- Dyspepsia and constipation in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nord J Psychiatry 2016 Aug 26.:1-7.
Constipation and dyspepsia are disturbing gastrointestinal symptoms that are often ignored in research on physical comorbidities of schizophrenia. The aim was to assess dyspepsia and constipation in a sample of outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum psychoses. A general practitioner performed a thorough physical health check for 275 outpatients and diagnosed constipation and dyspepsia. This study assessed the possible contribution of several sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical variables to constipation and dyspepsia using logistic regression analysis. This study also assessed whether these symptoms were associated with abnormal laboratory findings. The prevalence of constipation was 31.3%, and of dyspepsia 23.6%. Paracetamol (OR =3.07, 95% CI =1.34-7.02) and clozapine use (OR =5.48, 95% CI =2.75-10.90), older age (OR =1.04, 95% CI =1.01-1.06), and living in sheltered housing (OR =2.49, 95% CI =1.16-5.33) were risk factors for constipation. For dyspepsia the risk factors were female sex (OR =2.10, 95% CI =1.15-3.83), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (OR =2.47, 95% CI =1.13-5.39), and diabetes medication (OR =2.42, 95% CI =1.12-5.25). Patients with dyspepsia had lower haemoglobin and haematocrit and higher glucose values than those without dyspepsia. Patients with constipation had lower thrombocyte values than patients without constipation. However, these findings were explained by factors pre-disposing to constipation and dyspepsia. Clozapine use markedly increases the risk of constipation and may lead to life-threatening complications. In addition, analgesics and diabetes medication were related to gastrointestinal symptoms. These medications and their association to gastrointestinal symptoms should be kept in mind when treating patients with schizophrenia.
- Enuresis and overactive bladder in children: what is the relationship between these two conditions? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Braz J Urol 2016 Jul-Aug; 42(4):798-802.
Evaluate clinical aspects associated with the presence of nocturnal enuresis (NE) in children with a diagnosis of overactive bladder (OAB).A data base of 200 children who were evaluated by a structured questionnaire was analysed retrospectively . OAB was defined as the presence of urinary urgency (n=183 cases) and/or daytime urinary incontinence associated with holding maneuvers (n=168 cases). Inclusion criteria were a confirmed diagnosis of OAB, age 5-16 years, and no anatomical or neurological alterations of the urinary tract. Patients were divided into enuretics and non-enuretics. The two groups were compared with respect to sex, age, skin color, presence urinary infection, urgency, urge incontinence, non-urge incontinence, pollakiuria, urinary dysfunction, nocturia, holding maneuvers, number of episodes of enuresis and bowel alterations. In a univariate analysis, the chi-square test was used to compare proportions, with p-values <0.05 being considered significant. A multivariate analysis was conducted to identify independent predictive factors.Enuresis was diagnosed in 141/200 children. The two groups were similar with respect to sex, age and skin color. No difference was found in relation to urinary infection, non-urge incontinence, urinary dysfunction, nocturia, encopresis or constipation. The two groups were significantly different with regard to some symptoms related to OAB such as urgency (p=0.001), urge incontinency (p=0.001) and holding maneuvers (p=0.033). Following multivariate analysis, only holding maneuvers (p=0.022) remained as an independent predictive factor.The only independent predictive factor for resolution of enuresis in children with OAB, as detected in the multivariate analysis, was holding maneuvers.
- Small bowel obstruction in the virgin abdomen: time to challenge surgical dogma with evidence. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- ANZ J Surg 2016 Aug 25.
Although adhesions account for more than 70% of small bowel obstruction (SBO), they are thought to be less likely aetiologies in patients without previous abdominal surgery. Expedient surgery has historically been advocated as prudent management in these patients. Emerging evidence appears to challenge such a dogmatic approach.A retrospective analysis was performed in all SBO patients with a virgin abdomen admitted between January 2012 and August 2014. Patients with obstruction secondary to abdominal wall hernias were excluded. Patient demographics, clinical presentation, management strategy and pathology involved were reviewed.A total of 72 patients were included in the study. The majority of patients were males (66.7%), with a median age of 58 years (range: 23-101). Abdominal pain (97%) and vomiting (86%) were the most common presentations while abdominal distention (60%) and constipation (25%) were reported less frequently. Adhesions accounted for the underlying cause in 44 (62%) patients. Other aetiologies included gallstone ileus (n = 5), phytobezoar (n = 5), intussusception (n = 4), internal herniation (n = 4), newly diagnosed small bowel tumour (n = 3), mesenteric volvulus (n = 3), stricture (n = 3) and Meckel's diverticulum (n = 1). Twenty-nine (40%) patients were successfully managed conservatively while the remaining 43 (60%) underwent surgery. The intraoperative findings were in concordance with the preoperative computed tomography scan in 76% of cases.Adhesions remain prevalent despite the absence of previous abdominal surgery. Non-operative management is feasible for SBO in a virgin abdomen. Computed tomography scan can be a useful adjunct in discerning patients who may be treated non-operatively by elucidating the underlying cause of obstruction.
- Prevalence of celiac disease in first-degree relative of children in Sistan and Baluchestan province (Iran). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Dig Dis 2016 Aug 25.
First-degree relatives of children with celiac are more at risk of acquiring the disease.To determine the prevalence of elevated celiac antibodies and histological changes of celiac disease (CD) on intestinal biopsies, among first degree relatives (FDR) of Iranian children with known CD and to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of affected FDR.FDR of 119 patients with CD at Iran were tested for TTG IgA and IgA level. Endoscopy and duodenal biopsy was recommended to those with elevated TTG IgA antibodies. Demographic and clinical features of all CD patients were recorded.480 FDR (52.7% females) participated in the study. 63 had an elevated TTG IgA and 44 consented to undergo endoscopy with biopsies. Histology revealed Marsh 0 in 6, Marsh I in 7, Marsh II in 4 and Marsh III in 27. Siblings accounted for the majority of those with Marsh II or III changes (26/31). Prevalence of TTG IgA positivity among FDR was 13.7% and for biopsy confirmed CD (Marsh II and III) was 6.4%. The majority of FDR with CD had symptoms with the most common being abdominal pain (45%) followed by musculoskeletal pain (35%) and constipation (26%). FDR with Marsh III changes had significantly higher levels of TTG-IgA.This study confirms the prevalence of CD in FDR in Iran is much higher than in the general population (6.4% vs. 0.5-0.6%). Testing should be considered for all FDR of Iranian patients with known CD and in particular in symptomatic cases.
- Integration of Early Specialist Palliative Care in Cancer Care: Survey of Oncologists, Oncology Nurses, and Patients. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Palliat Care 2016 Jul-Sep; 22(3):258-65.
Palliative care is usually delivered late in the course of illness trajectory. This precludes patients on active disease modifying treatment from receiving the benefit of palliative care intervention. A survey was conducted to know the opinion of oncologists, oncology nurses, and patients about the role of early specialist palliative care in cancer.A nonrandomized descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary cancer care center in India. Thirty oncologists, sixty oncology nurses, and sixty patients were surveyed.Improvement in symptom control was appreciated by oncologists, oncology nurses, and patients with respect to pain (Z = -4.10, P = 0.001), (Z = -5.84, P = 0.001), (Z = -6.20, P = 0.001); nausea and vomiting (Z = -3.75, P = 0.001), (Z = -5.3, P = 0.001), (Z = -5.1, P = 0.001); constipation (Z = -3.29, P = 0.001), (Z = -4.96, P = 0.001), (Z = -4.49, P = 0.001); breathlessness (Z = -3.57, P = 0.001), (Z = -5.03, P = 0.001), (Z = -4.99, P = 0.001); and restlessness (Z = -3.68, P = 0.001), (Z = -5.23, P = 0.001), (Z = -3.22, P = 0.001). Improvement in end-of-life care management was appreciated by oncologists and oncology nurses with respect to communication of prognosis (Z = -4.04, P = 0.001), (Z = -5.20, P = 0.001); discussion on limitation of life-sustaining treatment (Z = -3.68, P = 0.001), (Z = -4.53, P = 0.001); end-of-life symptom management (Z = -4.17, P = 0.001), (Z = -4.59, P = 0.001); perimortem care (Z = -3.86, P = 0.001), (Z = -4.80, P = 0.001); and bereavement support (Z = -3-80, P = 0.001), (Z = -4.95, P = 0.001). Improvement in health-related communication was appreciated by oncologists, oncology nurses, and patients with respect to communicating health related information in a sensitive manner (Z = -3.74, P = 0.001), (Z = -5.47, P = 0.001), (Z = -6.12, P = 0.001); conducting family meeting (Z = -3.12, P = 0.002), (Z = -4.60, P = 0.001), (Z = -5.90, P = 0.001); discussing goals of care (Z = -3.43, P = 0.001), (Z = -5.49, P = 0.001), (Z = -5.61, P = 0.001); maintaining hope (Z = -3.22, P = 0.001), (Z = -4.85, P = 0.001), (Z = -5.61, P = 0.001); and resolution of conflict (Z = -3.56, P = 0.001), (Z = -5.29, P = 0.001), (Z = -5.28, P = 0.001). Patients appreciated improvement in continuity of care with respect to discharge planning (Z = -6.12, P = 0.001), optimal supply of essential symptom control medications on discharge (Z = -6.32, P = 0.001), follow-up plan (Z = -6.40, P = 0.001), after hours telephonic support (Z = -6.31, P = 0.001), and preferred place of care (Z = -6.28, P = 0.001).Oncologists, oncology nurses, and patients felt that integration of early specialist palliative care in cancer improves symptom control, end-of-life care, health-related communication, and continuity of care. The perceptions of benefit of the palliative care intervention in the components surveyed, differed among the three groups.
- Costs associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders and related signs and symptoms in infants: a systematic review protocol. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Open 2016; 6(8):e011475.
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) and FGID-related signs and symptoms have a fundamental impact on the psychosocial, physical and mental well-being of infants and their parents alike. Recent reviews and studies have indicated that FGIDs and related signs and symptoms may also have a substantial impact on the budgets of third-party payers and/or parents. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate these costs.The population of interest is healthy term infants (under 12 months of age) with colic, regurgitation and/or functional constipation. Outcomes of interest will include the frequency and volume of reported treatments, the cost to third-party payers and/or parents for prescribed or over the counter treatments, visits to health professionals and changes in infant formula purchases, and the loss of income through time taken off work and out of pocket costs. Relevant studies will be identified by searching databases from 2005 onwards (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, NEXIS, DARE, Health Technology Assessment database, National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database and others), conferences from the previous 3 years and scanning reference lists of eligible studies. Study selection, data extraction and quality assessment will be conducted by two independent reviewers and disagreements resolved in discussion with a third reviewer. Quality assessment will involve study design-specific checklists. Relevant studies will be summarised narratively and presented in tables. An overview of treatments and costs will be provided, with any geographical or other differences highlighted. An assessment of how the totals for cost differ across countries and elements that contribute to the differences will be generated.This is a systematic review of published studies that will be submitted for publication to a peer-reviewed journal. Ethical committee approval is not required.CRD42016033119.
- Rare Presentation of Gastroesophageal Carcinoma with Rectal Metastasis: A Case Report. [Journal Article]
- Am J Case Rep 2016.:611-5.
BACKGROUNDGastroesophageal cancers, previously considered rare, are rapidly increasing worldwide. We present here a unique case of gastroesophageal carcinoma with metastasis to the rectum. CASE REPORT A 60-year-old female patient presented with constipation, bloating, and weight loss of 4-month duration. She had undergone sleeve gastrectomy 6 years before. Endoscopies performed revealed a friable-looking mucosa in the lower esophagus and a polypoid rectal mass. Histopathological examination from both the esophageal and rectal lesions revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cells. Immunohistochemistry stain from both specimens was positive for CK7 supporting the gastric site primary with metastasis to the rectum. Further evaluation also revealed metastasis to bone and malignant pleural effusion. Chemotherapy with palliative intent was initiated.
CONCLUSIONSColorectal metastasis is commonly seen from cancers of the breast, stomach, melanoma, kidney, prostate, and ovaries. However, colorectal metastasis from gastroesophageal cancer has never been reported in the medical literature. Diagnosis relies on histopathologic examination and immunohistochemical staining of the tumor. Treatment depends on the tumor stage. Tumors with widespread metastatic disease are candidates for palliative chemotherapy.
- [Incontinence - Etiology, diagnostics and Therapy]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2016 Aug; 141(17):1251-60.
Fecal incontinence is defined by the unintentional loss of solid or liquid stool, and anal incontinence includes leakage of gas and / or fecal incontinence. Anal-fecal incontinence is not a diagnosis but a symptom. Many patients hide the problem from their families, friends, and even their doctors. Epidemiologic studies indicate a prevalence between 7-15 %, up to 30 % in hospitals and up to 70 % in longterm care settings. Anal-fecal incontinence causes a significant socio-economic burden. There is no widely accepted approach for classifying anal-fecal incontinence available. Anal-fecal continence is maintained by anatomical factors, rectoanal sensation, and rectal compliance. The diagnostic approach comprises muscle and nerve injuries by iatrogenic, obstetric or surgical trauma, descending pelvic floor or associated diseases. A basic diagnostic workup is sufficient to characterize the different manifestations of fecal incontinence in most of the cases. This includes patient history with a daily stool protocol and digital rectal investigation. Additional investigations may include anorectal manometry, anal sphincter EMG, conduction velocity of the pudendal nerve, needle EMG, barostat investigation, defecography and the dynamic MRI. Therapeutic interventions are focused on the individual symptoms and should be provided in close cooperation with gastroenterologists, surgeons, gynecologists, urologists, physiotherapeutics and psychologists (nutritional-training, food fibre content, pharmacological treatment of diarrhea/constipation, toilet training, pelvic floor gymnastic, anal sphincter training, biofeedback). Surgical therapy includes the STARR operation for rectoanal prolapse and sacral nerve stimulation for chronic constipation and anal-fecal incontinence. Surgery should not be applied unless the diagnostic work-up is complete and all conservative treatment options failed.
- Mitragynine/corynantheidine pseudoindoxyls as opioid analgesics with mu agonism and delta antagonism which do not recruit β-arrestin-2. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Med Chem 2016 Aug 24.
Natural products found in Mitragyna speciosa, commonly known as kratom, represent diverse scaffolds (indole, indolenine and spiro pseudoindoxyl) with opioid activity, providing opportunities to better understand opioid pharmacology. Herein, we report the pharmacology and SAR studies both in vitro and in vivo of mitragynine pseudoindoxyl (3), an oxidative rearrangement product of the corynanthe alkaloid mitragynine. 3 and its corresponding corynantheidine analogs show promise as potent analgesics with a mechanism of action that includes mu opioid receptor agonism-delta opioid receptor antagonism. In vitro, 3 and its analogs were potent agonists in [(35)S]GTPγS assays at the mu opioid receptor but failed to recruit β-arrestin-2, which is associated with opioid side effects. Additionally, 3 developed analgesic tolerance more slowly than morphine, showed limited physical dependence, respiratory depression, constipation, and displayed no reward or aversion in CPP/CPA assays, suggesting that analogs might represent a promising new generation of novel pain relievers.
- Effect of prolonged-released oxycodone/naloxone in postoperative pain management after total knee replacement: a nonrandomized prospective trial. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Anesth 2016 Sep.:491-7.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of postoperative prolonged release oxycodone/naloxone (OXN) in comparison to other opioids (control group) on the early postoperative rehabilitation outcome after total knee replacement.In a prospective, noninterventional, nonrandomized clinical trial, 80 patients were assigned to either the OXN group or a control group. Postoperative outcome and pain level at days 3, 6, 21, 35, and 6months were evaluated using the Bowel Function Index, Brief Pain Inventory Short Form questionnaire, the Hospital for Special Surgery score, modified Larson score, and the ability to attend physiotherapy. Medications were recorded and safety analysis was done. Both groups were compared using an analysis of covariance.There were no significant differences between both groups regarding pain levels. OXN group patients reported better bowel function (median values of 0.0 for the OXN group and 20.0 for the control group). No effect of treatment group (P=.19) and no treatment-by-visit interaction on Hospital for Special Surgery final score (P=.67) could be detected, but Larson function score in the early postoperative phase was significantly better in the OXN group (P=.018). The proportion of OXN group patients who were able to attend without any restriction was 58.1%. The proportions of patients in the OXN group and control group who experienced mild or moderate adverse drug reactions were 23.3% and 37.8%, respectively. There were no serious adverse drug reactions.In conclusion, OXN provides an effective analgesia and offers several benefits such as higher ability to participate in physiotherapy and better functional results. Incidence and severity of constipation can be reduced by using prolonged-released OXN as compared with other opioids.