- Potential Use of Cyclodextrin Complexes for Enhanced Stability, Anti-inflammatory Efficacy, and Ocular Bioavailability of Loteprednol Etabonate. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- AAPS PharmSciTech 2016 Jul 28.
Loteprednol etabonate (LE) is a soft corticosteroid that maintains therapeutic activity with much reduced adverse effects. Yet, its ocular bioavailability is hindered by its poor aqueous solubility. Early attempts of LE complexation with cyclodextrins (CDs) did not involve the study of the effects of various complexation methods on the characteristics of the complexes formed. Formulation of complexes into different delivery systems as well in vitro and in vivo assessments has not been accomplished in the earlier studies. In this study, complexation of LE with each of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) by kneading, freeze drying, and co-precipitation was attempted. These complexes were incorporated into gels, drops, and ocuserts using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), methylcellulose (MC), and sodium alginate (ALG). These formulae were examined with respect to drug content, pH, viscosity, in vitro release, and stability for 6 months. Kinetic analysis of release data was done. Selected formulations were assessed for their efficacy in the treatment of ocular allergic conjunctivitis and their ocular bioavailability in rabbits' eyes. All formulations exhibited accepted drug content, pH, and viscosity. The drug release was increased by complexation particularly with HP-β-CD in the order of ocuserts ≥ drops > gels, being the highest for HPMC preparations that also exhibited the greatest stability and anti-inflammatory activity especially in case of LE-HP-β-CD complexes. Ocuserts of co-precipitated LE-HP-β-CD using HPMC (5% w/w) and Carbopol 934P (0.1% w/w) provided a significantly enhanced stability (p < 0.05), ocular anti-inflammatory efficacy (p < 0.05), and ocular bioavailability (p < 0.0001), to be represented as a potential ocular delivery system of LE.
- Treating allergic conjunctivitis: A once-daily medication that provides 24-hour sympton relief. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Allergy Rhinol (Providence) 2016 Jul 26.
Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is a common ocular inflammatory manifestation of allergen exposure in sensitized individuals. Signs and symptoms of AC can decrease quality of life, interfere with productivity, and lead to considerable economic burden. Consistent suppression of conjunctival inflammation is necessary for managing AC, but currently available medications require frequent administration and exhibit limited duration of action.In this review, we summarized AC pathogenesis, diagnosis, and current treatment options as well as their limitations. Findings from the literature were discussed in the context of the unmet need for a once-daily medication with sustained 24-hour effectiveness.Topical pharmacologic treatments are the most common approach for managing extant AC; however, most available medications require multiple daily instillations. Dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizing agents are currently considered first-line therapeutics for AC because they provide acute relief of signs and symptoms and block persistent inflammation to promote regression of AC. Recent studies of a newly-developed, higher-concentration formulation of a dual-acting antihistamine- mast cell stabilizer have demonstrated that this formulation provides a 24-hour duration of action with once-daily dosing.Dual-acting AC medications exhibit a high degree of overall effectiveness and are well tolerated for chronic use. A newly available once-daily medication that manages signs and symptoms of AC for a full 24 hours may be considered a treatment of choice for patients experiencing seasonal or perennial AC. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01743027 and NCT01479374.
- Neonatal Orbital Abscess Secondary to Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Conjunctivitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016 Jul 21.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa conjunctivitis, although rare in healthy infants, may cause serious ocular and systemic complications. A 30-day-old, otherwise healthy male infant was referred with the diagnosis of right orbital abscess. The patient had been diagnosed as having Pseudomonas conjunctivitis 9 days previously at the referring center. Despite antibiotic treatment, his ocular findings had worsened and marked proptosis had developed. Other examination findings were ptosis, restriction of eye movements, periorbital erythema, and chemosis. Radiologic studies showed a large, homogenous mass with a thick capsule in the lateral retrobulbar orbit. The abscess was drained through a lateral orbitotomy. A culture of the abscess yielded P. aeruginosa. After surgery, the ocular findings improved rapidly without any complication. No other focus of infection or immune system abnormality was found. The patient did not experience any other significant disease during a follow up of 23 months.
- Therapeutical Management for Ocular Rosacea. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Ophthalmol 2016 Jan-Apr; 7(1):237-42.
The purpose of this study is to describe a case of ocular rosacea with a very complex evolution. Rosacea is a chronic dermatological disease that may affect the ocular structures up to 6-72% of all cases. This form is often misdiagnosed, which may lead to long inflammatory processes with important visual consequences for affected patients. Therefore, an early diagnosis and an adequate treatment are important.We report the case of a 43-year-old patient who had several relapses of what seemed an episode of acute bacterial conjunctivitis. Two weeks later, he developed a corneal ulcer with a torpid evolution including abundant intrastromal infiltrators and calcium deposits. He was diagnosed with ocular rosacea and treated with systemic doxycycline and topical protopic.A coating with amniotic membrane was placed in order to heal the ulcer, but a deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty to restore the patient's vision because of the corneal transparency loss was necessary.Ocular rosacea includes multiple ophthalmic manifestations ranging from inflammation of the eyelid margin and blepharitis to serious corneal affectations. A delayed diagnosis can result in chronic inflammatory conditions including keratinization and loss of corneal transparency, which lead to important visual sequelae for affected patients.
- Travel-Associated Zika Virus Disease Cases Among U.S. Residents - United States, January 2015–February 2016. [Journal Article]
- MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016; 65(11):286-9.
Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus. Recent outbreaks of Zika virus disease in the Pacific Islands and the Region of the Americas have identified new modes of transmission and clinical manifestations, including adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, data on the epidemiology and clinical findings of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease remain limited. During January 1, 2015–February 26, 2016, a total of 116 residents of 33 U.S. states and the District of Columbia had laboratory evidence of recent Zika virus infection based on testing performed at CDC. Cases included one congenital infection and 115 persons who reported recent travel to areas with active Zika virus transmission (n = 110) or sexual contact with such a traveler (n = 5). All 115 patients had clinical illness, with the most common signs and symptoms being rash (98%; n = 113), fever (82%; 94), and arthralgia (66%; 76). Health care providers should educate patients, particularly pregnant women, about the risks for, and measures to prevent, infection with Zika virus and other mosquito-borne viruses. Zika virus disease should be considered in patients with acute onset of fever, rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis, who traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission (http:// www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/index.html) or who had unprotected sex with a person who traveled to one of those areas and developed compatible symptoms within 2 weeks of returning.
- Component-resolved diagnostics in vernal conjunctivitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2016 Jul 22.
Conventional diagnostic tests in allergy are insufficient to clarify the cause of vernal conjunctivitis. Component-resolved diagnostic (CRD) by microarray allergen assay may be useful in detecting allergens that might be involved in the inflammatory process.In a recent trial in patients suffered from eosinophilic esophagitis, after 2 years of the CRD-guided exclusion diet and specific immunotherapy, significant clinical improvement was observed, and 68% of patients were discharged (cure based on negative biopsy, no symptoms, and no medication intake). Our new objective was to evaluate IgE-mediated hypersensitivity by CRD in tears and serum from patients with vernal conjunctivitis and treat patients with identified triggering allergens by specific immunotherapy. Twenty-five patients with vernal conjunctivitis were evaluated. The identified triggering allergens were n Lol p 1 (11 cases), n Cyn d 1 (eight cases), group 4 and 6 grasses (six cases) and group 5 of grasses (five cases). Prick test and pollen IgE were positive in one case. Clinical improvement was observed in 13/25 vernal conjunctivitis patients after 1-year specific immunotherapy.CRD seems to be a more sensitive diagnostic tool compared with prick test and IgE detection. Specific CRD-led immunotherapy may achieve clinical improvements in vernal conjunctivitis patients.
- Sublingual Immunotherapy for the Polyallergic Patient. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2016 Jul 21.
Allergen immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying treatment for allergic diseases. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in liquid and tablet form has been used by clinicians in Europe for years, but has only recently gained popularity and approval in the United States. In 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration approved 3 SLIT tablets for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, with or without allergic conjunctivitis. Immunotherapy treatment strategies for the polysensitized patient vary between the United States and Europe. This variation hinges upon whether the polysensitized patient is truly polyallergic. Polysensitization is the positive response to 2 or more allergens on skin prick testing or in vitro specific-IgE testing. Polyallergy is the symptomatic clinical response to 2 or more allergens. In this review, we discuss the use of SLIT in the United States with a focus on treating the polyallergic patient with SLIT.
- Paediatric Virology in the Hippocratic Corpus. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Ther Med 2016 Aug; 12(2):541-549.
Hippocrates (Island of Kos, 460 B.C.-Larissa, 370 B.C.) is the founder of the most famous Medical School of the classical antiquity. In acknowledgement of his pioneering contribution to the new scientific field of Paediatric Virology, this article provides a systematic analysis of the Hippocratic Corpus, with particular focus on viral infections predominating in neonates and children. A mumps epidemic, affecting the island of Thasos in the 5th century B.C., is described in detail. 'Herpes', a medical term derived from the ancient Greek word 'ἕρπειν', meaning 'to creep' or 'crawl', is used to describe the spreading of cutaneous lesions in both childhood and adulthood. Cases of children with exanthema 'resembling mosquito bites' are presented in reference to varicella or smallpox infection. A variety of upper and lower respiratory tract viral infections are described with impressive accuracy, including rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, bronchiolitis and bronchitis. The 'cough of Perinthos' epidemic, an influenza-like outbreak in the 5th century B.C., is also recorded and several cases complicated with pneumonia or fatal outcomes are discussed. Hippocrates, moreover, describes conjunctivitis, otitis, lymphadenitis, meningoencephalitis, febrile convulsions, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, poliomyelitis and skin warts, along with proposed treatment directions. Almost 2,400 years later, Hippocrates' systematic approach and methodical innovations can inspire paediatric trainees and future Paediatric Virology subspecialists.
- Pragmatic randomised controlled trial of an allergy intervention for children aged 6 to 16 with asthma and rhinitis in general practice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Exp Allergy 2016 Jul 20.
It is widely believed that for allergic rhinitis and asthma, avoidance of specific triggers can improve symptom control. Whilst many children with asthma or rhinitis are sensitised to airborne allergens, primary care diagnostic and management decisions are often made without a detailed history of the allergic triggers or allergy testing. Thus, treatment decisions are empirical and allergen avoidance advice is either not given or, if given, not tailored to the child's sensitivities.To ascertain whether allergy assessment and tailored advice in General Practice enhances outcomes of children with asthma and rhinitis.Pragmatic RCT of allergy intervention (structured allergy history, skin prick testing and appropriate allergy avoidance advice) versus usual care in children with asthma and/or rhino-conjunctivitis. A blinded observer assessed outcomes at 12 months. Main outcome measures were symptom scores and disease-specific health-related QoL. Secondary outcomes were health care utilisation, days unable to pursue usual activities, and self-rated improvement.335 participants were randomised to formal allergy assessment or normal care. There were no differences in participants' demographic or clinical characteristics at baseline (all p>.05). At 12 months, participants receiving the allergy intervention had fewer rhinitis symptoms (MD -3.14, 95% CI -6.01, -0.81) and an improvement in QoL (MD -0.50, 95% CI 0.32, 0.68). There were no significant changes in asthma symptoms, health care utilisation or number of days unable to pursue usual activities.Amongst children with known asthma and/or rhinitis in primary care, taking a structured allergy history with skin prick testing and tailored advice on allergy avoidance resulted in reduced symptoms of rhinitis and improved QoL This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.