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Coxsackievirus infections [keywords]
- Protease 2A induces stress granule formation during coxsackievirus B3 and enterovirus 71 infections. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Virol J 2014 Nov 20; 11(1):192.
BackgroundStress granules (SGs) are granular aggregates in the cytoplasm that are formed under a variety of stress situations including viral infection. Previous studies indicate that poliovirus, a member of Picornaviridae, can induce SG formation. However, the exact mechanism by which the picornaviruses induce SG formation is unknown.MethodThe localization of SG markers in cells infected with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) or enterovirus 71 (EV71) and in cells expressing each viral protein was determined via immunofluorescence assays or plasmid transfection. Eight plasmids expressing mutants of the 2A protease (2Apro) of CVB3 were generated using a site-directed mutagenesis strategy. The cleavage efficiencies of eIF4G by CVB3 2Apro, and its mutants were determined via western blotting assays.ResultsIn this study, we found that CVB3 infection induced SG formation, as evidenced by the co-localization of some accepted SG markers in viral infection-induced granules. Furthermore, we identified that 2Apro of CVB3 was the key viral component that triggered SG formation. A 2Apro mutant with the G122E mutation, which exhibited very low cleavage efficiency toward eIF4G, significantly attenuated its capacity for SG induction, indicating that the protease activity was required for 2Apro to initiate SG formation. Finally, we observed that SGs also formed in EV71-infected cells. Expression of EV71 2Apro alone was also sufficient to cause SG formation.ConclusionBoth CVB3 and EV71 infections can induce SG formation, and 2Apro plays a crucial role in the induction of SG formation during these infections. This finding may help us to better understand how picornaviruses initiate the SG response.
- Platelets interact with Coxsackieviruses B and have a critical role in the pathogenesis of virus-induced myocarditis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Thromb Haemost 2014 Nov 13.
To further understand the role of platelets in the pathogenesis of viral infections we explored platelet interaction with Coxsackievirus B (CVB) 1 and 3. CVB is a group of viruses that cause the majority of human enterovirus-related viral myocarditis; their receptor (CAR) is expressed on the platelet surface and there is a well characterized CVB3-induced myocarditis murine model.Human platelets were infected with CVB1 and 3 and viruses were detected in pellets and in supernatants. C57BL/6J mice with or without platelet depletion were inoculated with CVB3 and peripheral blood and heart samples collected at different times post-infection.CVB1 and 3 RNA and a capsid protein were detected in infected platelets. Despite the fact that titration assays in Vero cells showed increasing infectivity titers over time, supernatants and pellets from infected platelets showed similar levels, suggesting that platelets were not susceptible to a replicative infectivity cycle. CVB binding was CAR-independent and resulted in P-selectin and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure. CVB3-infected mice showed a rapid thrombocytopenia that correlated with an increase in platelet PS exposure and platelet-leukocyte aggregates without modification of platelet P-selectin expression or von Willebrand factor levels. Mortality, viremia, heart viral titers and myocarditis were significantly higher in platelet-depleted than normal animals. Type I IFN levels were not changed but IgG levels were lower in infected and platelet-depleted mice.Our data reveal that platelets play a critical role in host survival and immune response against CVB3 infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Elicitation of T cell responses by structural and non-structural proteins of coxsackievirus B4. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Gen Virol 2014 Nov 7.
Coxsackievirus B4 (CV-B4) belongs to the genus Enterovirus within family Picornaviridae. To investigate target proteins recognised by T-cells in human enterovirus B infections, viral-encoded structural (VP0 [VP4 and VP2], VP1, VP3) and non-structural (2A, 2B, 2C, 3C and 3D) proteins were expressed and purified in E. coli. Peripheral blood of 19 healthy adult donors was used to create enterovirus-specific T-cell lines by repeated stimulation with CV-B4 cell lysate antigen. T-cell lines responded in individual patterns, and responses to all purified proteins were observed. The most often recognised enteroviral protein was VP0, which is the fusion between the most conserved structural proteins, VP4 and VP2. T-cell responses to VP0 were detected in 15 of 19 (79%) donor lines. Non-structural 2C protein was recognised in 11 of 19 (58%) lines, and 11 of 19 (58%) lines also had a response to 3D protein. Furthermore, responses to other non-structural proteins (2A, 2B and 3C) were also detected. T-cell responses did not correlate clearly to the individual HLA-DR-DQ phenotype or the history of past coxsackie B virus infections of the donors.
- A preclinical study on the efficacy and safety of a new vaccine against Coxsackievirus B1 reveals no risk for accelerated diabetes development in mouse models. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Diabetologia 2014 Nov 5.
Enterovirus infections have been implicated in the aetiology of autoimmune type 1 diabetes. A vaccine could be used to test the causal relationship between enterovirus infections and diabetes development. However, the development of a vaccine against a virus suspected to induce an autoimmune disease is challenging, since the vaccine itself might trigger autoimmunity. Another challenge is to select the enterovirus serotypes to target with a vaccine. Here we aimed to evaluate the function and autoimmune safety of a novel non-adjuvanted prototype vaccine to Coxsackievirus serotype B1 (CVB1), a member of the enterovirus genus.A formalin-inactivated CVB1 vaccine was developed and tested for its immunogenicity and safety in BALB/c and NOD mice. Prediabetic NOD mice were vaccinated, infected with CVB1 or mock-treated to compare the effect on diabetes development.Vaccinated mice produced high titres of CVB1-neutralising antibodies without signs of vaccine-related side effects. Vaccinated mice challenged with CVB1 had significantly reduced levels of replicating virus in their blood and the pancreas. Prediabetic NOD mice demonstrated an accelerated onset of diabetes upon CVB1 infection whereas no accelerated disease manifestation or increased production of insulin autoantibodies was observed in vaccinated mice.We conclude that the prototype vaccine is safe and confers protection from infection without accelerating diabetes development in mice. These results encourage the development of a multivalent enterovirus vaccine for human use, which could be used to determine whether enterovirus infections trigger beta cell autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes in humans.
- Review of Enterovirus 71 Vaccines. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Infect Dis 2014 Oct 28.
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses are the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks worldwide and have a significant socioeconomic impact, particularly in Asia. Formalin-inactivated (FI) EV71 vaccines evaluated in human clinical trials in China, Taiwan, and Singapore were found to be safe and to elicit strong neutralizing antibody responses against EV71 currently circulating in Asia. The results from 3 different phase 3 clinical trials performed in young children (6-60 months) indicate that the efficacy of FI-EV71 vaccines is >90% against EV71-related HFMDs and >80% against EV71-associated serious diseases, but the vaccines did not protect against coxsackievirus A16 infections. Here we discuss the critical factors affecting EV71 vaccine product registration, including clinical epidemiology, antigenic shift issues in cross-protection and vaccine strain selection, standardized animal models for potency testing, and cost-effective manufacturing processes for potential incorporation of FI-EV71 vaccine into Expanded Programme on Immunization vaccines.
- ORI2 inhibits coxsackievirus replication and myocardial inflammation in experimental murine myocarditis. [Journal Article]
- Biol Pharm Bull 2014; 37(10):1650-4.
We purified ORI2 [3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acrylic acid 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methoxycarbonylethyl ester] from an extract of the plant Isodon excisus. We tested the antiviral effect of ORI2 in a coxsackievirus-induced myocarditis model. Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is a common cause of myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt signaling in virus-infected cells is essential for CVB3 replication. Antiviral compounds were screened by HeLa cell survival assay. Several purified natural compounds were added to HeLa cells cultured in 96-well plates for 30 min after 1 multiplicity of infection (m.o.i) CVB3 infection. ORI2 significantly improved HeLa cell survival in a dose-dependent manner. For in vivo studies, BALB/c mice (n=20) were infected with CVB3, then 10 of the mice were treated by daily intraperitoneal injections of ORI2 (100 mM) for 3 consecutive days. ORI2 treatment significantly improved early survival in the treated mice compared to untreated mice (85% vs. 50%, respectively). Organ virus titers and myocardial damage were significantly lower in the ORI2-treated mice than in untreated mice. These results demonstrate that ORI2, delivered by intraperitoneal injection after CVB3 infection, has a significant antiviral effect by markedly inhibiting virus replication, resulting in a decrease in organ virus titer and myocardial damage. ORI2 may be developed as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of CVB3 infections.
- [MiR432* regulate the replication of coxsackievirus A16 in rhabdomyosarcoma cells]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao 2014 Jun 4; 54(6):679-87.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in infection and replication of virus in host cells. In this study, we examined miRNAs' effects on the replication of Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) in rhabdomyosarcoma cells.We constructed target gene of miRNAs screening system. We used 3'untranslated region (UTR) dual luciferase reporter analysis to identify putative miRNA targets in the CA16 virus genome. First, 12 segments of CA16 virus genome were inserted to the pMIR vector and the luciferase expression were assayed to identify the target gene of putative miRNA. The reporter gene expression of the cells transfected with the vector containing 5'-UTR was significantly downregulated. Then, using online analysis programs we screened the miRNAs that may target to 5'-UTR. Furthermore, Western blot and real-time PCR test were used to study the effect of miRNAs on viral replication.The study showed that miR432 * could stimulate the replication of CA16 virus. On the contrary, miR432 * inhibitor could suppress CA16 virus replication.Cellular miRNAs could regulate the replication of CA16 virus in host cells. Our findings support the notion that the cellular miRNAs play an important role in the host and virus infection.
- [Research advances in molecular epidemiology and vaccines of Coxsackievirus A16]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Bing Du Xue Bao 2014 Jul; 30(4):483-8.
Epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) have mainly been caused by Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) and Enterovirus A 71 (EV-A71), which circulated alternatively or together in the affected area. CVA16 has caused numerous outbreaks and epidemics in multiple countries and geographical regions, and has become an important public health problem. Based on an analysis of the complete VP1 coding region, all CVA16 strains can be divided into genotypes A, B1, and B2. Furthermore, genotype B1 can be divided into subgenotypes B1a, B1b, and B1c. After 2000, no reports of genotype B2 virus strains have been reported. All of the CVA16 strains reported in mainland China have belonged to subgenotypes B1a and B1b. Most CVA16-associated infections cause only mild symptoms; however, some CVA16 infections can lead to severe complications and even death. Vaccination is considered to be the most effective method to control the transmission and infection rate of this virus. A number of research groups are studying various vaccine types, including inactivated vaccines, genetic engineering vaccines, and DNA vaccines, amongst others. In this review, an overview is provided of the research advances in molecular epidemiology and vaccines of CVA16.
- Establishment of a panel of in-house polyclonal antibodies for the diagnosis of enterovirus infections. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neuropathology 2014 Sep 28.
The aim of this study was to establish a reliable method of virus detection for the diagnosis of critical enterovirus infections such as acute infective encephalitis, encephalomyelitis and myocarditis. Because histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of paraffin-embedded tissues play an important role in recognizing infectious agents in tissue samples, six in-house polyclonal antibodies raised against three representative enteroviruses using an indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunohistochemistry were examined. This panel of polyclonal antibodies recognized three serotypes of enterovirus. Two of the polyclonal antibodies were raised against denatured virus particles from enterovirus A71, one was raised against the recombinant VP1 protein of coxsackievirus B3, and the other for poliovirus type 1 were raised against denatured virus particles, the recombinant VP1 protein and peptide 2C. Western blot analysis revealed that each of these antibodies recognized the corresponding viral antigen and none cross-reacted with non-enteroviruses within the family Picornaviridae. However, all cross-reacted to some extent with the antigens derived from other serotypes of enterovirus. Indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunohistochemistry revealed that the virus capsid and non-structural proteins were localized in the cytoplasm of affected culture cells, and skeletal muscles and neurons in neonatal mice experimentally-infected with human enterovirus. The antibodies also recognized antigens derived from recent clinical isolates of enterovirus A71, coxsackievirus B3 and poliovirus. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed that representative antibodies tested showed the same recognition pattern according to each serotype. Thus, the panel of in-house anti-enterovirus polyclonal antibodies described herein will be an important tool for the screening and pathological diagnosis for enterovirus infections, and may be useful for the classification of different enterovirus serotypes, including coxsackieviruses A and B, echoviruses, enterovirus A71 and poliovirus.
- Non-rhinovirus enteroviruses associated with respiratory infections in Peru (2005-2010). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Virol J 2014 Sep 22; 11(1):169.
Enteroviruses (EVs) are a common cause of respiratory tract infections and are classified into seven species (EVA-D and rhinoviruses [RHVs] A-C) with more than 200 different serotypes. Little is known about the role of non-RHV EVs in respiratory infections in South America. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of non-RHV EVs detected in patients with influenza-like illness enrolled in a passive surveillance network in Peru.Throat swabs and epidemiological data were collected from participants after obtaining verbal consent. Viral isolation was performed in cell culture and identified by immunofluorescence assay. Serotype identification of EV isolates was performed using commercial monoclonal antibodies. Identification of non-serotypeable isolations was carried out by reverse transcriptase-PCR, followed by sequencing.Between 2005 and 2010, 24,239 samples were analyzed, and 9,973 (41.1%) possessed at least one respiratory virus. EVs were found in 175 samples (0.7%). Our results revealed a clear predominance of EVB species, 90.9% (159/175). No EVDs were isolated. The mean and median ages of EV-positive subjects were 9.1 and 4.0 years, respectively, much younger than the population sampled, 17.6 and 12.0 years. Sixteen serotypes were identified, four EVA, 11 EVB, and one EVC species. The most common serotypes were coxsackievirus B1, coxsackievirus B2, coxsackievirus B5, and coxsackievirus B3.This study provides data about the serotypes of EVs circulating in Peru and sets the need for further studies.