- Comparison Analysis of microRNAs in Response to EV71 and CA16 Infection in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells by High-Throughput Sequencing to Reveal Differential Infective Mechanisms. [Journal Article]
- VRVirus Res 2016 Nov 24
- Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) mainly caused by Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) infections which presented significantly different clinical manifestations. Nevertheless, the...
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) mainly caused by Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) infections which presented significantly different clinical manifestations. Nevertheless, the factors underlying these differences remain unclear. Recently, the functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) in pathogen-host interactions have been highlighted. Here, we performed comprehensive miRNA profiling in EV71- and CA16-infected human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells at multiple time points using high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that 154 known and 47 novel miRNAs exhibited remarkable differences in expression. Of these, 65 miRNAs, including 58 known and 7 novel miRNAs, presented opposite trends in EV71- and CA16-infected samples. Subsequently, we mainly focused on the 56 known differentially expressed miRNAs by further screening for targets prediction. GO and pathway analysis of these targets demonstrated that 18 biological processes, 7 molecular functions, 1 cellular component and 123 pathways were enriched. Among these pathways, Cadherin signalling pathway, Wnt signalling pathway and angiogenesis showed significant alterations. The regulatory networks of these miRNAs with predicted targets, GOs, pathways and transcription factors were determined, which suggested that miRNAs displayed intricate regulatory mechanisms during the infection phase. Consequently, we specifically analysed the hierarchical GO categories of the predicted targets involved in adhesion. The results indicated that the distinct changes induced by EV71 and CA16 infection may be partly linked to airway epithelial barrier function. Taken together, our data provide useful insights that help elucidate the different host-pathogen interactions following EV71 and CA16 infection and might offer novel therapeutic targets for these infections.
- Enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 show different replication kinetics in human neuronal and non-neuronal cell lines. [Journal Article]
- AVArch Virol 2016 Nov 23
- Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are closely related enteroviruses that cause hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. Serious neurological complications almost always...
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are closely related enteroviruses that cause hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. Serious neurological complications almost always occur in EV-A71 infection, but are rare in CV-A16 infection. Based on the hypothesis that this may be because EV-A71 infects neuronal cells more easily than CV-A16, we compared virus infection, replication and spread of EV-A71 and CV-A16 in SK-N-SH cells. We found that CV-A16 invariably showed significantly lower replication and caused less necrotic cell death in SK-N-SH cells, compared with EV-A71. This was not due to a lower proportion of CV-A16-infected cells, since both viruses showed similar proportions of infected cells at all time points analyzed. Furthermore, reduced replication of CV-A16 in SK-N-SH cells does not appear to be due to limited viral receptor availability, which might limit viral entry, because experiments with viral RNA-transfected cells showed the same results as for live virus infections. On the other hand, no differences were observed between EV-A71 and CV-A16 in RD cells and results were generally similar in RD cells for both viruses. Taken together, our findings suggest that the poor growth of CV-A16 and EV-A71in SK-N-SH cells, compared with RD cells, may be due to cell type-specific restrictions on viral replication and spread. Furthermore, the lower viral replication and necrotic cell death in CV-A16-infected SK-N-SH cells, compared with EV-A71-infected SK-N-SH cells, is consistent with the lower prevalence of neurotropism observed in CV-A16-associated HFMD outbreaks. Nonetheless, in vivo data and more extensive comparisons of different viral strains are essential to confirm our findings.
- Systematic Identification and Bioinformatic Analysis of MicroRNAs in Response to Infections of Coxsackievirus A16 and Enterovirus 71. [Journal Article]
- BRBiomed Res Int 2016; 2016:4302470
- Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), mainly caused by coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, remains a serious public health issue with thousands of newly diagnostic cases ...
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), mainly caused by coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, remains a serious public health issue with thousands of newly diagnostic cases each year since 2008 in China. The mechanisms underlying viral infection, however, are elusive to date. In the present study, we systematically investigated the host cellular microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns in response to CVA16 and EV71 infections. Through microarray examination, 27 miRNAs (15 upregulated and 12 downregulated) were found to be coassociated with the replication process of two viruses, while the expression levels of 15 and 5 miRNAs were significantly changed in CVA16- and EV71-infected cells, respectively. A great number of target genes of 27 common differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted by combined use of two computational target prediction algorithms, TargetScan and MiRanda. Comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of target genes in GO categories and KEGG pathways indicated the involvement of diverse biological functions and signaling pathways during viral infection. These results provide an overview of the roles of miRNAs in virus-host interaction, which will contribute to further understanding of HFMD pathological mechanisms.
- Protease-Activated Receptor 1 Enhances Poly I:C Induction of the Antiviral Response in Macrophages and Mice. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Innate Immun 2016 Nov 8
- The coagulation cascade is activated during viral infections as part of the host defense system. Coagulation proteases activate cells by cleavage of protease-activated receptors (PARs). Recently, we ...
The coagulation cascade is activated during viral infections as part of the host defense system. Coagulation proteases activate cells by cleavage of protease-activated receptors (PARs). Recently, we reported that the activation of PAR-1 enhanced interferon (IFN)β and CXCL10 expression in cardiac fibroblasts and in the hearts of mice infected with Coxsackievirus B3. In this study, we used the double-stranded RNA mimetic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) to induce an antiviral response in macrophages and mice. Activation of PAR-1 enhanced poly I:C induction of IFNβ and CXCL10 expression in the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7, bone-marrow derived mouse macrophages (BMM) and mouse splenocytes. Next, poly I:C was used to induce a type I IFN innate immune response in the spleen and plasma of wild-type (WT) and PAR-1-/- mice. We found that poly I:C treated PAR-1-/- mice and WT mice given the thrombin inhibitor dabigatran etexilate exhibited significantly less IFNβ and CXCL10 expression in the spleen and plasma than WT mice. These studies suggest that thrombin activation of PAR-1 contributes to the antiviral response in mice.
- Anti-enteroviral triple combination of viral replication inhibitors: activity against coxsackievirus B1 neuroinfection in mice. [Journal Article]
- ACAntivir Chem Chemother 2016 Nov 4
- CONCLUSIONS: These results add new support for using consecutive alternating administration treatment courses to achieve clinically effective chemotherapy of enterovirus infections.
- Anti-coxsackievirus B4 (CV-B4) enhancing activity of serum associated with increased viral load and pathology in mice reinfected with CV-B4. [Journal Article]
- VVirulence 2016 Oct 28; :1-16
- In previous studies it was shown that inoculation of Swiss albino mice with CV-B4 E2 resulted in the production of serum IgG capable of enhancing the CV-B4 E2 infection of murine spleen cells culture...
In previous studies it was shown that inoculation of Swiss albino mice with CV-B4 E2 resulted in the production of serum IgG capable of enhancing the CV-B4 E2 infection of murine spleen cells cultures. To investigate whether such an enhancing activity of serum can play a role in vivo, we decided to study the CV-B4 E2 infection in mice exposed to successive inoculations of virus. In Swiss albino mice infected with CV-B4 E2 at the age of 21 days, anti-CV-B4 E2 neutralizing and enhancing activities of their serum peaked after 55 d. In contrast, mice inoculated at the age of 55 d expressed much lower activities. Despite the neutralizing activity of serum, CV-B4 E2 inoculated a second time to 55 day-old animals spread into the host. At the age of 72 and 89 d the levels of viral RNA and infectious particles were higher in organs of animals exposed to 2 successive infections compared with animals infected once at the age of 21 d or 55 d. In animals with 2 successive inoculations of CV-B4 E2 there was a relationship between the anti-CV-B4 E2 enhancing activity of serum and the level of viral RNA in organs and an enhancement of pathology was observed as displayed by histological analysis of pancreas and hyperglycaemia. Altogether our data strongly suggest that an anti-CV-B4 E2 enhancing activity in the host can play a role in the outcome of a secondary infection with this virus.
- In-utero coxsackievirus B4 infection of the mouse thymus. [Journal Article]
- CEClin Exp Immunol 2016 Oct 28
- Type B coxsackievirus (CV-B) infections are involved frequently in the triggering of several autoimmune diseases such as myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, pericarditis, pancreatitis, type 1 diabet...
Type B coxsackievirus (CV-B) infections are involved frequently in the triggering of several autoimmune diseases such as myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, pericarditis, pancreatitis, type 1 diabetes, encephalitis, thyroiditis or Sjögren's syndrome. Serological and virological evidence suggests that maternal infections during pregnancy can play a role in the appearance of these diseases in offspring. The current study aims to explore the effect of an in-utero CV-B infection on the fetal thymus, the central site for programming immunological self-tolerance. In this perspective, female Swiss albino mice were inoculated intraperitoneally or orally with the diabetogenic CV-B4 E2 strain at gestational days 10 or 17. Offspring were killed at different post-inoculation times, and their thymuses were analysed for evidence of infection and alterations in thymic T cell subsets. In-utero CV-B infection of the thymus was demonstrated during the course of vertical transmission, as attested by viral RNA and infectious virus detection in most analysed samples. No histopathological changes were evident. Thymic T cells were not depleted, despite being positive for viral RNA. As evidenced by flow cytometry analysis, CV-B infection of the fetal thymus induced significant changes of thymic T cell populations, particularly with maternal inoculation at gestational day 10. Altogether, these findings suggest that CV-B infection of the fetal thymus may play an important role in the genesis of autoimmune diseases.
- Different microRNA alterations contribute to diverse outcomes following EV71 and CA16 infections: Insights from high-throughput sequencing in rhesus monkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biochem Cell Biol 2016 Oct 17; 81(Pt A):20-31
- Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the predominant pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Although these viruses exhibit genetic homology, the clinical manifestations...
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the predominant pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Although these viruses exhibit genetic homology, the clinical manifestations caused by the two viruses have some discrepancies. In addition, the underlying mechanisms leading to these differences remain unclear. microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in numerous biological or pathological processes, including host responses to viral infections. Here, we focused on differences in miRNA expression patterns in rhesus monkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) infected with EV71 and CA16 at various time points using high-throughput sequencing. The results demonstrated that 106 known and 13 novel miRNAs exhibited significant differences, and 32 key miRNAs among them for target prediction presented opposite trends in the EV71- and CA16-infected samples. GO and pathway analysis of the predicted targets showed enrichment in 14 biological processes, 10 molecular functions, 8 cellular components and 104 pathways. Subsequently, regulatory networks of miRNA-transcription factors, miRNA-predicted targets, miRNA-GOs and miRNA-pathways were constructed to reveal the complex regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs during the infection phase. Ultimately, we analysed hierarchical GO categories of the predicted targets involved in immune system processes, which indicated that the innate and adaptive immunity following EV71 and CA16 infections may be remarkably distinct. In conclusion, this report is the first describing miRNA expression profiles in PBMCs with EV71 and CA16 infections using high-throughput sequencing. Our findings could provide a valuable basis for further studies on the regulatory roles of miRNAs related to the different immune responses caused by EV71 and CA16 infections.
- A novel inactivated enterovirus 71 vaccine can elicit cross-protective immunity against coxsackievirus A16 in mice. [Journal Article]
- VVaccine 2016 Nov 21; 34(48):5938-5945
- Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a highly contagious disease that mainly affects infants and children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the major pathogens of HFMD. Two ...
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a highly contagious disease that mainly affects infants and children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the major pathogens of HFMD. Two EV71 vaccines were recently licensed in China and the administration of the EV71 vaccines is believed to significantly reduce the number of HFMD-related severe or fatal cases. However, a monovalent EV71 vaccine cannot cross-protect against CA16 infection, this may result in that it cannot effectively control the overall HFMD epidemic. In this study, a chimeric EV71, whose VP1/210-225 epitope was replaced by that of CA16, was constructed using a reverse genetics technique to produce a candidate EV71/CA16 bivalent vaccine strain. The chimeric EV71 was infectious and showed similar growth characteristics as its parental strain. The replacement of the VP1/210-225 epitope did not significantly affect the antigenicity and immunogenicity of EV71. More importantly, the chimeric EV71 could induce protective immunity against both EV71 and CA16, and protect neonatal mice against either EV71 or CA16 lethal infections, the chimeric EV71 constructed in this study was shown to be a feasible and promising candidate bivalent vaccine against both EV71 and CA16. The construction of a chimeric enterovirus also provides an alternative platform for broad-spectrum HFMD vaccines development.
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- Ambulatory Pediatric Surveillance of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease as Signal of an Outbreak of Coxsackievirus A6 Infections, France, 2014-2015. [Journal Article]
- EIEmerg Infect Dis 2016; 22(11):1884-1893
- The clinical impact of enteroviruses associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is unknown outside Asia, and the prevalence of enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) in particular might be underestimated....
The clinical impact of enteroviruses associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is unknown outside Asia, and the prevalence of enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) in particular might be underestimated. To investigate the prevalence of enterovirus serotypes and the clinical presentations associated with HFMD in France, we conducted prospective ambulatory clinic-based surveillance of children during April 2014-March 2015. Throat or buccal swabs were collected from children with HFMD and tested for the enterovirus genome. Physical examinations were recorded on a standardized form. An enterovirus infection was detected in 523 (79.3%) of 659 children tested. Two epidemic waves occurred, dominated by coxsackievirus (CV) A6, which was detected in 53.9% of enterovirus-infected children. CV-A6 was more frequently related to atypical HFMD manifestations (eruptions extended to limbs and face). Early awareness and documentation of HFMD outbreaks can be achieved by syndromic surveillance of HFMD by ambulatory pediatricians and rapid enterovirus testing and genotyping.