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- Streptococcal acute pharyngitis. [Journal Article]
- Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2014 Jul; 47(4):409-13.
Acute pharyngitis/tonsillitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the posterior pharynx and tonsils, is a common disease. Several viruses and bacteria can cause acute pharyngitis; however, Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as Lancefield group A β-hemolytic streptococci) is the only agent that requires an etiologic diagnosis and specific treatment. S. pyogenes is of major clinical importance because it can trigger post-infection systemic complications, acute rheumatic fever, and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Symptom onset in streptococcal infection is usually abrupt and includes intense sore throat, fever, chills, malaise, headache, tender enlarged anterior cervical lymph nodes, and pharyngeal or tonsillar exudate. Cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, and diarrhea are uncommon, and their presence suggests a viral cause. A diagnosis of pharyngitis is supported by the patient's history and by the physical examination. Throat culture is the gold standard for diagnosing streptococcus pharyngitis. However, it has been underused in public health services because of its low availability and because of the 1- to 2-day delay in obtaining results. Rapid antigen detection tests have been used to detect S. pyogenes directly from throat swabs within minutes. Clinical scoring systems have been developed to predict the risk of S. pyogenes infection. The most commonly used scoring system is the modified Centor score. Acute S. pyogenes pharyngitis is often a self-limiting disease. Penicillins are the first-choice treatment. For patients with penicillin allergy, cephalosporins can be an acceptable alternative, although primary hypersensitivity to cephalosporins can occur. Another drug option is the macrolides. Future perspectives to prevent streptococcal pharyngitis and post-infection systemic complications include the development of an anti-Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine.
- Changes in allergen sensitization over the last 30 years in Korea respiratory allergic patients: a single-center. [Journal Article]
- Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2014 Sep; 6(5):434-43.
Determining the culprit allergen is important for the diagnosis and management of allergic diseases. The skin prick test (SPT) has been widely used to identify culprit allergens. Skin reactivity to allergens has changed due to changes in lifestyle and outdoor environments. Therefore, the aim of the present paper was to examine changes in allergen sensitization in Korea.We enrolled 1,135 patients with respiratory allergic diseases who were diagnosed at Severance Hospital from January 2010 to December 2011. SPTs were performed with inhalant allergens, and were compared to our previous studies of the SPTs in the 1980s and the 1990s.In the 2010s, the SPT positive rate of allergic rhinitis or allergic conjunctivitis was higher than asthma without allergic rhinitis or allergic conjunctivitis. The SPT positive rate was decreased by increments of age (P value <0.01). Skin reactivity to tree pollens was significantly increased to 36.4% in the 2010s from 19.0% in the 1990s and 8.8% in the 1980s. Among tree pollens, skin reactivity to oak (4.7%->14.4%), birch (7.1%->13.6%), alder (6.3%->13.4%) and pine (2.9%->14.3%) was significantly increased in the 2010s compared with the 1990s, respectively. Current skin reactivity to grass pollens (13.9%) and weed pollens (27.0%) has significantly decreased since the 1990s (20.3%, 40.9%, respectively). Skin reactivity to house dust mites showed no difference between the 1990s (55.2%) and the 2010s (55.6%). Skin reactivity to dog (27.3%->20.7%) and cockroach (25.3%->12.3%) have significantly decreased in the 2010s in comparison with the 1990s.In light of the above results, we revealed the changes in skin reactivity to inhalant allergens that have occurred in Korean allergic patients over the past three decades. Since outdoor environmental factors such as the amount of pollen, global warming and plant distribution causes the changes in skin reactivity, further study and continuous close observation will be needed.
- Ocular Morbidity among Street Children in Kathmandu Valley. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2014 Sep 17.:1-6.
Abstract Purpose: Prevalence of ocular morbidity among street children is largely unknown. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ocular morbidity among street children in the Kathmandu Valley. Methods: A cross-sectional study consisting of an eye examination program among 569 street children aged younger than 18 years was conducted from March 2013 to February 2014. Children were included from 11 safe houses of 6 non-governmental organizations and an independent eye camp. Eye examination included visual acuity testing, anterior segment and posterior segment examination, retinoscopy and refraction, cover test, convergence, accommodation and color vision tests. Chi-square test was used to analyze the association of ocular morbidity with age, sex and living conditions. Results: The majority of children (43.8%) were in the age group of 12-15 years, and the male to female ratio was 3.9:1. Uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuity ≥6/9 in at least one eye was found in 89.8% and 99.4% of children, respectively. Total ocular morbidity was observed at 31.6%. The most common types of ocular morbidity were conjunctivitis (11.0%) and refractive error (11.6%). Ocular morbidity was more common in children over 15 years of age (40.9%; p < 0.01; odds ratio 1.8). Conclusions: Ocular infection and refractive error represent the most common ocular morbidities in street children in the Kathmandu Valley.
- Increased subsequent risk of myasthenia gravis in children with allergic diseases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neuroimmunol 2014 Sep 4.
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder that affects the neuromuscular junction. The initiating factors of MG remain unclear. However, allergy has been regarded as a potential risk factor. We included 410 children with MG diagnosed between 2000 and 2008, as well as 1640 randomly selected controls. The odds ratios of MG were calculated to determine the association between MG and preexisting allergic diseases. The children with allergic diseases were at increased subsequent risk of MG, which was associated with the cumulative effect of the concurrent allergic diseases and the frequency of seeking medical care.
- Evaluation of the relationship between Chlamydia pecorum sequence types and disease using a species-specific multi-locus sequence typing scheme (MLST). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Microbiol 2014 Aug 27.
Chlamydia pecorum is globally associated with several ovine diseases including keratoconjunctivitis and polyarthritis. The exact relationship between the variety of C. pecorum strains reported and the diseases described in sheep remains unclear, challenging efforts to accurately diagnose and manage infected flocks. In the present study, we applied C. pecorum multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to C. pecorum positive samples collected from sympatric flocks of Australian sheep presenting with conjunctivitis, conjunctivitis with polyarthritis, or polyarthritis only and with no clinical disease (NCD) in order to elucidate the exact relationships between the infecting strains and the range of diseases. Using Bayesian phylogenetic and cluster analyses on 62 C. pecorum positive ocular, vaginal and rectal swab samples from sheep presenting with a range of diseases and in a comparison to C. pecorum sequence types (STs) from other hosts, one ST (ST 23) was recognised as a globally distributed strain associated with ovine and bovine diseases such as polyarthritis and encephalomyelitis. A second ST (ST 69) presently only described in Australian animals, was detected in association with ovine as well as koala chlamydial infections. The majority of vaginal and rectal C. pecorum STs from animals with NCD and/or anatomical sites with no clinical signs of disease in diseased animals, clustered together in a separate group, by both analyses. Furthermore, 8/13 detected STs were novel. This study provides a platform for strain selection for further research into the pathogenic potential of C. pecorum in animals and highlights targets for potential strain-specific diagnostic test development.
- Short-term effects of airborne ragweed pollen on clinical symptoms of hay fever in a panel of 30 patients. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2014; 24(4):249-56.
Ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, is a highly allergenic annual herbaceous plant that is spreading quickly across the globe. Few studies have investigated the relationship between ragweed pollen counts and hay fever symptoms. We investigate the dose-response relationship between ragweed exposure in patients sensitized to ragweed and daily hay fever symptoms.A panel study was conducted among 31 adult patients sensitized to A artemisiifolia in France and Switzerland. Rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and bronchial symptoms were recorded daily, as well as daily pollen counts of ragweed, air pollutants, and meteorological data over 2 successive years. Data were analyzed with generalized estimating equation models to quantify effects of ragweed pollen whilst controlling for confounders.The relationship between ragweed pollen and the percentage of patients with nasal, ocular, and bronchial symptoms was linear. For every increase of 10 grains/m3, the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval) for nasal symptoms was, in 2009, 1.18 [1.04-1.35] on weekdays and 1.43 [1.16-1.75] at weekends, and in 2010, 1.04 [1.00-1.07] on weekdays and 1.25 [1.06-1.46] at weekends.The OR for ocular symptoms was 1.32 [1.16-1.56] in 2009 and 1.05 [1.02-1.07] in 2010. Finally, the OR for bronchial symptoms was 1.14 [1.03-1.25] in 2009 and 1.03 [0.97-1.08] in 2010.There is a statistically significant linear relationship between ragweed pollen counts and hay fever symptoms. Our study shows that nasal symptoms differ on weekdays and at weekends.
- Infection with Host-Range Mutant Adenovirus 5 Suppresses Innate Immunity and Induces Systemic CD4+ T Cell Activation in Rhesus Macaques. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(9):e106004.
Ad5 is a common cause of respiratory disease and an occasional cause of gastroenteritis and conjunctivitis, and seroconversion before adolescence is common in humans. To gain some insight into how Ad5 infection affects the immune system of rhesus macaques (RM) 18 RM were infected with a host-range mutant Ad5 (Ad5hr) by 3 mucosal inoculations. There was a delay of 2 to 6 weeks after the first inoculation before plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) frequency and function increased in peripheral blood. Primary Ad5hr infection suppressed IFN-γ mRNA expression, but the second Ad5hr exposure induced a rapid increase in IFN-gamma mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Primary Ad5hr infection suppressed CCL20, TNF and IL-1 mRNA expression in PBMC, and subsequent virus exposures further dampened expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines. Primary, but not secondary, Ad5hr inoculation increased the frequency of CXCR3+ CD4+ T cells in blood, while secondary, but not primary, Ad5hr infection transiently increased the frequencies of Ki67+, HLADR+ and CD95+/CCR5+ CD4+ T cells in blood. Ad5hr infection induced polyfunctional CD4 and CD8+ T cells specific for the Ad5 hexon protein in all of the animals. Thus, infection with Ad5hr induced a complex pattern of innate and adaptive immunity in RM that included transient systemic CD4+ T cell activation and suppressed innate immunity on re-exposure to the virus. The complex effects of adenovirus infection on the immune system may help to explain the unexpected results of testing Ad5 vector expressing HIV antigens in Ad5 seropositive people.
- Reactive Arthritis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2014 Sep 8.
Reactive arthritis (ReA) is an immune-mediated seronegative arthritis that belongs to the group of spondyloarthropathies and develops after a gastrointestinal or genitourinary system infection. The condition is considered to be characterized by a triad of symptoms (conjunctivitis, arthritis and urethritis) although a constellation of other manifestations may also be present. ReA is characterized by psoriasiform dermatological manifestations that may resemble those of pustular psoriasis and, similar to guttate psoriasis, is a post-infectious entity. Also, the articular manifestations of the disorder are similar to those of psoriatic arthritis and both conditions show a correlation with HLA-B27. These facts have led several authors to suggest that there is a connection between ReA and psoriasis, listing ReA among the disorders related to psoriasis. However, the pathogenetic mechanism behind the condition is complex and poorly understood. Bacterial antigenicity, the type of host response (i.e. Th1/Th2 imbalance) and various genetic factors (i.e. HLA-B27 etc.) play an important role in the development of the disorder. It is unknown whether all the aforementioned factors are part of a mechanism that could be similar to, or share basic aspects with known psoriasis pathogenesis mechanisms.
- A 5-year study of adenoviruses causing conjunctivitis in Izmir, Turkey. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Med Virol 2014 Sep 7.
Adenoviruses are a common cause of conjunctivitis. Genotypes are diverse and differ according to population and geographical distribution of the virus. There is limited data regarding ocular adenoviral infections and genotype distribution in Turkey. This study aimed to determine the adenovirus genotypes and their epidemiological features among patients with conjunctivitis between 2006 and 2010, in Izmir, Turkey. Adenoviral DNA was detected by PCR in 213 of 488 (44%) of the ocular samples collected from patients with viral conjunctivitis during the 5-year study period. Of these, 101 (47%) were randomly chosen and genotyped by sequence analysis. Seven genotypes were identified, including 3, 4, 8, 11, 19, 37, and 53. Genotype 8 and 4 were the dominant types detected in 67 (66.3%) and 25 (24.7%) of the samples, respectively. Other five genotypes (3, 11, 19, 37, 53) were detected in 9 (8.9%) samples. Genotype and seasonal differences observed throughout the study. Human adenoviruse (HAdV)-8 was the most frequent type, except 2008. The prevalence of genotype 4 increased starting from 2006, became dominant in 2008 and decreased in the following years. The peak season was mostly spring months, although it was possible to detect positive samples throughout the year. In conclusion, genotype 8 followed by genotype 4 was the most frequent adenoviral types causing conjunctivitis during the 5-year study period. Findings suggest that there is a slow shift between genotypes throughout the years. J. Med. Virol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Restoring conjunctival tolerance by topical nuclear factor-κB inhibitors reduces preservative-facilitated allergic conjunctivitis in mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2014 Sep 4.
Purpose: To evaluate the role of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation in eye drop preservative toxicity and the effect of topical NF-κB inhibitors on preservative-facilitated allergic conjunctivitis. Methods: Balb/c mice were instilled ovalbumin (OVA) combined with benzalkonium chloride (BAK) and/or NF-κB inhibitors in both eyes. After immunization, T cell responses and antigen-induced ocular inflammation were evaluated. NF-κB activation and associated inflammatory changes were also assessed in murine eyes and in an epithelial cell line after BAK exposure. Results: BAK promoted allergic inflammation and leukocyte infiltration of the conjunctiva. Topical NF-κB inhibitors blocked the disruptive effect of BAK on conjunctival immunological tolerance and ameliorated subsequent ocular allergic reactions. In line with these findings, BAK induced NF-κB activation and the secretion of interleukin 6 and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor in an epithelial cell line and in the conjunctiva of instilled mice. In addition, BAK favored major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II expression in cultured epithelial cells in an NF-κB-dependent fashion after interaction with T cells. Conclusion: BAK triggers conjunctival epithelial NF-κB activation, which seems to mediate some of its immune side effects, such as proinflammatory cytokine release and increased MHC II expression. Breakdown of conjunctival tolerance by BAK favors allergic inflammation, and this effect can be prevented in mice by topical NF-κB inhibitors. These results suggest a new pharmacological target for preservative toxicity and highlight the importance of conjunctival tolerance in ocular surface homeostasis.