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Cranial nerve palsy [keywords]
- Oral and cranio-maxillofacial surgery in Byzantium. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2013 Jun 8.
INTRODUCTION:Byzantine physicians (4th-7th and 8th-12th centuries A.D.), especially those interested in Surgery, developed a number of interesting concepts, views and opinions referring to the field now recognized as Oral and Cranio-maxillofacial Surgery and Pathology. MATERIAL AND
METHOD:The original texts of Byzantine physicians, written in ancient Greek, and now preserved in the electronic platform Thesaurus Linguae Graecae, at the University of California, Irvine, CA, USA, were investigated in relation to Oral and Cranio-maxillofacial Surgery and Pathology.
RESULTS:The most eminent physicians of the Early (4th-7th century A.D.) and Middle (8th-12th century A.D.) Byzantine Period, in particular Oribasius Pergamenus, Aëtius Amidenus, Alexander Trallianus, Theophilus Protospatharius, Paulus Aegineta, Meletius Monachos, and Leo Medicus, in their works deal with topographic and surgical anatomy of the head and neck, and a large list of related topics, including dentoalveolar surgery, oral and cervicofacial infections, trauma of viscerocranium and neurocranium as well as the biomechanics of traumatic brain injuries, temporomandibular joints dysfunction as a consequence of mandibular dislocation, surgical oncology and reconstructive surgery of the head and neck, oral pathology, surgical pathology of salivary glands, therapeutic management of facial nerve dysfunction, preprosthetic surgery, craniofacial surgery, and deformities of the facial skeleton involving anthropologic and craniometric observations. Clinical examination of patients presenting corresponding functional and esthetic problems is considered, using recognizable orthodontic and orthognathic surgical approaches. Finally, specific bandages of the head and neck are described, for treating traumatic injuries of the viscerocranium and neurocranium, diastasis of the cranial sutures, dislocations of the mandible (unilateral and bilateral), as well as inflammatory diseases of the parotids and the neck.
CONCLUSIONS:Byzantine physicians had been particularly interested in various subjects of the mouth, jaws, face, and head and neck in general, in the frame of course of their general surgery practice.
- Isolated Third, Fourth, and Sixth Cranial Nerve Palsies from Presumed Microvascular versus Other Causes: A Prospective Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmology 2013 Jun 6.
PURPOSE:To estimate the proportion of patients presenting with isolated third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerve palsy of presumed microvascular origin versus other causes.
DESIGN:Prospective, multicenter, observational case series.
PARTICIPANTS:A total of 109 patients aged 50 years or older with acute isolated ocular motor nerve palsy. TESTING: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Causes of acute isolated ocular motor nerve palsy (presumed microvascular or other) as determined with early MRI and clinical assessment.
RESULTS:Among 109 patients enrolled in the study, 22 had cranial nerve III palsy, 25 had cranial nerve IV palsy, and 62 had cranial nerve VI palsy. A cause other than presumed microvascular ischemia was identified in 18 patients (16.5%; 95% confidence interval, 10.7-24.6). The presence of 1 or more vasculopathic risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and smoking) was significantly associated with a presumed microvascular cause (P = 0.003, Fisher exact test). Vasculopathic risk factors were also present in 61% of patients (11/18) with other causes. In the group of patients who had vasculopathic risk factors only, with no other significant medical condition, 10% of patients (8/80) were found to have other causes, including midbrain infarction, neoplasms, inflammation, pituitary apoplexy, and giant cell arteritis (GCA). By excluding patients with third cranial nerve palsies and those with GCA, the incidence of other causes for isolated fourth and sixth cranial nerve palsies was 4.7% (3/64).
CONCLUSIONS:In our series of patients with acute isolated ocular motor nerve palsies, a substantial proportion of patients had other causes, including neoplasm, GCA, and brain stem infarction. Brain MRI and laboratory workup have a role in the initial evaluation of older patients with isolated acute ocular motor nerve palsies regardless of whether vascular risk factors are present. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
- Expert's comment concerning Grand Rounds case entitled ''Intracranial hypotension with a sixth cranial nerve palsy subsequent to massive thoracic CSF hygroma: a rare complication of thoracic disc excision" (by A. Khurana, J. Brousil, A. Russo, A. Evans, N. A. Quraishi, B. M. Boszczyk doi:10.1007/s00586-013-2818-1). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Spine J 2013 Jun 1.
- Less invasive transjugular approach with Fallopian bridge technique for facial nerve protection and hearing preservation in surgery of glomus jugulare tumors. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurosurg Rev 2013 Jun 6.
For the past three decades, surgery of glomus jugulare tumors (GJTs) has been characterized by extensive combined head and neck, neuro-otologic, and neurosurgical approaches. In recent years, the authors have modified the operative technique to a less invasive approach for preservation of cranial nerves while achieving satisfactory tumor resection. We evaluated and compared the clinical outcomes of our current less invasive approach with our previous more extensive procedures. The clinical records of 39 cases of GJT surgically treated between 1992 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The less invasive transjugular approach with Fallopian bridge technique (LI-TJ) was used for the most recent five cases. The combined transmastoid-transjugular and high cervical (TM-HC) approach was performed in 30 cases, while four cases were treated with a transmastoid-transsigmoid approach with facial nerve translocation. Operative technique, extent of tumor resection, operating time, hospital stay, and morbidity were examined through the operative records, and a comparison was made between the LI-TJ cases and the more invasive cases. No facial nerve palsy was seen in the LI-TJ group while the TM-HC group demonstrated six cases (17.6 %) of facial palsy (House-Brackmann facial nerve function grading scale grade II and III). The complication rate was 0 % in the LI-TJ group and 16.7 % in the more invasive group. The mean operative time and hospital stay were shorter in the LI-TJ group (6.4 h and 4.3 days, respectively) compared with the more invasive group (10.7 h and 8.0 days, respectively). The LI-TJ approach with Fallopian bridge technique provided adequate tumor resection with cranial preservation and definitive advantage over the more extensive approach.
- [Sixth, seventh and tenth cranial nerve palsies associated with pseudotumor cerebri in a 13-year-old boy.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Fr Ophtalmol 2013 May 31.
We describe the case of a 13-year-old boy who presented to the emergency department with an acute onset paresis of the left abducens, facial and vagus nerves. Bilateral papilledema was seen on fundoscopy. Blood tests and brain magnetic resonance imaging and angiography showed no abnormalities. A lumbar puncture revealed an elevated intracranial pressure (575mmH2O) and clear cerebrospinal fluid. The diagnosis of pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) associated with multiple cranial nerve palsies was made. Treatment with acetazolamide was initiated, resulting in progressive improvement with no sequelae and no clinical recurrence over an 8-month follow-up period. PTC in children can present with a wide spectrum of neurological signs, especially cranial nerve palsies which are most likely related to a pressure-dependent stretching mechanism. In 2007, distinctive diagnostic criteria for pediatric PTC were established, including the presence of any cranial nerve palsy in the absence of an identifiable etiology.
- Intracranial hypotension with a sixth cranial nerve palsy subsequent to massive thoracic CSF hygroma: a rare complication of thoracic disc excision. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Spine J 2013 Jun 1.
BACKGROUND:Thoracic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hygroma is a rare and potentially devastating complication of the anterior thoracic approach to the spine. We present two cases in which this complication resulted in acute cranial nerve palsy and discuss the pathoanatomy and management options in this scenario. CASE REPORTS: Two male patients presented to our department with neurological deterioration due to a giant herniated thoracic disc. The extruded disc fragment was noted pre-operatively to be calcified in both patients. A durotomy was performed at primary disc prolapse resection in the first patient, whereas an incidental durotomy during the procedure caused complication in the second patient. These were repaired primarily or sealed with Tachosil(®). Both patients re-presented with acute diplopia. Imaging of both patients confirmed a massive thoracic cerebrospinal fluid hygroma and evidence of intracranial changes in keeping with intracranial hypotension, but no obvious brain stem shift. The hemithorax was re-explored and the dural repair was revised. The first patient made a full recovery within 3 months. The second patient was managed conservatively and took 5 months for improvement in his ophthalmic symptoms.
CONCLUSIONS:The risk of CSF leakage post-dural repair into the thoracic cavity is raised due to local factors related to the chest cavity. Dural repairs can fail in the presence of an acute increase in CSF pressure, for example whilst sneezing. Intracranial hypotension can result in subsequent hygroma and possibly haematoma formation. The resultant cranial nerve palsy may be managed expectantly except in the setting of symptomatic subdural haematoma or compressive pneumocephaly.
- Primary undifferentiated spindle-cell sarcoma of sella turcica: successful treatment with adjuvant temozolomide. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2013.
Sellar tumours in adults are most commonly pituitary adenomas. Primary spindle cell sarcoma of the sella turcica without a prior history of cranial radiation is extremely rare. We report a case of a large sellar mass with suprasellar and cavernous sinus extension in a geriatric male patient who presented with complete left oculomotor nerve palsy and panhypopituitarism. The patient underwent partial resection of the sellar mass through transcranial route. The pathology of the mass revealed a poorly differentiated spindle cell neoplasm most consistent with a sarcoma. Postoperatively, the size of the residual sellar mass decreased significantly following six cycles of external beam radiation in conjunction with temozolomide.
- Hypoglossal canal dural arteriovenous fistula: incidence and the relationship between symptoms and drainage pattern. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurosurg 2013 May 31.
Object The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, radiographic findings, relationship between presenting symptoms for treatment and drainage pattern, and treatment outcomes of hypoglossal canal dural arteriovenous fistula (HC-dAVF). Methods During a 16-year period, 238 patients underwent endovascular treatment for cranial dAVF at a single center. The incidence, radiographic findings, relationship between presenting symptoms for treatment and drainage pattern, and treatment outcomes of HC-dAVF were retrospectively evaluated. Results The incidence of HC-dAVF was 4.2% (n = 10). Initial symptoms were tinnitus with headache (n = 6), tinnitus only (n = 1), ocular symptoms (n = 1), otalgia (n = 1), and congestive myelopathy (n = 1). Presenting symptoms requiring treatment included ocular symptoms (n = 4), hypoglossal nerve palsy (n = 4), aggravation of myelopathy (n = 1), and aggravation of tinnitus with headache (n = 1). While the affected HC was widened in 4 of 10 patients, hypersignal intensity on source images was conspicuous in all 7 patients who underwent MR angiography (MRA). All ocular symptoms and congestive myelopathy were associated with predominant drainage to superior ophthalmic or perimedullary veins due to antegrade drainage restriction. All patients who underwent transvenous coil embolization (n = 8) or transarterial N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization (n = 1) improved without recurrence. One patient who underwent transarterial particle embolization had a recurrence 12 months posttreatment and was retreated with transvenous embolization. Conclusions The incidence of HC-dAVF was 4.2% of all cranial dAVF patients who underwent endovascular treatment. Source images of MRA helped to accurately diagnose HC-dAVF. More aggressive symptoms may develop as a result of a change in the predominant drainage route due to the development of venous stenosis or obstruction over time. Transvenous coil embolization appears to be the first treatment of choice.
We report a 25-year-old man with a history of uncontrolled migrainous headaches who developed third nerve palsy and sensory loss over V1 distribution of trigeminal nerve, during an attack of severe migraine. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI of the brain and cavernous sinus was normal and did not disclose nerve enhancement. CT angiogram was also normal. The patient recovered uneventfully in 2 weeks on oral steroids. The commonest cranial nerve implicated in ophthalmoplegic migraine is the occulomotor nerve. Involvement of the fifth nerve has never been reported.