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Cystic fibrosis [keywords]
- Small Changes in Gene Expression of Targeted Osmoregulatory Genes When Exposing Marine and Freshwater Threespine Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to Abrupt Salinity Transfers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(9):e106894.
Salinity is one of the key factors that affects metabolism, survival and distribution of fish species, as all fish osmoregulate and euryhaline fish maintain osmotic differences between their extracellular fluid and either freshwater or seawater. The threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is a euryhaline species with populations in both marine and freshwater environments, where the physiological and genomic basis for salinity tolerance adaptation is not fully understood. Therefore, our main objective in this study was to investigate gene expression of three targeted osmoregulatory genes (Na+/K+-ATPase (ATPA13), cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) and a voltage gated potassium channel gene (KCNH4) and one stress related heat shock protein gene (HSP70)) in gill tissue from marine and freshwater populations when exposed to non-native salinity for periods ranging from five minutes to three weeks. Overall, the targeted genes showed highly plastic expression profiles, in addition the expression of ATP1A3 was slightly higher in saltwater adapted fish and KCNH4 and HSP70 had slightly higher expression in freshwater. As no pronounced changes were observed in the expression profiles of the targeted genes, this indicates that the osmoregulatory apparatuses of both the marine and landlocked freshwater stickleback population have not been environmentally canalized, but are able to respond plastically to abrupt salinity challenges.
- BPIFA1 (SPLUNC1) in Airway Host Protection and Respiratory Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2014 Sep 29.
BPI fold-containing family member A1 (BPIFA1), formerly known as SPLUNC1, is one of the most abundant proteins in respiratory secretions and has been identified with increasing frequency in studies of pulmonary disease. Its expression is largely restricted to the respiratory tract, being highly concentrated in the upper airways and proximal trachea. BPIFA1 is highly responsive to airborne pathogens, allergens, and irritants. BPIFA1 actively participates in host protection through antimicrobial, surfactant, airway surface liquid regulation, and immunomodulatory properties. Its expression is modulated in multiple lung diseases including cystic fibrosis, COPD, respiratory malignancies, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. However, the role of BPIFA1 in pulmonary pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. This review highlights the versatile properties of BPIFA1 in antimicrobial protection, and its roles as sensor of environmental exposure and regulator of immune cell function. A greater understanding of the contribution of BPIFA1 to disease pathogenesis and activity may define if BPIFA1 is a biomarker and potential drug target in pulmonary disease.
- HEK-293 cells expressing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR): a model for studying regulation of Cl- transport. [Journal Article]
- Physiol Rep 2014 Sep 1; 2(9)
The Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cell line (HEK-293) readily lends itself to genetic manipulation and is a common tool for biologists to overexpress proteins of interest and study their function and molecular regulation. Although these cells have some limitations, such as an inability to form resistive monolayers necessary for studying transepithelial ion transport, they are nevertheless valuable in studying individual epithelial ion transporters. We report the use of HEK-293 cells to study the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel. While HEK-293 cells endogenously express mRNA for the Cl(-) channels, ClC-2 and TMEM16A, they neither express CFTR mRNA nor protein. Therefore, we stably transfected HEK-293 cells with EGFP-CFTR (HEK-CFTR) and demonstrated CFTR function by measuring forskolin-stimulated iodide efflux. This efflux was inhibited by CFTRinh172, and the protein kinase A inhibitor H89, but not by Ca(2+) chelation. In contrast to intestinal epithelia, forskolin stimulation does not increase surface CFTR expression and does not require intact microtubules in HEK-CFTR. To investigate the role of an endogenous GαS-coupled receptor, we examined the bile acid receptor, TGR5. Although HEK-CFTR cells express TGR5, the potent TGR5 agonist lithocholic acid (LCA; 5-500 μmol/L) did not activate CFTR. Furthermore, forskolin, but not LCA, increased [cAMP]i in HEK-CFTR suggesting that endogenous TGR5 may not be functionally linked to GαS. However, LCA did increase [Ca(2+)]i and interestingly, abolished forskolin-stimulated iodide efflux. Thus, we propose that the stable HEK-CFTR cell line is a useful model to study the multiple signaling pathways that regulate CFTR.
- Development of intestinal ion-transporting mechanisms during smoltification and seawater acclimation in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. [Journal Article]
- J Fish Biol 2014 Oct; 85(4):1227-52.
This study investigated the expression of ion transporters involved in intestinal fluid absorption and presents evidence for developmental changes in abundance and tissue distribution of these transporters during smoltification and seawater (SW) acclimation of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Emphasis was placed on Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase (NKA) and Na(+) , K(+) , Cl(-) co-transporter (NKCC) isoforms, at both transcriptional and protein levels, together with transcription of chloride channel genes. The nka α1c was the dominant isoform at the transcript level in both proximal and distal intestines; also, it was the most abundant isoform expressed in the basolateral membrane of enterocytes in the proximal intestine. This isoform was also abundantly expressed in the distal intestine in the lower part of the mucosal folds. The protein expression of intestinal Nkaα1c increased during smoltification. Immunostaining was localized to the basal membrane of the enterocytes in freshwater (FW) fish, and re-distributed to a lateral position after SW entry. Two other Nka isoforms, α1a and α1b, were expressed in the intestine but were not regulated to the same extent during smoltification and subsequent SW transfer. Their localization in the intestinal wall indicates a house-keeping function in excitatory tissues. The absorptive form of the NKCC-like isoform (sub-apically located NKCC2 and/or Na(+) , Cl(-) co-transporter) increased during smoltification and further after SW transfer. The cellular distribution changed from a diffuse expression in the sub-apical regions during smoltification to clustering of the transporters closer to the apical membrane after entry to SW. Furthermore, transcript abundance indicates that the mechanisms necessary for exit of chloride ions across the basolateral membrane and into the lateral intercellular space are present in the form of one or more of three different chloride channels: cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator I and II and chloride channel 3.
- Cathepsin B contributes to Na+ hyperabsorption in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cultures. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Physiol 2014 Sep 25.
In cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease, the absence of functional CFTR results in Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) hyposecretion and triggers Na(+) hyperabsorption through the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC), which contribute to reduced airway surface liquid (ASL) pH and volume. Prostasin, a membrane-anchored serine protease with trypsin-like substrate specificity has previously been shown to activate ENaC in CF airways. However, prostasin is typically inactive below pH 7.0, suggesting that it may be less relevant in acidic CF airways. Cathepsin B (CTSB) is present in both normal and CF epithelia and is secreted into ASL, but little is known about its function in the airways. We hypothesized that the acidic ASL seen in CF airways may stimulate CTSB to activate ENaC, contributing to Na(+) hyperabsorption and depletion of CF ASL volume. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, CTSB triggered α and γENaC cleavage and induced an increase in ENaC activity. In bronchial epithelia from both normal and CF donor lungs, CTSB localised to the apical membrane. In normal and CF human bronchial epithelial cultures, CTSB was detected at the apical plasma membrane and in the ASL. CTSB activity was significantly elevated in acidic ASL, which correlated with increased abundance of ENaC in the plasma membrane and a reduction in ASL volume. This acid/CTSB-dependent activation of ENaC was ameliorated with the cell-impermeable, CTSB-selective inhibitor CA074, suggesting that CTSB inhibition may have therapeutic relevance. Taken together, our data suggest that CTSB is a pathophysiologically relevant protease that activates ENaC in CF airways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Stemming Early Progression of Airways Disease in Cystic Fibrosis. [EDITORIAL]
- J Pediatr 2014 Sep 23.
- Bacterial Distribution in the Lungs of Children with Protracted Bacterial Bronchitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(9):e108523.
Flexible bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (FB-BAL) is increasingly used for the microbiological confirmation of protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) in children with a chronic wet cough. At our centre, when performing FB-BAL for microbiological diagnosis we sample 6 lobes (including lingula) as this is known to increase the rate of culture positive procedures in children with cystic fibrosis. We investigated if this is also the case in children with PBB.We undertook a retrospective case note review of 50 children investigated for suspected PBB between May 2011 and November 2013.The median (IQR) age at bronchoscopy was 2.9 (1.7-4.4) years and the median (IQR) duration of cough was 11 (8.0-14) months. Positive cultures were obtained from 41/50 (82%) and 16 (39%) of these patients isolated ≥2 organisms. The commonest organisms isolated were Haemophilus influenzae (25 patients), Moraxella catarrhalis (14 patients), Staphylococcus aureus (11 patients) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (8 patients). If only one lobe had been sampled (as per the European Respiratory Society guidance) 17 different organisms would have been missed in 15 patients, 8 of whom would have had no organism cultured at all. The FB-BAL culture results led to an antibiotic other than co-amoxiclav being prescribed in 17/41 (41%) patients.Bacterial distribution in the lungs of children with PBB is heterogeneous and organisms may therefore be missed if only one lobe is sampled at FB-BAL. Positive FB-BAL results are useful in children with PBB and can influence treatment.
- Oxidative Stress Regulates CFTR Gene Expression in Human Airway Epithelial Cells Through a Distal Antioxidant Response Element. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2014 Sep 26.
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) expression in human airway epithelial cells involves the recruitment of distal cis-regulatory elements, which are associated with airway-selective DNase hypersensitive sites (DHS) at -44kb and -35kb from the gene. The -35kb site encompasses an enhancer that is regulated by the immune mediators Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 and 2 (IRF1/2) and by Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y). Here we investigate the -44 kb element, which also has enhancer activity in vitro in airway epithelial cells but is inactive in intestinal epithelial cells. This site contains an antioxidant response element (ARE) that plays a critical role in its function in airway cell lines and primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. The natural antioxidant sulforaphane (SFN) induces nuclear translocation of nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor which regulates genes with AREs in their promoters, many of which are involved in response to injury. Under normal conditions, the -44 kb ARE is occupied by the repressor BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor (Bach1) and v-Maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog K (Mafk) heterodimers. After 2 hrs of SFN treatment, Nrf2 displaces these repressive factors and activates CFTR expression. Site-directed mutagenesis shows that both the ARE and an adjacent NFκB binding site are required for activation of the -44kb element in airway epithelial cells. Moreover, this element is functionally linked to the -35 kb enhancer in modulating CFTR expression in response to environmental stresses in the airway.
- Children and young adults with CF in the USA have better lung function compared with the UK. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Thorax 2014 Sep 25.
People with cystic fibrosis (CF) are managed differently in the USA and UK providing an opportunity to learn from differences in practice patterns.To compare cross-sectional demographics, practice patterns and clinical outcomes between US and UK CF patients.This was a cross-sectional study using 2010 data from patients in the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and the UK Cystic Fibrosis patient registries. The a priori outcome measures of interest were lung function and nutritional status. Descriptive statistics and two sample comparisons were performed. Stratification and multivariable linear regression were used to adjust for confounding.The study cohort included 13 777 children and 11 058 adults from the USA and 3968 children and 3965 adults from the UK. In children, mean body mass index centiles were similar. Lung function (FEV1 and FVC% predicted) was significantly higher in US patients ages 6-25 years of age. In a regression model adjusted for only age, FEV1% predicted was on average 3.31% of predicted (95% CI 2.65 to 3.96) higher in the USA compared with the UK. When adjusted for age, age at diagnosis, gender, pancreatic insufficiency and genotype, FEV1% predicted was on average 3.03% of predicted (95% CI 2.37 to 3.69) higher in the USA compared with the UK These differences persisted despite adjustment for possible confounders. Hypertonic saline and dornase alfa were much more commonly prescribed in US children.Children and young adults with CF have better lung function in the USA compared with the UK despite similar nutritional status.
- 50 years ago in the journal of pediatrics: the use of N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. [Journal Article]
- J Pediatr 2014 Oct; 165(4):721.