(Coxsackievirus infections) articles in PubMed
- Coxsackievirus A16 induced neurological disorders in young gerbils which could serve as a new animal model for vaccine evaluation. [Journal Article]
- Sci Rep 2016; 6:34299SR
- Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is one of the major pathogens associated with human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia-pacific region. Although CA16 infections are generally mild, severe neur...
Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is one of the major pathogens associated with human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia-pacific region. Although CA16 infections are generally mild, severe neurological manifestations or even death has been reported. Studies on CA16 pathogenesis and vaccine development are severely hampered because the small animal models that are currently available show major limitations. In this study, gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were investigated for their suitability as an animal model to study CA16 pathogenesis and vaccine development. Our results showed that gerbils up to the age of 21 days were fully susceptible to CA16 and all died within five days post-infection. CA16 showed a tropism towards the skeletal muscle, spinal cord and brainstem of gerbils, and severe lesions, including necrosis, were observed. In addition, an inactivated CA16 whole-virus vaccine administrated to gerbils was able to provide full protection to the gerbils against lethal doses of CA16 strains. These results demonstrate that gerbils are a suitable animal model to study CA16 infection and vaccine development.
- Central nervous system infection following vertical transmission of Coxsackievirus B4 in mice. [Journal Article]
- Pathog Dis 2016 Sep 20PD
- Coxsackie B viruses (CV-B) are important pathogens associated with several central nervous system (CNS) disorders. CV-B are mainly transmitted by the faecal-oral route, but there is also evidence for...
Coxsackie B viruses (CV-B) are important pathogens associated with several central nervous system (CNS) disorders. CV-B are mainly transmitted by the faecal-oral route, but there is also evidence for vertical transmission. The outcome of in utero CV-B infections on offspring's CNS is poorly explored. The aim of this study was to investigate vertical transmission of CV-B to the CNS. For this purpose, pregnant Swiss albino mice were intraperitoneally inoculated with CV-B4 E2 at gestational days 10G or 17G. Different CNS compartments were collected and analyzed for virus infection and histopathological changes. Using plaque assays, we demonstrated CV-B4 E2 vertical transmission to offspring's CNS. Viral RNA persisted in the CNS up to 60 days after birth, as evidenced by a sensitive semi-nested(sn) reverse transcripton(RT)-PCR method. This was despite infectious particles becoming undetectable at later time points. Persistence was associated with inflammatory lesions, lymphocyte infiltration and viral dsRNA detected by immunohistochemistry. Offspring born to dams mock- or virus-infected at day 17G were challenged by the same virus at day 21 after birth (-+ and ++ groups, respectively). Sn-RT-PCR and histology results compared between both ++ and -+ groups, show that in utero infection did not enhance CNS infection during challenge of the offspring with the same virus.
- A neonatal mouse model for the evaluation of antibodies and vaccines against coxsackievirus A6. [Journal Article]
- Antiviral Res 2016 Aug 28; 134:50-57AR
- Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6) can induce atypical hand, foot, and mouth disease, which is characterized by severe rash, onychomadesis and a higher rate of infection in adults. Increasing epidemiological da...
Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6) can induce atypical hand, foot, and mouth disease, which is characterized by severe rash, onychomadesis and a higher rate of infection in adults. Increasing epidemiological data indicated that outbreaks of CA6-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease have markedly increased worldwide in recent years. However, the current body of knowledge on the infection, pathogenic mechanism, and immunogenicity of CA6 is still very limited. In this study, we established the first neonatal mouse model for the evaluation of antibodies and vaccines against CA6. The CA6 strain CA6/141 could infect a one-day-old BALB/c mouse through intraperitoneal and intracerebral routes. The infected mice developed clinical symptoms, such as inactivity, wasting, hind-limb paralysis and even death. Pathological examination indicated that CA6 showed special tropism to skeletal muscles and skin, but not to nervous system or cardiac muscles. Infections with CA6 could induce vesicles in the dermis without a rash in mice, and the CA6 antigen was mainly localized in hair follicles. The strong tropism of CA6 to the skin may be related to its severe clinical features in infants. This mouse model was further applied to evaluate the efficacy of a therapeutic antibody and an experimental vaccine against CA6. A potential mAb 1D5 could fully protect mice from a lethal CA6 infection and also showed good therapeutic effects in the CA6-infected mice. In addition, an inactivated CA6 vaccine was evaluated through maternal immunization and showed 100% protection of neonatal mice from lethal CA6 challenge. Collectively, these results indicate that this infection model will be a useful tool in future studies on vaccines and antiviral reagents against CA6.
- Inactivated coxsackievirus A10 experimental vaccines protect mice against lethal viral challenge. [Journal Article]
- Vaccine 2016 Sep 22; 34(41):5005-12V
- Coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) has become one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). It is now recognized that CVA10 should be targeted for vaccine development. We report h...
Coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) has become one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). It is now recognized that CVA10 should be targeted for vaccine development. We report here that β-propiolactone inactivated whole-virus based CVA10 vaccines can elicit protective immunity in mice. We prepared two inactivated CVA10 experimental vaccines derived from the prototype strain CVA10/Kowalik and from a clinical isolate CVA10/S0148b, respectively. Immunization with the experimental vaccines elicited CVA10-specific serum antibodies in mice. The antisera from vaccinated mice could potently neutralize in vitro infection with either homologous or heterologous CVA10 strains. Importantly, passive transfer of the anti-CVA10 sera protected recipient mice against CVA10/Kowalik or CVA10/S0148b infections. Moreover, active immunization with the inactivated vaccines also conferred protection against homologous and heterologous infections in mice. Collectively, our results demonstrate the proof-of-concept for inactivated whole-virus based CVA10 vaccines.
- Effectiveness of the Consecutive Alternating Administration Course of a Triple Antiviral Combination in Coxsackievirus B3 Infections in Mice. [Journal Article]
- Drug Res (Stuttg) 2016 Aug 23DR
- Anti-enteroviral chemotherapeutics for clinical use are not registered so far, mainly due to the rapid development of drug-resistance. One of the possible approaches to overcome this problem is the u...
Anti-enteroviral chemotherapeutics for clinical use are not registered so far, mainly due to the rapid development of drug-resistance. One of the possible approaches to overcome this problem is the use of combined chemotherapy. However, its application consisting of simultaneously given drugs, is not efficacious because of the development of multiple resistance. Here we present a novel approach for combined application of anti-enteroviral compounds, consisting of a consecutive alternating administration (CAA) course. CAA was tested on 2 in vivo models of Coxsackievirus B3 infection in newborn mice at inoculation dose of 20 MLD50 (50% mouse lethal dose): neurotropic (Nancy strain) and cardiotropic (Woodruff strain) infections. Compounds partnering in a triple combination were selected as enterovirus (EV) replication inhibitors with different mode of action - disoxaril (a VP1 blocker), guanidine.HCl (targeting 2C protein) and oxoglaucine (attacking 3A coding region). The application of this combination by CAA course resulted in around 40 and 60% survival rate in mice infected with Nancy and Woodruff virus, respectively, accompanied by a marked lengthening of the mean survival time (MST). The results obtained are proofs for the prospect of the treatment course by a triple combination through the CAA scheme as an approach interfering the occurrence of drug resistance at EV infections.
- Seroepidemiology of Coxsackievirus A6, Coxsackievirus A16, and Enterovirus 71 infections in infants and children: A prospective cohort study in Jiangsu, China. [Letter]
- J Infect 2016 Aug 19JI
- Regulation of the Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor expression is dependent on cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator in airway epithelial cells. [Journal Article]
- Cell Microbiol 2016 Aug 16CM
- The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), in addition to serving as viral receptor, is a component of tight junctions and plays an important role in tissue homeostasis. Defects in the cystic ...
The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), in addition to serving as viral receptor, is a component of tight junctions and plays an important role in tissue homeostasis. Defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) in lung epithelial cells are linked to inflammation and susceptibility for respiratory tract infections. Here, we demonstrate that CAR expression and infectivity with adenovirus (Ad) are increased in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells. Inhibition of CFTR or histone deacetylase (HDAC) enhanced CAR expression while CFTR overexpression or restoration of the diminished HDAC activity in cystic fibrosis cells reduced CAR expression. This connects the CFTR to CAR expression and infectivity with adenovirus through HDAC.
- Risk of Nephrotic Syndrome following Enteroviral Infection in Children: A Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2016; 11(8):e0161004Plos
- CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed a significant association between enteroviral infection and nephrotic syndrome. Additional studies elucidating the role and pathogenesis of enterovirus in nephrotic syndrome are warranted.
- Molecular epidemiology of enterovirus and parechovirus infections according to patient age over a 4-year period in Spain. [Journal Article]
- J Med Virol 2016 Aug 9JM
- The epidemiology and clinical association of enterovirus (EV) and parechovirus (HPeV) infections, as well as the type-distribution-according-to-age, were determined during a 4-year study period in Sp...
The epidemiology and clinical association of enterovirus (EV) and parechovirus (HPeV) infections, as well as the type-distribution-according-to-age, were determined during a 4-year study period in Spain. During 2010-2013, a total of 21,832 clinical samples were screened for EV and the detection frequency was 6.5% (1,430). Of the total EV-negative samples, only 1,873 samples from 2011 to 2013 were available for HPeV testing. HPeV was detected in 42 (2%) of them. Positive samples were genotyped using PCR and sequencing. EV infections occurred in all age groups of patients: neonates (17%), children 28 days to 2 years (29%), children 2-14 years (40%), and adults (14%). Thirty-four different EV types were identified. HPeV infections were detected exclusively in infants <8 m (70% neonates, P < 0.05). All but one HPeV were HPeV-3. Differences in type frequency detection were found according to age and clinical manifestation. Coxsackievirus (CV)-B4 (61%), CV-B5 (83%), and HPeV-3 (64%) were more frequent in neonates than in older patients (P < 0.05). Echovirus (E)-3 (60%), E-18 (47%), E-25 (62%), CV-A6 (61%), CV-A16 (72%), and EV-71 (75%) were mainly detected in children 28 days to 2 years (P < 0.05), whereas, E-6 (79%), E-20 (88%), and E-30 (85%) were predominant in children >2 years and adults (P < 0.05). Clinically, meningitis was associated with EV (P < 0.01) whereas, encephalitis was more frequent in HPeV-infected patients. CV-B types were associated with myocarditis (90%; P < 0.05) and EV species A with hand-foot-mouth-disease/atypical exanthema (88%; P < 0.05). J. Med. Virol. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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- Antiviral Combination Approach as a Perspective to Combat Enterovirus Infections. [Review]
- Pril (Makedon Akad Nauk Umet Odd Med Nauki) 2015; 36(2):91-9P
- Human enteroviruses distributed worldwide are causative agents of a broad spectrum of diseases with extremely high morbidity, including a series of severe illnesses of the central nervous system, hea...
Human enteroviruses distributed worldwide are causative agents of a broad spectrum of diseases with extremely high morbidity, including a series of severe illnesses of the central nervous system, heart, endocrine pancreas, skeleton muscles, etc., as well as the common cold contributing to the development of chronic respiratory diseases, including the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The above mentioned diseases along with the significantly high morbidity and mortality in children, as well as in the high-risk populations (immunodeficiencies, neonates) definitely formulate the chemotherapy as the main tool for the control of enterovirus infections. At present, clinically effective antivirals for use in the treatment of enteroviral infection do not exist, in spite of the large amount of work carried out in this field. The main reason for this is the development of drug resistance. We studied the process of development of resistance to the strongest inhibitors of enteroviruses, WIN compounds (VP1 protein hydrophobic pocket blockers), especially in the models in vivo, Coxsackievirus B (CV-B) infections in mice. We introduced the tracing of a panel of phenotypic markers (MIC50 value, plaque shape and size, stability at 50℃, pathogenicity in mice) for characterization of the drug-mutants (resistant and dependent) as a very important stage in the study of enterovirus inhibitors. Moreover, as a result of VP1 RNA sequence analysis performed on the model of disoxaril mutants of CVB1, we determined the molecular basis of the drug-resistance. The monotherapy courses were the only approach used till now. For the first time in the research for anti-enterovirus antivirals our team introduced the testing of combination effect of the selective inhibitors of enterovirus replication with different mode of action. This study resulted in the selection of a number of very effective in vitro double combinations with synergistic effect and a broad spectrum of sensitive enteroviruses. The most prospective attainment in our examinations in this field was the development of a novel scheme for the combined application of anti-enteroviral substances in coxsackievirus B1 neuroinfection in newborn mice. It consisted of a consecutive, alternating and non simultaneous administration of the substances in the combination. The triple combination - disoxaril- guanidine. HCl-oxoglaucine (DGO) showed a high effectiveness expressed in the marked reduction of the mortality rate in infected mice as compared both to the placebo group, and to the partner compounds used alone every day, and to the same combination applied simultaneously every day. The studies of the drug sensitivity of viral brain isolates from mice treated with DGO combination showed not only preserved, but even increased sensitivity to the drugs included in the combination. Obviously, the consecutive alternating administration of anti-enteroviral substances hinders the occurrence of drug-resistance in the course of the experimental enteroviral infections in mice.