- Exposure to phthalates in house dust and associated allergies in children aged 6-12years. [Journal Article]
- EIEnviron Int 2016; 96:16-23
- Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in household products. Several studies have reported an association between phthalate exposure and an increased risk of allergies. The present study estimat...
Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in household products. Several studies have reported an association between phthalate exposure and an increased risk of allergies. The present study estimated phthalate exposure in children aged 6-12years and assessed potential correlations with allergies. House dust samples were collected from floors and multi-surface objects >35cm above the floor. Urine samples were collected from the first morning void of the day. Daily phthalate intake (DIdust and DI) was estimated using both house dust and urinary metabolite concentrations. Exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in floor dust was associated with parental-reported rhino-conjunctivitis. After stratification by gender, this trend was found to only occur in boys. Furthermore, urinary mono-isobutyl phthalate was inversely associated with parental-reported wheeze in boys. DIdust of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBzP) and DEHP were significantly correlated with DI_BBzP and DI_DEHP, respectively. These correlations were stronger with floor than with multi-surface dust. Our results suggest that, among Japanese children, house dust from low surfaces, such as living room floors, might play a meaningful role in the indoor environmental exposure pathway for BBzP and DEHP.
- Fatty acid microemulsion for the treatment of neonatal conjunctivitis: quantification, characterisation and evaluation of antimicrobial activity. [Journal Article]
- DDDrug Deliv Transl Res 2016 Oct 20
- Fatty acids (FAs) are used by many organisms as defence mechanism against virulent bacteria. The high safety profile and broad spectrum of activity make them potential alternatives to currently used ...
Fatty acids (FAs) are used by many organisms as defence mechanism against virulent bacteria. The high safety profile and broad spectrum of activity make them potential alternatives to currently used topical antibiotics for the treatment of eye infections in neonates. The current study utilised a Design of Experiment approach to optimise the quantification of five fatty acids namely; lauric acid, tridecanoic acid, myristoleic acid, palmitoleic acid and α-linolenic acid. The significance of the influence of the experimental parameters such as volume of catalyst, volume of n-hexane, incubation temperature, incubation time and the number of extraction steps on derivatisation was established by statistical screening with a factorial approach. Derivatisation was confirmed using attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR) and 1H NMR spectrum. A gas chromatographic method (GC-FID) was developed and validated according to ICH guidelines for the identification and quantification of fatty acids. The results were found to be linear over the concentration range studied with coefficient of variation greater than 0.99 and high recovery values and low intra-day and inter-day variation values for all FAs. Then, different α-linolenic acid-based microemulsions (MEs) were prepared using Tween 80 as surfactant, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) as co surfactant and water as aqueous phase. The developed GC method was used to quantify the FA content in ME formulations. The results indicated that the developed GC method is very effective to quantify the FA content in the ME formulations. The antimicrobial efficacy of FA-based MEs were tested against Staphylococcus aureus. It was concluded that the FA-based MEs have strong antimicrobial effect against S. aureus.
- [Epidemiological and clinical aspects of tropical endemic limbo-conjunctivitis in students in Yaoundé]. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Fr Ophtalmol 2016 Oct 17
- CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of TELC observed in school in this study is significant.
- Dynamic modelling of strategies for the control of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis outbreaks in schools in Changsha, China (2004-2015). [Journal Article]
- EIEpidemiol Infect 2016 Oct 19; :1-11
- Outbreaks of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) - a rapidly progressing and highly contagious infection - often occur in schools during summer and autumn. We used dynamic modelling to evaluate t...
Outbreaks of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) - a rapidly progressing and highly contagious infection - often occur in schools during summer and autumn. We used dynamic modelling to evaluate the efficacy of interventions to control AHC outbreaks in schools. A susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model was built to simulate AHC outbreaks in Chinese schools, with isolation or school closure added into the model. We used outbreak data from the period 2004-2015 in our models to estimate the effective reproduction number and assess the efficacy of interventions. The median effective reproduction number (uncontrolled) of AHC outbreaks was 7·00 (range 1·77-25·87). The median effective reproduction number (controlled) of AHC outbreaks was 0·16 (range 0·00-2·28). Intervention efficacy is affected by the timing of isolation; earlier isolation is associated with a lower morbidity peak and smaller total attack rate (TAR). School closures were not effective; TARs were almost 100% and did not change even when different school closure durations were adopted. Isolation and school closure as a combined intervention strategy was used to simulate outbreak control, but the efficacy was the same as isolation alone. An isolation programme could be an effective primary intervention during AHC outbreaks in schools. However, school closure is not recommended.
- Comparison of early and late intravenous gamma globulin treatment of Kawasaki disease on fever and cardiovascular complications. [Journal Article]
- CJCaspian J Intern Med 2016; 7(3):211-216
- CONCLUSIONS: Result shows that most of patients (99%) responded to the treatment with IVIG and ASA and cardiovascular complication ratio decreased. There was not significant relationship between duration of fever and time of IVIG treatment initiation.
- Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis epidemic in São Paulo State, Brazil, 2011. [Journal Article]
- RPRev Panam Salud Publica 2016; 39(2):137-141
- Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) infection is highly contagious and can lead to explosive epidemics. In early February 2011, the Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance of the State of São Paulo ...
Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) infection is highly contagious and can lead to explosive epidemics. In early February 2011, the Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance of the State of São Paulo Health Secretariat (SES-SP) in Brazil received reports of conjunctivitis outbreaks from rural areas of the state that subsequently spread statewide. This report describes that AHC epidemic and its etiologic agent. Data from the Ministry of Health Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SinanNet) and the SES-SP epidemiologic surveillance system for conjunctivitis, developed to detect outbreaks, confirm the etiologic agent, and carry out control measures, were analyzed. Eye (conjunctival swab) samples were taken from patients with clinical presentation of viral conjunctivitis to perform viral laboratory diagnosis. A total of 1 067 981 conjunctivitis cases were reported to the surveillance system for 2011; there was an increase in the number of cases in epidemiologic weeks 6-26 (summer season) versus previous years. Most cases occurred in the metropolitan region of Greater São Paulo. Of 93 collected samples, 57 tested positive for coxsackievirus-A24 (CV-A24), based on virus isolation in tissue-culture cell lines, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and enterovirus sequencing of RT-PCR. The data analysis showed that the fast-spreading etiologic agent of the AHC epidemic that occurred in the summer of 2011 was CV-A24. The AHC epidemic was due to an enterovirus that occurred sporadically, spread rapidly and with great magnitude, and had substantial socioeconomic impact due to the high level of absenteeism at work and school.
- The Immune Response in Measles: Virus Control, Clearance and Protective Immunity. [Review]
- VViruses 2016 Oct 12; 8(10)
- Measles is an acute systemic viral infection with immune system interactions that play essential roles in multiple stages of infection and disease. Measles virus (MeV) infection does not induce type ...
Measles is an acute systemic viral infection with immune system interactions that play essential roles in multiple stages of infection and disease. Measles virus (MeV) infection does not induce type 1 interferons, but leads to production of cytokines and chemokines associated with nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) signaling and activation of the NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein (NLRP3) inflammasome. This restricted response allows extensive virus replication and spread during a clinically silent latent period of 10-14 days. The first appearance of the disease is a 2-3 day prodrome of fever, runny nose, cough, and conjunctivitis that is followed by a characteristic maculopapular rash that spreads from the face and trunk to the extremities. The rash is a manifestation of the MeV-specific type 1 CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cell adaptive immune response with lymphocyte infiltration into tissue sites of MeV replication and coincides with clearance of infectious virus. However, clearance of viral RNA from blood and tissues occurs over weeks to months after resolution of the rash and is associated with a period of immunosuppression. However, during viral RNA clearance, MeV-specific antibody also matures in type and avidity and T cell functions evolve from type 1 to type 2 and 17 responses that promote B cell development. Recovery is associated with sustained levels of neutralizing antibody and life-long protective immunity.
- Ebola virus disease and the eye. [Journal Article]
- COCurr Opin Ophthalmol 2016; 27(6):538-544
- CONCLUSIONS: This epidemic has brought to surface the spectrum of medical complications in EVD survivors with ophthalmic disease being one of the most critical because of its impact on individual functional status and its long-term economic implications. Future studies and programs are needed to appropriately evaluate the spectrum of ophthalmic disease in this at-risk population.
- Ophthalmic effects of petroleum dispersant exposure on common murres (Uria aalge): An experimental study. [Journal Article]
- MPMar Pollut Bull 2016 Oct 12
- The safety of chemical dispersants used during oil spill responses is largely unknown in birds. We captured common murres in Monterey Bay, CA and exposed them to Corexit EC9500a, crude oil, or a comb...
The safety of chemical dispersants used during oil spill responses is largely unknown in birds. We captured common murres in Monterey Bay, CA and exposed them to Corexit EC9500a, crude oil, or a combination in artificial seawater. We performed ophthalmic examinations and measured intraocular pressures and tear production before and after exposure. Loglinear analysis found that exposure to oil or dispersant was related to the development of conjunctivitis and corneal ulcers. Odds ratios for birds exposed to oil or dispersant were positive and significant for the development of conjunctivitis, while odds ratios for the development of corneal ulcers were positive and significant only for birds exposed to a high concentration of oil. Ocular exposure to dispersants and petroleum in seabirds may cause conjunctivitis and may play a role in the development of corneal ulcers. These results have implications for policymakers who develop protocols for the use of dispersants during marine oil spills.
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- Prevalence of Ocular Manifestations and Visual Outcomes in Patients With Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus. [Journal Article]
- CCornea 2016 Oct 12
- CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of patients with HZO were <60 years old in this study. The absence of zoster vaccination across the study cohort was noteworthy. Keratitis was the main reason for poor visual outcome in these patients.