- Conjunctival Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease in Adult Patients Receiving Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Cohort Study. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2016; 11(11):e0167129
- CONCLUSIONS: The severity of conjunctival aGVHD is correlated with systemic aGVHD, but not with inferior overall survival.
- Neurological manifestations of Chikungunya and Zika infections. [Journal Article]
- ANArq Neuropsiquiatr 2016; 74(11):937-943
- The epidemics of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been considered the most important epidemiological occurrences in the Americas. The clinical picture of CHIKV infectio...
The epidemics of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been considered the most important epidemiological occurrences in the Americas. The clinical picture of CHIKV infection is characterized by high fever, exanthema, myalgia, headaches, and arthralgia. Besides the typical clinical picture of CHIKV, atypical manifestations of neurological complications have been reported: meningo-encephalitis, meningoencephalo-myeloradiculitis, myeloradiculitis, myelitis, myeloneuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome and others. The diagnosis is based on clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory criteria. The most common symptoms of ZIKV infection are skin rash (mostly maculopapular), fever, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, and conjunctivitis. Some epidemics that have recently occurred in French Polynesia and Brazil, reported the most severe conditions, with involvement of the nervous system (Guillain-Barré syndrome, transverse myelitis, microcephaly and meningitis). The treatment for ZIKV and CHIKV infections are symptomatic and the management for neurological complications depends on the type of affliction. Intravenous immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis, and corticosteroid pulse therapy are options.
- Clinical Usefulness of Simultaneous Measurement of the Tear Levels of CCL17, CCL24, and IL-16 for the Biomarkers of Allergic Conjunctival Disorders. [Journal Article]
- CECurr Eye Res 2016 Nov 29; :1-8
- CONCLUSIONS: Simultaneous measurement of the tear levels of CCL17/TARC, CCL24/eotaxin-2, and IL-16 may be a useful test for assessing acute and chronic allergic inflammation in ACDs.
- Selective Pressure Promotes Tetracycline Resistance of Chlamydia Suis in Fattening Pigs. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2016; 11(11):e0166917
- In pigs, Chlamydia suis has been associated with respiratory disease, diarrhea and conjunctivitis, but there is a high rate of inapparent C. suis infection found in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs...
In pigs, Chlamydia suis has been associated with respiratory disease, diarrhea and conjunctivitis, but there is a high rate of inapparent C. suis infection found in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Tetracycline resistance in C. suis has been described in the USA, Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, Cyprus and Israel. Tetracyclines are commonly used in pig production due to their broad-spectrum activity and relatively low cost. The aim of this study was to isolate clinical C. suis samples in cell culture and to evaluate their antibiotic susceptibility in vitro under consideration of antibiotic treatment on herd level. Swab samples (n = 158) identified as C. suis originating from 24 farms were further processed for isolation, which was successful in 71% of attempts with a significantly higher success rate from fecal swabs compared to conjunctival swabs. The farms were divided into three treatment groups: A) farms without antibiotic treatment, B) farms with prophylactic oral antibiotic treatment of the whole herd consisting of trimethoprime, sulfadimidin and sulfathiazole (TSS), or C) farms giving herd treatment with chlortetracycline with or without tylosin and sulfadimidin (CTS). 59 isolates and their corresponding clinical samples were selected and tested for the presence or absence of the tetracycline resistance class C gene [tet(C)] by conventional PCR and isolates were further investigated for their antibiotic susceptibility in vitro. The phenotype of the investigated isolates was either classified as tetracycline sensitive (Minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] < 2 μg/ml), intermediate (2 μg/ml ≤ MIC < 4 μg/ml) or resistant (MIC ≥ 4 μg/ml). Results of groups and individual pigs were correlated with antibiotic treatment and time of sampling (beginning/end of the fattening period). We found clear evidence for selective pressure as absence of antibiotics led to isolation of only tetracycline sensitive or intermediate strains whereas tetracycline treatment resulted in a greater number of tetracycline resistant isolates.
- Analysis of Synonymous Codon Usage Bias of Zika Virus and Its Adaption to the Hosts. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2016; 11(11):e0166260
- Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus (arbovirus) in the family Flaviviridae, and the symptoms caused by ZIKV infection in humans include rash, fever, arthralgia, myalgia, asthenia and conjunct...
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus (arbovirus) in the family Flaviviridae, and the symptoms caused by ZIKV infection in humans include rash, fever, arthralgia, myalgia, asthenia and conjunctivitis. Codon usage bias analysis can reveal much about the molecular evolution and host adaption of ZIKV. To gain insight into the evolutionary characteristics of ZIKV, we performed a comprehensive analysis on the codon usage pattern in 46 ZIKV strains by calculating the effective number of codons (ENc), codon adaptation index (CAI), relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU), and other indicators. The results indicate that the codon usage bias of ZIKV is relatively low. Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that translational selection plays a role in shaping the codon usage pattern of ZIKV. The results from a correspondence analysis (CA) indicate that other factors, such as base composition, aromaticity, and hydrophobicity may also be involved in shaping the codon usage pattern of ZIKV. Additionally, the results from a comparative analysis of RSCU between ZIKV and its hosts suggest that ZIKV tends to evolve codon usage patterns that are comparable to those of its hosts. Moreover, selection pressure from Homo sapiens on the ZIKV RSCU patterns was found to be dominant compared with that from Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Taken together, both natural translational selection and mutation pressure are important for shaping the codon usage pattern of ZIKV. Our findings contribute to understanding the evolution of ZIKV and its adaption to its hosts.
- Zika Virus-What the Otolaryngologist Should Know: A Review. [Journal Article]
- JOJAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2016 Nov 17
- CONCLUSIONS: The future outlook regarding the current Zika virus outbreak in the Americas remains uncertain. What is certain is our need to promptly and efficiently address research gaps in our understanding of clinical outcomes from infection and environmental factors that influence emergence meanwhile improving diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive measures against the disease.
- Estimate of the total costs of allergic rhinitis in specialized care based on real-world data: the FERIN Study. [Journal Article]
- AAllergy 2016 Nov 25
- CONCLUSIONS: The total cost of AR for society is considerable. Greater frequency of symptoms and more severe AR are associated with higher costs. Indirect costs are almost 3-fold direct costs, especially in presenteeism. A reduction in presenteeism would generate considerable savings for society. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- CLINICAL EFFICACY OF SUBLINGUAL IMMUNOTHERAPY IN THE SECOND TREATED YEAR FOR 133 PATIENTS WITH JAPANESE CEDAR POLLINOSIS IN 2016. [Journal Article]
- AArerugi 2016; 65(9):1209-1218
- CONCLUSIONS: SLIT in the second treated year showed good clinical efficacy in reducing symptoms and SMS of JCP, and in improving QOL. SLIT was significantly effective compaired with other pharmacotherapies.
- Suppression of Adenovirus Replication by Cardiotonic Steroids. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Virol 2016 Nov 23
- The dependence of adenovirus on the host pre-RNA splicing machinery for expression of its complete genome, potentially makes it vulnerable to modulators of RNA splicing, such as digoxin and digitoxin...
The dependence of adenovirus on the host pre-RNA splicing machinery for expression of its complete genome, potentially makes it vulnerable to modulators of RNA splicing, such as digoxin and digitoxin. Both drugs reduced the yield of four adenoviruses (HAdV-A31, B35, C5 and a species D conjunctivitis isolate) by at least 2- 3 logs by affecting one or more steps needed for genome replication. Immediate early E1A protein levels are unaffected by the drugs, but synthesis of the delayed protein E4orf6 and the major late capsid protein, hexon, are compromised. qRT-PCR analyses revealed that both drugs altered E1A RNA splicing (favouring the production of 13S over 12S RNA) early in infection and partially blocked the transition from 12S and 13S to 9S RNA at late stages of virus replication. Expression of multiple late viral protein mRNAs was lost in the presence of either drug, consistent with the observed block in viral DNA replication. The antiviral effect was dependent on continued presence of the drug and rapidly reversible. RIDK34, a derivative of convallotoxin, although, having more potent antiviral activity, did not show an improved selectivity index. All three drugs reduced metabolic activity to some degree without evidence of cell death. By blocking adenovirus replication at one or more steps beyond the onset of E1A expression and prior to genome replication, digoxin and digitoxin show potential as antiviral agents for treatment of serious adenovirus infections. Furthermore, understanding the mechanism(s) by which digoxin/digitoxin inhibit adenovirus replication will guide the development of novel antiviral therapies.
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- Clinical utility of antimicrobial susceptibility measurement plate covering formulated concentrations of various ophthalmic antimicrobial drugs. [Journal Article]
- COClin Ophthalmol 2016; 10:2251-2257
- CONCLUSIONS: SG17 can be used to determine drug susceptibility to antimicrobial agents currently used in ophthalmic practice. SG17 is useful for selecting antimicrobial drugs.