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Coxsackievirus infections [keywords]
- Establishment of a panel of in-house polyclonal antibodies for the diagnosis of enterovirus infections. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neuropathology 2014 Sep 28.
The aim of this study was to establish a reliable method of virus detection for the diagnosis of critical enterovirus infections such as acute infective encephalitis, encephalomyelitis and myocarditis. Because histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of paraffin-embedded tissues play an important role in recognizing infectious agents in tissue samples, six in-house polyclonal antibodies raised against three representative enteroviruses using an indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunohistochemistry were examined. This panel of polyclonal antibodies recognized three serotypes of enterovirus. Two of the polyclonal antibodies were raised against denatured virus particles from enterovirus A71, one was raised against the recombinant VP1 protein of coxsackievirus B3, and the other for poliovirus type 1 were raised against denatured virus particles, the recombinant VP1 protein and peptide 2C. Western blot analysis revealed that each of these antibodies recognized the corresponding viral antigen and none cross-reacted with non-enteroviruses within the family Picornaviridae. However, all cross-reacted to some extent with the antigens derived from other serotypes of enterovirus. Indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunohistochemistry revealed that the virus capsid and non-structural proteins were localized in the cytoplasm of affected culture cells, and skeletal muscles and neurons in neonatal mice experimentally-infected with human enterovirus. The antibodies also recognized antigens derived from recent clinical isolates of enterovirus A71, coxsackievirus B3 and poliovirus. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed that representative antibodies tested showed the same recognition pattern according to each serotype. Thus, the panel of in-house anti-enterovirus polyclonal antibodies described herein will be an important tool for the screening and pathological diagnosis for enterovirus infections, and may be useful for the classification of different enterovirus serotypes, including coxsackieviruses A and B, echoviruses, enterovirus A71 and poliovirus.
- Non-rhinovirus enteroviruses associated with respiratory infections in Peru (2005-2010). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Virol J 2014 Sep 22; 11(1):169.
Enteroviruses (EVs) are a common cause of respiratory tract infections and are classified into seven species (EVA-D and rhinoviruses [RHVs] A-C) with more than 200 different serotypes. Little is known about the role of non-RHV EVs in respiratory infections in South America. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of non-RHV EVs detected in patients with influenza-like illness enrolled in a passive surveillance network in Peru.Throat swabs and epidemiological data were collected from participants after obtaining verbal consent. Viral isolation was performed in cell culture and identified by immunofluorescence assay. Serotype identification of EV isolates was performed using commercial monoclonal antibodies. Identification of non-serotypeable isolations was carried out by reverse transcriptase-PCR, followed by sequencing.Between 2005 and 2010, 24,239 samples were analyzed, and 9,973 (41.1%) possessed at least one respiratory virus. EVs were found in 175 samples (0.7%). Our results revealed a clear predominance of EVB species, 90.9% (159/175). No EVDs were isolated. The mean and median ages of EV-positive subjects were 9.1 and 4.0 years, respectively, much younger than the population sampled, 17.6 and 12.0 years. Sixteen serotypes were identified, four EVA, 11 EVB, and one EVC species. The most common serotypes were coxsackievirus B1, coxsackievirus B2, coxsackievirus B5, and coxsackievirus B3.This study provides data about the serotypes of EVs circulating in Peru and sets the need for further studies.
- Case of a healthy infant born following antenatal enterovirus myocarditis and hydrops. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Virol 2014 Sep 9.
Fetal hydrops and myocarditis were diagnosed in a woman at 32 weeks of gestation (WG). Transplacental enterovirus infection was suspected because all other causes of myocarditis and hydrops were excluded, it was during an endemic period, and there was a setting of maternal infection (fever a few days before). We opted for in utero treatment because of the risk of resuscitating a neonate with myocarditis and hydrops. We administered dexamethasone 12mg twice for pulmonary maturation and presumed it would partially improve the myocarditis. Fetal arrhythmia was noted at 35 WG and we decided to deliver the infant as postnatal treatment of the heart disorder would be more effective. RT-PCR (ARGENE(®)) showed that the neonate's throat and anal tissues and cord blood sampled on the day of birth contained enterovirus ribonucleic acid and coxsackievirus B5, as did the mother's anal sample. Laboratory tests, heart MRI and probably brain MRI indicated neonatal enterovirus infection. Findings were normal at two-year follow-up.
- Coxsackievirus B detection in cases of myocarditis, myopericarditis, pericarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy in hospitalized patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Med Rep 2014 Sep 18.
Coxsackieviruses B (CV‑B) are known as the most common viral cause of human heart infections. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential role of CV‑B in the etiology of infectious heart disease in hospitalized patients. The present study is based on blood, pericardial fluid and heart biopsies from 102 patients and 100 control subjects. All of the samples were examined for the detection of specific enteroviral genome using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR) and sequence analysis. Immunohistochemical investigations for the detection of the enteroviral capsid protein, VP1, from the biopsies were performed. The samples were cultured on confluent KB monolayer cell line for possible virus isolation. The epidemiological data were also collected. CV‑B was detected in 28 of the 102 patients. The sequence analysis demonstrated that 27 strains were identical to CV‑B3 and only one strain was identical to CV‑B1. Furthermore, VP1 in the heart biopsies was detected in enterovirus‑positive cases, as revealed by RT‑PCR. Pericarditis infection was more frequent than myocarditis (P<0.05) or myopericarditis (P=0.05). The epidemiological data demonstrate that CV‑B heart infections occur mainly during autumn and winter, and young male adults are more susceptible than adolescents or adults (P<0.5). The present findings demonstrate a higher prevalence of viral heart infections, suggesting that CV‑B may significantly contribute to heart infections.
- Prospect and challenges for the development of multivalent vaccines against hand, foot and mouth diseases. [REVIEW]
- Vaccine 2014 Sep 10.
Enterovirus 71 (EV71), an emerging neurotropic virus and coxsackieviruses (CV) are the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD). These viruses have become a serious public health threat in the Asia Pacific region. Formalin-inactivated EV71 (FI-EV71) vaccines have been developed, evaluated in human clinical trials and were found to elicit full protection against EV71. Their failure to prevent CVA16 infections could compromise the acceptability of monovalent EV71 vaccines. Bivalent FI-EV71/FI-CVA16 vaccines have been found to elicit strong neutralizing antibody responses against both viruses in animal models but did not protect against CVA6 and CVA10 viral infections in cell culture neutralization assay. In this review, we discuss the critical bottlenecks in the development of multivalent HFMD vaccines, including the selection of vaccine strains, animal models to assess vaccine potency, the definition of end-points for efficacy trials, and the need for improved manufacturing processes to produce affordable vaccines.
- Orofacial viral infections--an update for clinicians. [Journal Article, Review]
- Dent Update 2014 Jul-Aug; 41(6):518-20, 522-4.
Orofacial viral infections may be less common but appear in different clinical forms. Often these infections get initially treated by antibiotics which obviously will have limited or no effect. The authors review the current concepts of orofacial viral infections, causative agents, their classification and clinical manifestations and a basis for treatment.Most viral infections do not require any specific treatment except in patients who are immunosuppressed or immunodeficient. Appropriate diagnosis and timely management of orofacial viral lesions are important irrespective of whether it is localized or a manifestation of a systemic infection.
- AUF1 is recruited to the stress granules induced by coxsackievirus B3. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Virus Res 2014 Aug 19.
Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic granules that are formed in cells when stress occurs. In this study, we found that SGs formed in cells infected with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), evidenced with the co-localization of some accepted SG markers in the viral infection-induced granules. We further discovered that adenosine-uridine (AU)-rich element RNA binding factor 1 (AUF1), which can bind to mRNAs and regulate their translation, was recruited to the SGs in response to high dose of CVB3 by detecting the co-localization of AUF1 with SG markers. Similar results were also observed in the enterovirus 71 (EV71)-infected cells. Finally, we demonstrated that AUF1 was also recruited to arsenite-induced SGs, suggesting that the recruitment of AUF1 to SG is not a specific response to viral infection. In summary, our data indicate that both CVB3 and EV71 infections can induce SG formation, and AUF1 is a novel SG component upon the viral infections. Our findings may shed light on understanding the picornavirus-host interaction.
- ER stress, autophagy, and RNA viruses. [Journal Article, Review]
- Front Microbiol 2014.:388.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a general term for representing the pathway by which various stimuli affect ER functions. ER stress induces the evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways, called the unfolded protein response (UPR), which compromises the stimulus and then determines whether the cell survives or dies. In recent years, ongoing research has suggested that these pathways may be linked to the autophagic response, which plays a key role in the cell's response to various stressors. Autophagy performs a self-digestion function, and its activation protects cells against certain pathogens. However, the link between the UPR and autophagy may be more complicated. These two systems may act dependently, or the induction of one system may interfere with the other. Experimental studies have found that different viruses modulate these mechanisms to allow them to escape the host immune response or, worse, to exploit the host's defense to their advantage; thus, this topic is a critical area in antiviral research. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about how RNA viruses, including influenza virus, poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus 71, Japanese encephalitis virus, hepatitis C virus, and dengue virus, regulate these processes. We also discuss recent discoveries and how these will produce novel strategies for antiviral treatment.
- [Epidemiology of hand, foot, and mouth disease and genetic characterization of enterovirus A71: a survey from 2007 to 2012 in Linyi of Shandong Province, China]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Bing Du Xue Bao 2014 May; 30(3):246-52.
To investigate the epidemiology of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and the genetic characteristics of enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) in Linyi of Shandong Province, China during 2007-2012. The number of reported HFMD cases were obtained from the National Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NNDRS) were analyzed by descriptive epidemiology method; the VP1 region of EV-A71 isolated from HFMD patients in Linyi was amplified and sequenced. Finally, the genetic variability and phylogenecity of VP1 sequences of EV-A71 were analyzed by MEGA 5.0. The results showed that HFMD incidence was reported in each year from 2007 to 2012 in Linyi, and the highest incidence and mortality were reported in 2009, when there were total 14697 cases and 9 of death. The reported incidence was 140.28/100000, and the mortality was 0.086/100000. The peak incidence usually occurred between April and July, and the summit occurred in May. Scattered children accounted for 77.37%-92.00% of all cases. The peak age was 2.5 years during 2007-2009 and 1.5 years during 2010-2012. A total of 1365 laboratory-confirmed HFMD cases were reported in the 6 consecutive years, accounting for 2.98% of the gross number. Among these reports, the ratio of EV-A71 was 44.18%, and the ratio of coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) was 46.59%. All EV-A71 strains isolated in Linyi during 2007-2012 belonged to the C4a evolutionary branch of C4 genotype. In conclusion, HFMD outbreaks occurred every year in Linyi during 2007-2012. Incidence varied significantly among different counties. The peak incidence in each year lasted from April to July. Most of the patients were children under 3 years of age, and scattered children took the highest proportion. Co-circulation of EV-A71 and CVA16 was the major cause of HFMD in each year. Since the first report of HFMD prevalence caused by EV-A71 (C4a) in 2007, the virus has been prevalent continuously in Linyi for 6 years.
- [Immunoprotective effect of inactivated coxsackievirus A16 vaccine in mice]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Bing Du Xue Bao 2014 May; 30(3):226-32.
This study aims to construct inactivated coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) vaccine and to investigate its protective effect in ICR mice. A clinical isolate of CVA16, 521-01T, was cultured in VERO cells, inactivated by formaldehyde, and purified by ultracentrifugation for vaccine preparation. Purity and other characteristics of the vaccine were determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Female ICR mice were subcutaneously inoculated with inactivated CVA16 or Al(OH)3-absorbed CVA16, followed by booster immunization at the end of 2 and 4 weeks. CVA16-specific IgG titers in serum were determined by ELISA, and titers of neutralizing antibodies were determined by viral neutralization assay. The immunity of T lymphocytes was evaluated by IFN-gamma ELISPOT assay. The protective effect was evaluated by challenging the neonatal offspring (< 48 hours) of vaccinated female mice with 1 000 LD50 of CVA16 521-01T. The mortality rates of different groups were compared. The results showed that Al(OH)3 +CVA16 could induce high titers of specific IgG antibodies in ICR mice. After being boosted two times, the serum IgG antibody titer could reach up to 1 : 1 x 10(5) (P = 0.000), and neutralizing antibody titer was higher than 1 : 256. Additionally, more spot forming cells were induced in the immunized groups than in the negative controls. The maternal antibodies showed protective effect in 100% of the neonatal mice challenged with 1 000 LD50 of CVA16 521-01T. The inactivated CVA16 vaccine has ideal immunogenicity and immunoprotective effect. This research lays a foundation for the development and evaluation of CVA16 vaccines.