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Complex 15 [keywords]
- Improvement of Cloning Efficiency in Minipigs Using Post-thawed Donor Cells Treated with Roscovitine. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Biotechnol 2013 May 16.
Massachusetts General Hospital miniature pigs (MGH minipigs) have been established for organ transplantation studies across the homozygous major histocompatibility complex, but cloning efficiency of MGH minipigs is extremely low. This study was designed to increase the productivity of MGH minipigs by nuclear transfer of post-thaw donor cells after 1 h co-incubation with roscovitine. The MGH minipig cells were genetically modified with GT KO (alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase knock-out) and hCD46 KI (human CD46 knock-in) and used as donor cells. The GT KO/hCD46 KI donor cells were cultured for either 3 days (control group) or 1 h after thawing with 15 μM roscovitine (experimental group) prior to the nuclear transfer. The relative percentage of the transgenic donor cells that entered into G0/G1 was 93.7 % (±2.54). This was different from the donor cells cultured for 1 h with the roscovitine-treated group (84.6 % ±4.6) (P < 0.05) and without roscovitine (78.6 % ±5.5) (P < 0.01), respectively. The pregnancy rate and delivery rate in the roscovitine group (8/12 and 6/8, respectively) were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than those in the control group (6/19 and 3/6, respectively). In the experimental group, 12 GT KO/hCD46 KI transgenic minipigs were successfully generated, and five minipigs among them survived for more than 6 months so far. The recipient-based individual cloning efficiency ranged from 0.74 to 2.54 %. In conclusion, gene-modified donor cells can be used for cloning of MGH minipigs if the cells are post-thawed and treated with roscovitine for 1 h prior to nuclear transfer.
- Disability in saudi arabia. [Journal Article]
- Saudi Med J 2013 May; 34(5):453-60.
Disability is a complex, influential, dynamic, multidimensional challenge, and it can substantially limit major life activities of human beings and their ability to integrate/reintegrate into society. According to the World Health Organization reports almost 15% of the world's population lives with certain types of disability, of whom 2-4% experience substantial difficulties in functioning. In Saudi Arabia, very limited research has been conducted on the prevalence and incidence of disability, and most of this is on disabled children. There are several difficulties associated with conducting research on disability related issues in Saudi Arabia. Here, we review the current situation of disability, disability research, and rehabilitation in Saudi Arabia from the published literature.
- Divergent functions of the Rho GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42 in podocyte injury. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Kidney Int 2013 May 15.
Podocytes are highly specialized epithelial cells with complex actin cytoskeletal architecture crucial for maintenance of the glomerular filtration barrier. The mammalian Rho GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42 are molecular switches that control many cellular processes, but are best known for their roles in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Here, we employed podocyte-specific Cre-lox technology and found that mice with deletion of Rac1 display normal podocyte morphology without glomerular dysfunction well into adulthood. Using the protamine sulfate model of acute podocyte injury, podocyte-specific deletion of Rac1 prevented foot process effacement. In a long-term model of chronic hypertensive glomerular damage, however, loss of Rac1 led to an exacerbation of albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis. In contrast, mice with podocyte-specific deletion of Cdc42 had severe proteinuria, podocyte foot process effacement, and glomerulosclerosis beginning as early as 10 days of age. In addition, slit diaphragm proteins nephrin and podocin were redistributed, and cofilin was dephosphorylated. Cdc42 is necessary for the maintenance of podocyte structure and function, but Rac1 is entirely dispensable in physiological steady state. However, Rac1 has either beneficial or deleterious effects depending on the context of podocyte impairment. Thus, our study highlights the divergent roles of Rac1 and Cdc42 function in podocyte maintenance and injury.Kidney International advance online publication, 15 May 2013; doi:10.1038/ki.2013.175.
- Spins on a curved surface: an Fe(III)14 ferracalixarene. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dalton Trans 2013 May 15.
The synthesis of the high-nuclearity Fe(III)14 coordination cluster [Fe14(μ3-O)6(μ3-OH)4(μ-OH)3Cl11(dea)4(Hdea)3]Cl·H2O·27MeCN () is reported (in which deaH2 = diethanolamine). X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that compound crystallises in the cubic space group Im3[combining macron] with Z = 24 and 8 independent Fe centres. Unusually for an Fe(III) coordination cluster, the Fe(III) centres in adopt a range of 4, 5 and 6 coordinate geometries. Complex presents a ferracalixarene topology which can be described in terms of a "half tennis ball" structure and binds a chloride anion guest via multiple hydrogen bonds. The curvature in the structure induced by this topology affects the overall spin structure. A ground spin state of S = 7 is proposed using a combination of magnetic susceptibility data and density functional theory (DFT) calculations.
- Multilevel Correlates of Physical Activity for Early, Mid, and Late Adolescent Girls. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Phys Act Health 2013 May 13.
BACKGROUND:We examined associations among multilevel variables and girls' physical activity to determine whether they vary at different adolescent ages.
METHODS:All field sites of the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls contributed participants from 6th (n=1,576) and 8th grades (n=3,085). The Maryland site contributed an 11th grade sample (n=589). Questionnaires were used to obtain demographic and psychosocial information (individual- and social-level variables); height, weight, and triceps skinfold to assess body composition; interviews and surveys for school-level data; and geographical information systems and self-report for neighborhood-level variables. Moderate to vigorous physical activity minutes (MVPA) were assessed from accelerometers. Mixed models (13 individual, 5 social, 15 school, 12 neighborhood variables) were used to determine multilevel associations.
RESULTS:Variables at individual, social, school, and neighborhood levels were associated with MVPA, but differed across grades. Lower percent body fat, higher social support from friends, and lower school math scores were associated with higher MVPA at 6th and 8th grade. Higher physical activity self-efficacy was associated with higher MVPA at 11th grade. Only lower physical activity barriers were associated with higher MVPA at all grades.
CONCLUSION:MVPA is a complex behavior with fluid, multilevel correlates that differ among girls across middle and high school.
- Regulation of DNA transposition by CpG methylation and chromatin structure in human cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mob DNA 2013 May 15; 4(1):15.
BACKGROUND:The activity of transposable elements can be regulated by different means. DNA CpG methylation is known to decrease or inhibit transpositional activity of diverse transposons. However, very surprisingly, it was previously shown that CpG methylation of the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon significantly enhanced transposition in mouse embryonic stem cells.
RESULTS:In order to investigate the unexpected response of SB transposition to CpG methylation, related transposons from the Tc1/mariner superfamily, that is, Tc1, Himar1, Hsmar1, Frog Prince (FP) and Minos were tested to see how transposition was affected by CpG methylation. A significant increase of >20-fold in transposition of SB, FP and Minos was seen, whereas Tc1, Himar1 and Hsmar1 showed no difference in transposition upon CpG-methylation. The terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) of the SB, FP and Minos elements share a common structure, in which each TIR contains two functionally important binding sites for the transposase (termed the IR/DR structure). The group of IR/DR elements showed increased excision after CpG methylation compared to untreated transposon donor plasmids. We found that de novo CpG methylation is not required for transposition. A mutated FP donor plasmid with depleted CpG sites in both TIRs was as efficient in transposition as the wild-type transposon, indicating that CpG sites inside the TIRs are not responsible for altered binding of the factors potentially modulating transposition. By using an in vivo one-hybrid DNA-binding assay in cultured human cells we found that CpG methylation had no appreciable effect on the affinity of SB transposase to its binding sites. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation indicated that CpG-methylated transposon donor plasmids are associated with a condensed chromatin structure characterized by trimethylated histone H3K9. Finally, DNA compaction by protamine was found to enhance SB transposition.
CONCLUSIONS:We have shown that DNA CpG methylation upregulates transposition of IR/DR elements in the Tc1/mariner superfamily. CpG methylation provokes the formation of a tight chromatin structure at the transposon DNA, likely aiding the formation of a catalytically active complex by facilitating synapsis of sites bound by the transposase.
- Clinical study of advanced glycation end products in egyptian diabetic obese and non-obese patients. [Journal Article]
- Int J Biomed Sci 2011 Sep; 7(3):191-200.
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are complex, heterogenous molecules generated by glycation and oxidation of proteins in vivo, which are thought to markedly increase in diabetic patients. One of the recently identified AGEs is carboxy methyl lysine (CML), which is the main ligand of receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). The present study aimed to assess the effect of obesity on such pathways in presence and absence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. CML, soluble receptors for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), HbA1C, lipid profile, liver function tests and kidney function tests were determined in 29 diabetic obese, 29 diabetic non-obese, 15 non-diabetic obese and 15 non-diabetic non-obese subjects. The study compared obese and non-obese subjects in presence and absence of type 2 diabetes. The results showed a significant increase in CML and a significant decrease in sRAGE in each of the diabetic obese group when compared with the diabetic non-obese group and the non-diabetic obese group when compared with the non-diabetic non-obese group. A significant positive correlation was found between CML and markers of obesity (body mass index and waist/hip ratio). These results suggest that obesity can increase CML independent of diabetes and support the reports that CML could be generated from both sugars and lipids. The present study suggests that treatment using glycation inhibitors like aminoguanidine or recombinant sRAGE will not only retard the diabetic complications, but may also have a prophylactic effect.
- The effect of MICA antigens on transplant outcomes: A systematic review. [Journal Article]
- J Evid Based Med 2011 May; 4(2):106-21.
Objective:Human major histocompatibility complex class I-related gene A (MICA) is reportedly associated with poor transplant outcomes and a high risk of acute and chronic rejection in solid organ transplantation. However, studies on these risks have found conflicting results. In order to identify areas in which additional research is needed, we have undertaken the first systematic review of evidence concerning the risk of anti-MICA antibodies in recipients' sera.
Methods:We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for original reports of clinical studies involving detection of MICA abs in transplant recipients' sera which used survival rate, acute rejection, and/or chronic rejection as outcome measures. RevMan 5.0.15 was used to calculate relative risk (RR), odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs).
Results:We found 18 relevant articles, with a total of 6,607 recipients. Follow-up duration ranged from 1 to 15 years. In studies with more than 2 years of follow-up, anti-MICA abs positive in kidney recipients' post-transplant sera was associated with a lower graft survival rate (4 years: RR = 2.04, 95%CI 1.30 to 3.22; 3 years: OR = 3.56, 95%CI 1.47 to 8.62; 2 years: RR = 2.17, 95%CI 1.09 to 4.31) and a higher acute rejection rate (RR = 1.92, 95%CI 1.27 to 2.91), but there was no clear association with chronic rejection. Similar conclusions could not be drawn for heart or liver transplantation due to possible confounding by anti-HLA abs and the small sample sizes of the available studies.
Conclusion:Anti-MICA antibodies in recipients' sera may associated with poor graft survival rates and high risk of acute and chronic rejection in solid organ transplantation, but more rigorous studies are needed to confirm or refute this relationship. Current immunosuppressive therapy may fail to suppress the harmful effect of MICA antigens.
- Cytogenetic Profile of de novo Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients in Malaysia. [Journal Article]
- Int J Biomed Sci 2013 Mar; 9(1):26-32.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease in terms of cytogenetics and molecular genetics. AML is the most common acute leukemia in adults and its incidence increases with age. Diagnostic cytogenetics is an important prognostic indicator for predicting outcome of AML. We examined the karyotypic patterns of 480 patients with de novo AML seen at government hospitals throughout the country and evaluated the association of chromosome aberrations with the age of patient. Chromosome abnormalities were detected in 146 (30.4%) patients. The most common cytogenetic abnormality was balanced translocation t (8; 21), followed by trisomy 8 (as sole abnormality) and t (15; 17). The age of our Malaysian patients at diagnosis ranged from four months to 81 years, with a median age of 39 years. The normal karyotype was found mainly in patients aged 15-30 years. About 75% of patients with t (8; 21) were below 40 years of age, and the complex karyotype was found with the highest frequently (34.3%) in elderly patients (age above 60 years). More than half of the patients with complex karyotype were above 50 years of age. The deletion 5q was detected only in patients aged above 50 years. Different cytogenetic abnormalities in AML show different frequencies with increasing age. Probably different genetic mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of AML and these mechanisms might occur at different frequencies over lifetime.
- Are mammal olfactory signals hiding right under our noses? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Naturwissenschaften 2013 May 15.
Chemical communication via olfactory semiochemicals plays a central role in the social behaviour and reproduction of mammals, but even after four decades of research, only a few mammal semiochemicals have been chemically characterized. Expectations that mammal chemical signals are coded by quantitative relationships among multiple components have persisted since the earliest studies of mammal semiochemistry, and continue to direct research strategies. Nonetheless, the chemistry of mammal excretions and secretions and the characteristics of those semiochemicals that have been identified show that mammal semiochemicals are as likely to be single compounds as to be mixtures, and are as likely to be coded by the presence and absence of chemical compounds as by their quantities. There is very scant support for the view that mammal semiochemicals code signals as specific ratios between components, and no evidence that they depend on a Gestalt or a chemical image. Of 31 semiochemicals whose chemical composition is known, 15 have a single component and 16 are coded by presence/absence, one may depend on a ratio between two compounds and none of them are chemical images. The expectation that mammal chemical signals have multiple components underpins the use of multivariate statistical analyses of chromatographic data, but the ways in which multivariate statistics are commonly used to search for active mixtures leads to single messenger compounds and signals that are sent by the presence and absence of compounds being overlooked. Research on mammal semiochemicals needs to accommodate the possibility that simple qualitative differences are no less likely than complex quantitative differences to encode chemical signals.