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Cough, chronic [keywords]
- Girl with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis and bronchiectasis: Case report. [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Int 2013 Apr; 55(2):e17-9.
Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is a rare chronic inflammatory disorder of the kidney. Infiltration to lung and liver can occur. We present a rare complication of locally invasive XGP extending beyond the diaphragm to the lung to cause bronchiectasis in an adolescent girl with chronic productive cough, weight loss and no urinary symptoms. The patient underwent open left radical nephrectomy, where it was noted that the left kidney lay very high with significant perinephric inflammation and was densely adherent to the diaphragm and partially adherent to the spleen. XGP was confirmed on histology.
- Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease Caused by Mycobacterium lentiflavum in a Patient with Bronchiectasis. [Journal Article]
- Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul) 2013 Apr; 74(4):187-90.
We report a rare case of lung disease caused by Mycobacterium lentiflavum in a previously healthy woman. A 54-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to chronic cough and sputum. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed bilateral bronchiectasis with bronchiolitis in the right middle lobe and the lingular division of the left upper lobe. Nontuberculous mycobacteria were isolated twice from three expectorated sputum specimens. All isolates were identified as M. lentiflavum by multilocus sequence analysis based on rpoB, hsp65, and 16S rRNA fragments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented case of M. lentiflavum lung disease in an immunocompetent adult in Korea.
- Pulmonary actinomycosis during the first decade of 21st century: cases of 94 patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Infect Dis 2013 May 14; 13(1):216.
BACKGROUND:Pulmonary actinomycosis is a chronic pulmonary infection caused by Actinomyces. Both improving oral hygiene and early application of antibiotics to the case of suspicious pulmonary infections result in changes in incidences and presentations of pulmonary actinomycosis. However, there are little reports dealt with the recent clinical characteristics of pulmonary actinomycosis. This study aimed to review the characteristics of pulmonary actinomycosis occurred during the first decade of 21st century.
METHODS:This retrospective study was performed on 94 subjects with pulmonary actinomycosis diagnosed pathologically from January 2000 to December 2010 in 13 hospitals in Korea.
RESULTS:The data of the study showed that pulmonary actinomycosis occurs frequently in middle to old-aged males (mean age; 57.7 years old) and that the most common symptoms are cough, hemoptysis, and sputum production. Various radiologic features such as the consolidation with central low attenuation (74. 5%) and no regional predominance were also observed. Most of patients recovered completely with medical and/or surgical treatment, reaching approximately 98% cure rate.
CONCLUSIONS:The results demonstrate that pulmonary actinomycosis is one of the cautious pulmonary diseases. More importantly, in cases of persistent hemoptysis or for differential diagnosis from lung malignancy, our data have revealed that surgical resection appears to be a useful intervention and that radiologic diagnosis may not provide decisive information. These findings indicate that it is important for the clinicians to include pulmonary actinomycosis as one of differential diagnoses for refractory pulmonary abnormal lesions to the current usual management.
- [Reconsideration of the admission and discharge criteria of tuberculosis patients in Japan]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Kekkaku 2013 Mar; 88(3):373-85.
Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare issued new criteria for admission and discharge of tuberculosis patients in 2007. The criteria for admission are extended for the patients of the risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission and of the possible risk of treatment failure. The criteria for discharge are consisted of the 3 factors, (1) symptoms (cough, fever, etc.) are free after the standard chemotherapy of more than 2 weeks, (2) three different sputum smears are negative for acid-fast bacilli after the standard chemotherapy of more than 2 weeks, (3) patients are estimated to adhere to the chemotherapy after discharge and understand the infection control of M. tuberculosis. Although the criteria were simple, the goal was to treat tuberculosis patients successfully and improve treatment outcomes. For the effective operation of these criteria, the network of primary care facilities for early diagnosis and treatment after discharge, tuberculosis treatment facilities for hospitalization and local government including health care center is important. Four speakers proposed the problems and revealed their own resolutions. Three speakers from tuberculosis treatment facilities were positive for the shortening of hospitalization length by modifying the discharging criteria, however 1 speaker from the Tokyo Metropolitan Government emphasized that the regional medical system should be established for the treatment of discharged tuberculosis patient. 1. Reconsideration of admission and discharge criteria for tuberculosis patients: Kazunari TSUYUGUCHI (Department of Infectious Diseases, Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization Kinki-chuo Chest Medical Center) According to the present guideline in Japan, three consecutive negative sputum results for smear or culture are required for discharge of tuberculosis (TB) patients, making their duration of hospitalization extremely long. On the other hand, most of the TB ward in Japan consists of big rooms without air conditioning which carries a potential risk of nosocomial transmission and reinfection. In order to establish effective TB control, suspected or confirmed TB patient should be isolated in a single room equipped with the capacity for airborne infection isolation during hospitalization, as long as sputum smear or culture remains positive. It is reasonable to discharge patients to home before sputum conversion if effective chemotherapy is provided and all household members have been previously exposed. Rapid drug sensitivity testing will be helpful in assuring the effectiveness of chemotherapy for prompt discharge and detecting multidrug-resistance immediately. 2. Reconsideration of admission and discharge criteria for tuberculosis patient in Japan : Taku NAKAGAWA, Kenji OGAWA (Department of Pulmonary Medicine, National Hospital Organization Higashi Nagoya National Hospital) Admission criteria for tuberculosis patient are based on the positive result of sputum AFB smear test in principle. But admission criteria should be applied flexibly depending on the extent and severity of illness, socioeconomic background of the patient, and adherence to treatment in cooperation with the public health center. The Japanese Tuberculosis Society published "Guidelines for Admission and Discharge of Tuberculosis Patient" in January 2005. This guideline was consistent with the notice from Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Improvement of management of patients with tuberculosis is most important, but bacteriological conversion is not necessary to release isolation from the hospital. The patients treated with standard regimen over two weeks and having improvement of clinical symptoms may be able to go home back in the absence of compromised person. As a result of putting this guideline into practice, there were no problems about infectiousness for tuberculosis. But the modified notice from Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare based on bacteriological conversion was made public in September 2007. This modified notice brought in a prolonged period of hospitalization and created confusion in clinical practice. Based on the result of our study for infectiousness, it is appropriate to use the guideline in January 2005. 3. Consideration of the standard for leaving TB hospital: Masako WADA (Chemotherapy Research Institute, Kaken Hospital) In Japan, infectious pulmonary tuberculosis patients are ordered to receive chemotherapy in admission to tuberculosis treatment facilities according to Infectious Diseases Control Law. Infectious pulmonary tuberculosis is defined as sputum smear positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) even it is questionable. And there consecutive negative sputum smear for AFB is needed as a criteria for discharge. In this study we defined our own admission criteria as follows, medical service is needs owing to serious pulmonary tuberculosis, meningitis and other complications. We simulated the cost for hospitalization. During study period 170 patients were admitted and only 36 patients (21%) were needed hospitalization on our own criteria. The other 134 patients were admitted because of infectiousness. The average hospital stay was 63.0 days and 64.8 days, respectively. Total cost of patients cares were 26 million yen and 100 million yen respectively. On the points of saving medical costs, Infectious Diseases Control Law should be revised. 4. Recent problems in tuberculosis hospitalization and countermeasures related to patients support in urban area: Michihiko YOSHIDA (Infectious Control Section, Health and Safety Division, Bureau of Social Welfare and Public Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Govenment) Standard treatment for tuberculosis led to a shortening of hospitalization days. After discharge most patients are treated as outpatient. In the outpatient, the decreased numbers and the bias in the geographical distribution of tuberculosis hospitals impair patients' accessibility and may lead to increase of drop out cases. And there is possible poor adherence to treatment in such as foreign-born patients from high burden countries, so intensive intervention will,be needed for successful treatment. On the other hand, in the tuberculosis hospitals, there are noninfectious tuberculosis patients with chronic complications such as psychiatric disorders and dialysis. In most cases, these patients cannot be transferred to other hospitals or welfare facilities. To resolve these problems, it is necessary to build community DOTS system including the public health centers, tuberculosis hospitals and related community resources such as clinics and welfare facilities. Also, in the near future, it is necessary to review and rebuild tuberculosis medical system comprehensively at the national level.
- Ciprofloxacin-induced Psychosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2013 May 13.
A 64 year old male patient was admitted with fever and productive cough. Past medical history included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis and hypertension.…
- Effects of Allergic Phenotype on Respiratory Symptoms and Exacerbations in Patients with COPD. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2013 May 13.
Rationale:COPD guidelines make no recommendations for allergy diagnosis or treatment.
Objectives:To determine whether an allergic phenotype contributes to respiratory symptoms and exacerbations in patients with COPD.
Methods:Two separate cohorts were analyzed, NHANES III and the COPD and domestic endotoxin (CODE) cohort. Subjects from NHANES III with COPD (n=1381) defined as age >40 years, history of smoking, FEV1/FVC <0.70, and no diagnosis of asthma were identified. The presence of an allergic phenotype (n=296) was defined as either self-reported doctor diagnosed hay fever or allergic upper respiratory symptoms. In CODE, former smokers with COPD (n=77) were evaluated for allergic sensitization defined as a detectable specific IgE to perennial allergens. Bivariate and multivariate models were used to determine whether an allergic phenotype was associated with respiratory symptoms and exacerbations.
Results:In NHANES III, multivariate analysis revealed that individuals with allergic phenotype were more likely to wheeze (OR=2.1, p<0.01), have chronic cough (OR=1.9, p=0.01) and chronic phlegm (OR 1.5, p<0.05) and increased risk of COPD exacerbation requiring an acute doctor visit (OR 1.7, p=0.04). In the CODE cohort, multivariate analysis revealed that sensitized subjects reported more wheeze (OR=5.91, p<0.01), more nighttime awakening due to cough (OR=4.20, p=0.03), increased risk of COPD exacerbations requiring treatment with antibiotics (OR=3.79, p=0.02), and acute health visits (OR=11.05, p<0.01).
Conclusion:Among individuals with COPD, evidence of an allergic phenotype is associated with increased respiratory symptoms and risk of COPD exacerbations.
- Diagnosis of urinary incontinence. [Journal Article]
- Am Fam Physician 2013 Apr 15; 87(8):543-50.
Urinary incontinence is common, increases in prevalence with age, and affects quality of life for men and women. The initial evaluation occurs in the family physician's office and generally does not require urologic or gynecologic evaluation. The basic workup is aimed at identifying possible reversible causes. If no reversible cause is identified, then the incontinence is considered chronic. The next step is to determine the type of incontinence (urge, stress, overflow, mixed, or functional) and the urgency with which it should be treated. These determinations are made using a patient questionnaire, such as the 3 Incontinence Questions, an assessment of other medical problems that may contribute to incontinence, a discussion of the effect of symptoms on the patient's quality of life, a review of the patient's completed voiding diary, a physical examination, and, if stress incontinence is suspected, a cough stress test. Other components of the evaluation include laboratory tests and measurement of postvoid residual urine volume. If the type of urinary incontinence is still not clear, or if red flags such as hematuria, obstructive symptoms, or recurrent urinary tract infections are present, referral to a urologist or urogynecologist should be considered.
- Chronic cough hypersensitivity syndrome. [Journal Article]
- Cough 2013; 9(1):14.
Chronic cough has been suggested to be due to three conditions, asthma, post nasal drip, and reflux disease. A different paradigm has evolved in which cough is viewed as the primary condition characterised by afferent neuronal hypersensitivity and different aspects of this syndrome are manifest in the different phenotypes of cough. There are several advantages to viewing cough hypersensitivity as the unifying diagnosis; Communication with patients is aided, aetiology is not restricted and therapeutic avenues opened. Cough Hypersensitivity Syndrome is a more applicable label to embrace the clinical manifestations of this disabling disease.
- Chronic cough in subjects with upper airway diseases - analysis of mechanisms and clinical applications. [Journal Article]
- Asia Pac Allergy 2013 Apr; 3(2):127-35.
Cough is the commonest respiratory symptom leading to a medical consultation. Although acute cough which is usually associated with respiratory viral infection is not a problem to manage, chronic cough is frequently a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge as it does not respond to usual treatments. Specific group of chronic coughers are considered to have upper airway diseases, lately categorized as having upper airway cough syndrome. There is an increasing pool of evidence that upper airway diseases have significant involvements in the regulation of cough reflex, indicating that they must be taken into considerations as major triggers of coughing in the patients. Here we summarize current literature and experiences on the pathogenesis of upper airway cough syndrome, and discuss further clinical applications.
- Comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of ivabradine and ranolazine in patients of chronic stable angina pectoris. [Journal Article]
- J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2013 Jan; 4(1):33-8.
To compare the efficacy and tolerability of Ivabradine (IVA) and Ranolazine (RAN) in chronic angina patients.This was a follow-on, open-label trial conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Uttarakhand. Thirty patients each taking IVA 5 mg twice daily or RAN 500 mg twice daily were distributed to the respective groups. Patients were asked to fill a pretested questionnaire on frequency of anginal attacks and adverse reactions before and 2, 4 and 8 weeks after taking the respective medicines. Their blood pressure, heart rate and routine hematological and biochemical estimations were performed at baseline and after intervention. Results were statistically analyzed using different statistical tests, with P < 0.05 considered as significant.There was no significant difference in the frequency of anginal attacks per week between the groups. The adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported in the IVA group were dizziness (30%), headache (16.6%), backache (16.6%), vertigo (13.3%), blurred vision (13.3%), muscle cramps (10%), arthralgia (10%), cough and dyspnea (6.6%), hypersensitivity rash (6.6%), fever (3.3%) and nausea (3.3%). The ADRs in the RAN group were nausea (26.6%), dizziness (23.3%), vomiting (3.3%), constipation (3.3%) and vertigo (3.3%). The blood pressure, heart rate and routine hematological and biochemical evaluations did not show any significant difference in the pre-post values. IVA significantly decreased the resting heart rate after eight weeks of intervention.Both antianginal agents appeared equiactive. However, RAN had a better safety and tolerability profile than IVA. Serum sickness-like reaction was an adverse event noticed with IVA, which needs causality establishment.