBI were included. Overall follow-up rate at 6 months was 81%. Of 3210 patients, 101 (3.1%) had no GCS score recorded and 134 (4.2%) had a last pre-sedation GCS score of 15, resulting in 2975 patients for analysis. The most common causes of TBI were road traffic accidents (RTAs) (33%), falls (47%) and assault (12%). Patients were predominantly young (mean age 45 years overall) and male (76% overall). Six-month mortality was 22% for RTAs, 32% for falls and 17% for assault. Of survivors at 6 months with a known GOSE category, 44% had severe disability, 30% moderate disability and 26% made a good recovery. Overall, 61% of patients with known outcome had an unfavourable outcome (death or severe disability) at 6 months. Between 35% and 70% of survivors reported problems across the five domains of the EQ-5D-3L. Of the 10 risk models selected for validation, the best discrimination overall was from the International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in TBI Lab model (IMPACT) (c-index 0.779 for mortality, 0.713 for unfavourable outcome). The model was well calibrated for 6-month mortality but substantially underpredicted the risk of unfavourable outcome at 6 months. Baseline patient characteristics were similar between dedicated neurocritical care units and combined neuro/general critical care units. In lifetime cost-effectiveness analysis, dedicated neurocritical care units had higher mean lifetime quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) at small additional mean costs with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £14,000 per QALY and incremental net monetary benefit (INB) of £17,000. The cost-effectiveness acceptability curve suggested that the probability that dedicated compared with combined neurocritical care units are cost-effective is around 60%. There were substantial differences in case mix between the 'early' (within 18 hours of presentation) and 'no or late' (after 24 hours) transfer groups. After adjustment, the 'early' transfer group reported higher lifetime QALYs at an additional cost with an ICER of £11,000 and INB of £17,000.
CONCLUSIONS:The risk models demonstrated sufficient statistical performance to support their use in research but fell below the level required to guide individual patient decision-making. The results suggest that management in a dedicated neurocritical care unit may be cost-effective compared with a combined neuro/general critical care unit (although there is considerable statistical uncertainty) and support current recommendations that all patients with severe TBI would benefit from transfer to a neurosciences centre, regardless of the need for surgery. We recommend further research to improve risk prediction models; consider alternative approaches for handling unobserved confounding; better understand long-term outcomes and alternative pathways of care; and explore equity of access to postcritical care support for patients following acute TBI. FUNDING: The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.
- A survey of the management of paediatric minor head injury. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Neurol Scand 2013 Jun 13.
OBJECTIVES:To investigate present established routines and standards in managing minor head-injured children in Danish hospitals, a survey of present management practice was conducted.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:A cross-sectional mail survey, detailing clinical and radiological examinations, in-hospital observation, discharge criteria and follow-up, was performed on all 46 hospitals treating children with minor head injury in Denmark.
RESULTS:Of the 46 hospitals, 33% report having established written criteria for the referral and management of children with minor head injury. Ten (22%) of the 46 hospitals are so-called injury clinics, where only nurses are employed. All state that they use the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and/or the paediatric GCS to assess the level of consciousness; 15% use the paediatric GCS exclusively. None perform routine radiological examinations. Criteria for early discharge are established in 98% of the hospitals. All hospitals provide written instructions for observations at home before discharge.
CONCLUSION:The management of children with minor head injury varies between hospitals in Denmark. Local management guidelines are either lacking or mainly based on those of adults. Hence, there is a need for the development of minor head injury guidelines specifically designed for the management of children.
- High-flux hemodialysis and levocarnitine in the treatment of severe valproic Acid intoxication. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Emerg Med 2013.:526469.
Valproic acid (VPA) intoxication incidence is increasing, because of the use of VPA in psychiatric disorders. The most common finding of VPA intoxication is central nervous system depression which leads to coma and respiratory depression. Pancreatitis, hyperammonemia, metabolic, and bone marrow failure (thrombocytopenia and leukopenia) have also been described. Treatment is mainly supportive. We present the case of an 18-year-old female patient, who made an attempt to autolysis with VPA. Our patient's VPA plasma level was very high (924 μ g/mL), confirming that it was a severe intoxication. Our treatment including levocarnitine (50 mg/kg per day for 3 days), and high-flux hemodialysis was performed for four hours. The patient's hemodynamic status and mental function improved in conjunction with the acute reduction in VPA concentrations. Her subsequent hospital course was complicated by transient thrombocytopenia and levocarnitine induced hypophosphatemia. By day 6, the patient's laboratory values had completely normalized, and she was transferred to an inpatient psychiatric facility for continuing therapy.
- Glasgow Coma Scale score at intensive care unit discharge predicts the 1-year outcome of patients with severe traumatic brain injury. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2013 Jun; 39(3):285-292.
To analyse the association between the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at intensive care unit (ICU) discharge and the 1-year outcome of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected observational data.Between 01/2001 and 12/2005, 13 European centres enrolled 1,172 patients with severe TBI. Data on accident, treatment and outcomes were collected. According to the GCS score at ICU discharge, survivors were classified into four groups: GCS scores 3-6, 7-9, 10-12 and 13-15. Using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), 1-year outcomes were classified as "favourable" (scores 5, 4) or "unfavourable" (scores <4). Factors that may have contributed to outcomes were compared between groups and for favourable versus unfavourable outcomes within each group.Of the 538 patients analysed, 308 (57 %) had GCS scores 13-15, 101 (19 %) had scores 10-12, 46 (9 %) had scores 7-9 and 83 (15 %) had scores 3-6 at ICU discharge. Factors significantly associated with these GCS scores included age, severity of trauma, neurological status (GCS, pupils) at admission and patency of the basal cisterns on the first computed tomography (CT) scan. Favourable outcome was achieved in 74 % of all patients; the rates were significantly different between GCS groups (93, 83, 37 and 10 %, respectively). Within each of the GCS groups, significant differences regarding age and trauma severity were found between patients with favourable versus unfavourable outcomes; neurological status at admission and CT findings were not relevant.The GCS score at ICU discharge is a good predictor of 1-year outcome. Patients with a GCS score <10 at ICU discharge have a poor chance of favourable outcome.
- Risk Factors for Hearing Loss in Children following Bacterial Meningitis in a Tertiary Referral Hospital. [Journal Article]
- Int J Otolaryngol 2013.:354725.
Objective.This study aimed to examine hearing function in children admitted with bacterial meningitis to determine the risk factors for sensorineural hearing loss. Setting. The study was conducted in the audiology unit and paediatric wards of Kenyatta National Hospital. Subjects and Methods. The study involved 83 children between the ages of six months and twelve years admitted with bacterial meningitis. The median age for the children examined was 14. On discharge they underwent hearing testing to evaluate for presence and degree of hearing loss.
Results.Thirty six of the 83 children (44.4%) were found to have at least a unilateral mild sensorineural hearing loss during initial audiologic testing. Of the children with hearing loss, 22 (26.5%) had mild or moderate sensorineural hearing loss and 14 (16.9%) had severe or profound sensorineural hearing loss. Significant determinants identified for hearing loss included coma score below eight, seizures, cranial nerve neuropathy, positive CSF culture, and fever above 38.7 degrees Celsius.
Conclusions.Sensorineural hearing loss was found to be highly prevalent in children treated for bacterial meningitis. There is need to educate healthcare providers on aggressive management of coma, fever, and seizures due to their poor prognostic value on hearing.
- Association of Prestroke Statin Use and Lipid Levels With Outcome of Intracerebral Hemorrhage. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Stroke 2013 Jun 11.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:It is unclear whether blood lipid profiles and statin use before intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are associated with its outcome.
METHODS:The Helsinki ICH Study, a single-center observational registry of consecutive ICH patients, was used to study the associations between premorbid statin use, baseline lipid levels, and clinical outcome.
RESULTS:The registry includes 964 ICH patients. Statin users (n=187; 19%) were significantly older, had more frequent comorbidities and medication, lower lipid levels, and higher admission Glasgow Coma Scale compared with nonusers. Modified Rankin Scale at discharge or mortality did not differ between statin users and nonusers. Compared with survivors, significantly lower total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were observed in patients who died in hospital (median, 4.1 mmol/L [interquartile range, 3.6-4.4] versus 4.5 [3.8-5.1]; P<0.01; 1.9 mmol/L [1.4-2.5] versus 2.4 [1.8-3.0]; P<0.001, respectively), at 3 or 12 months. After adjusting for known ICH prognostic factors based on univariate analysis that is, age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Glasgow Coma Scale, ICH volume, and intraventricular location, lower low-density lipoprotein levels were independently associated with in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 0.54 [95% confidence interval, 0.31-0.93]; P=0.028).
CONCLUSIONS:Premorbid statin use did not affect the outcome of ICH, but lower low-density lipoprotein levels were associated with higher in-hospital mortality.
- Neuro/Trauma Intensive Care Unit Nurses' Perception of the Use of the Full Outline of Unresponsiveness Score Versus the Glasgow Coma Scale When Assessing the Neurological Status of Intensive Care Unit Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dimens Crit Care Nurs 2013 July/August; 32(4):180-183.