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Cystic fibrosis [keywords]
- Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Polymorphism (-1607G) and Disease Severity in Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis in Taiwan. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(6):e66265.
Bronchiectasis is characterized by an irreversible dilatation of bronchi and is associated with lung fibrosis. MMP-1 polymorphism may alter its transcriptional activity, and differentially modulate bronchial destruction and lung fibrosis.To investigate the association of MMP-1 polymorphisms with disease severity in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis patients, 51 normal subjects and 113 patients with bronchiectasis were studied. The associations between MMP-1 polymorphisms, lung function, and disease severity evaluated by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were analyzed.The frequency of MMP-1(-1607G) allele was significantly higher in patients with bronchiectasis than normal subjects (70.8% vs 45.1%, p<0.01). Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was decreased in bronchiectasis patients with 1G/1G (1.2±0.1 L, n = 14) and 1G/2G (1.3±0.1 L, n = 66) genotypes compared to the 2G/2G genotype (1.7±0.1 L, n = 33, p<0.01). Six minute walking distance was decreased in bronchiectasis patients with 1G/1G and 1G/2G compared to that of 2G/2G genotype. Disease severity evaluated by HRCT score significantly increased in bronchiectasis patients with 1G/1G and 1G/2G genotypes compared to that of 2G/2G genotype. Bronchiectasis patients with at least one MMP-1 (-1607G) allele showed increased tendency for hospitalization. Serum levels of pro-MMP-1, active MMP-1 and TGF-β1 were significantly increased in patients with bronchiectasis with 1G/1G and 1G/2G genotype compared with 2G/2G genotype or normal subjects. Under IL-1β stimulation, peripheral blood monocytes from subjects with 1G/2G or 1G/1G genotype secreted higher levels of TGF-β1compared to subjects with 2G/2G genotype.This is the first report to address the influence of MMP-1 polymorphisms on lung function and airway destruction in non-CF bronchiectasis patients. Bronchiectasis patients with MMP-1(-1607G) polymorphism may be more vulnerable to permanent lung fibrosis or airway destruction due to the enhanced MMP-1 and TGF-β1 activity. Upregulated MMP-1 activity results in proteolytic destruction of matrix, and leads to subsequent fibrosis.
- Gene therapy for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. [Journal Article]
- Appl Clin Genet 2012.:29-36.
Gene therapy is being developed as a novel treatment for cystic fibrosis (CF), a condition that has hitherto been widely-researched yet for which no treatment exists that halts the progression of lung disease. Gene therapy involves the transfer of correct copies of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) DNA to the epithelial cells in the airways. The cloning of the CFTR gene in 1989 led to proof-of-principle studies of CFTR gene transfer in vitro and in animal models. The earliest clinical trials in CF patients were conducted in 1993 and used viral and non-viral gene transfer agents in both the nasal and bronchial airway epithelium. To date, studies have focused largely on molecular or bioelectric (chloride secretion) outcome measures, many demonstrating evidence of CFTR expression, but few have attempted to achieve clinical efficacy. As CF is a lifelong disease, turnover of the airway epithelium necessitates repeat administration. To date, this has been difficult to achieve with viral gene transfer agents due to host recognition leading to loss of expression. The UK Cystic Fibrosis Gene Therapy Consortium (Imperial College London, University of Edinburgh and University of Oxford) is currently working on a large and ambitious program to establish the clinical benefits of CF gene therapy. Wave 1, which has reached the clinic, uses a non-viral vector. A single-dose safety trial is nearing completion and a multi-dose clinical trial is shortly due to start; this will be powered for clinically-relevant changes. Wave 2, more futuristically, will look at the potential of lentiviruses, which have long-lasting expression. This review will summarize the current status of translational research in CF gene therapy.
- Use of palivizumab in infants and young children with severe respiratory disease: A delphi study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Pulmonol 2013 Jun 18.
OBJECTIVE:To achieve a consensus of opinion among an expert group of pediatric pulmonologists regarding the appropriateness of the off-label use of palivizumab for some pediatric patients with severe respiratory diseases.
METHODS:A two-round modified Delphi technique was used. A 43-item self-administered questionnaire grouped into seven clinical scenarios was developed. Level of agreement for each statement was ranked on a 0-9 scale with 0 being total disagreement and 9 total agreement. Consensus was sought through the feedback of information and iteration. The final responses were evaluated for median and interquartile range to determine which questions the group had reached consensus about, either affirmatively or negatively.
RESULTS:Consensus was obtained for 24/43 statements (55.81%), including use of palivizumab for prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in children with severe respiratory involvement due to neuromuscular disease, congenital or acquired immunodeficiency, storage disease, cystic fibrosis, diseases involving impaired ciliary clearance, patients operated on esophageal atresia and/or tracheoesophageal fistula, diaphragmatic hernia, bronchopulmonary malformations, severe tracheomalacia, lung transplant recipients and patients in the waiting list for lung transplant, patients oxygen-dependent for severe interstitial pulmonary disease and patients with severe pulmonary hypertension. Consensus against the use of palivizumab as prevention of RSV infection was also achieved in almost all the recurrent wheezing/asthma attacks situations.
CONCLUSION:A set of indication for off-label uses of palivizumab in pediatric pulmonology was developed in accordance with the degree of professional consensus on which they were based. The applicability of the present results to clinical practice should be evaluated individually and reviewed periodically in the light of new emerging evidence. Further studies are needed to add evidence to the most frequent and clinically oriented scenarios that have shown higher levels of uncertainty. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) during CF pulmonary exacerbation: Trends and biomarker correlations. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Pulmonol 2013 Jun 18.
INTRODUCTION:Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by low circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a hormone produced by the liver that governs anabolism and influences immune cell function. Because treatment of CF pulmonary exacerbation (CFPE) often improves body weight and lung function, we questioned whether serum IGF-1 trends were emblematic of these responses. Initially, we compared serum levels between healthy adults with CF and controls of similar age. We then measured serum IGF-1 throughout the CFPE cycle. We also investigated correlations among IGF-1 and other serum biomarkers during CFPE.
METHODS:Anthopometric, spirometric, and demographic data were collected. Serum IGF-1 concentrations were measured by ELISA.
RESULTS:CF subjects in their usual state of health had lower serum IGF-1 levels than controls. Serum IGF-1 concentrations fell significantly from baseline at the beginning of CFPE. Treatment with intravenous antibiotics was associated with significant improvement in serum IGF-1 levels, body mass index (BMI), and percent-predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 %). At early and late CFPE, serum IGF-1 was directly correlated with FEV1 %, serum iron, hemoglobin concentration, and transferrin saturation (TSAT) and indirectly correlated with alpha-1-antitrypsin.
CONCLUSIONS:This study not only supports the paradigm that CF is characterized by IGF-1 deficiency but also that trends in lung function, nutritional status, and serum IGF-1 are related. Improvements in all three parameters after antibiotics for CFPE likely highlight the connection between lung function and nutritional status in CF. Close correlations among IGF-1 and iron-related hematologic parameters suggest that IGF-1 may participate in CF iron homeostasis, another process that is known to be influenced by CFPE. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Continuous infusion meropenem and ticarcillin-clavulanate in pediatric cystic fibrosis patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Pulmonol 2013 Jun 17.
Aztreonam, cefepime, and ceftazidime are anti-pseudomonal beta-lactam antibiotics which have been previously reported to be administered by continuous infusion (CI) in pediatric CF patients. We present two cases administering intravenous (IV) meropenem and ticarcillin-clavulanate by CI in pediatric CF patients. The delivery of beta-lactam antibiotics via CI should be considered in order to optimize the pharmacodynamics (PD) of beta-lactams in the treatment of acute pulmonary exacerbations (APE). Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Desquamative interstitial pneumonia in a child related to cigarette smoke. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Pulmonol 2013 Jun 17.
An 8-year-old white male was referred to our clinic for a 1-year history of decreased appetite and no weight gain. His entire workup failed to demonstrate cystic fibrosis, or any infectious or immune-related diseases. Chest imaging and clinical picture suggested parenchymal lung disease. Histopathology examination of the video-assisted thoracoscopic biopsy of his lungs showed a desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP)-like pattern that resembled that of adult smokers with the same disease. Genes for surfactant proteins B and C and the transporter ABCA3 were all negative. Furthermore, lack of any genetic disorder for surfactant proteins, along with his history of heavy exposure to 10 pack-years of indoor secondhand smoke suggests that this child's DIP is due to secondhand cigarette exposure. He had nearly complete resolution of his symptoms after a year of treatments with pulse steroid and hydroxycholoroquine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of cigarette smoke-related DIP reported in a child. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- A Comprehensive Assay for CFTR Mutational Analysis Using Next-Generation Sequencing. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Chem 2013 Jun 17.
BACKGROUND:Cystic fibrosis is a life-threatening genetic disorder that has been associated with mutations in the CFTR [cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (ATP-binding cassette sub-family C, member 7)] gene. Hundreds of CFTR mutations have been detected to date. Current CFTR genotyping assays target a subset of these mutations, particularly a mutation panel recommended by the American College of Medical Genetics for carrier screening of the general population. Fast sequencing of the entire coding sequence in a scalable manner could expand the detection of CFTR mutations and facilitate management of costs and turnaround times in the clinical laboratory.
METHODS:We describe a proof-of-concept CFTR assay that uses PCR target enrichment and next-generation sequencing on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine™ (PGM™) platform.
RESULTS:The scalability of the assay was demonstrated, with an average mean depth of coverage ranging from 500× to 3500×, depending on the number of multiplexed patient samples and the Ion Torrent chip used. In a blinded study of 79 previously genotyped patient DNA samples and cell lines, our assay detected most of the mutations, including single-nucleotide variants, small insertions and deletions, and large copy-number variants. The reproducibility was 100% for detecting mutations in independent runs. Our assay demonstrated high specificity, with only 2 false-positive calls (at 2184delA) found in 2 samples caused by a sequencing error in a homopolymer stretch of sequence. The detection rate for variants of unknown significance was very low in the targeted region.
CONCLUSIONS:With continued optimization and system refinements, PGM sequencing promises to be a powerful, rapid, and scalable means of clinical diagnostic sequencing.
- Electrochemical detection of chloride levels in sweat using silver nanoparticles: a basis for the preliminary screening for cystic fibrosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Analyst 2013 Jun 18.
Cystic fibrosis is a common disease which has an associated characteristic symptom of high sweat chloride content. Thus, chloride ion quantification in sweat is important towards the screening of cystic fibrosis. Electrochemical methods, being cost effective and convenient, can be exploited for this. The electrochemical oxidation of silver nanoparticles in the absence of chloride ions gives one voltammetric signal related to the oxidation of silver to silver ions. The presence of chloride ions in the solution causes the appearance of an additional signal at a lower potential which is related to the oxidation of silver to silver chloride. This signal has a peak height which correlates linearly with the concentration of chloride ions from 2 mM to 40 mM when the electrochemical experiments are performed on silver nanoparticle modified screen printed electrodes. Thus, reliable quantification was found to be achievable. Furthermore, chloride ion levels of diluted synthetic sweat samples are measured accurately with the modified electrodes. Thus, the detection of the chloride ion concentration with a silver nanoparticle modified electrode provides a proof-of-concept for a point-of-care system for preliminary screening of cystic fibrosis.
- Vaccines for preventing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013 Jun 17.:CD001399.
BACKGROUND:Chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis results in progressive lung damage. Once colonisation of the lungs with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, it is almost impossible to eradicate. Vaccines, aimed at reducing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have been developed.
OBJECTIVES:To assess the effectiveness of vaccination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis. SEARCH
METHODS:We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register using the terms vaccines AND pseudomonas (last search 30 May 2013) and PubMed using the terms vaccin* AND cystic fibrosis (last search 30 May 2013).
SELECTION CRITERIA:Randomised trials (published or unpublished) comparing Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccines (oral, parenteral or intranasal) with control vaccines or no intervention in cystic fibrosis.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:The authors independently selected trials, assessed them and extracted data.
MAIN RESULTS:Six trials were identified. Two trials were excluded since they were not randomised and one old, small trial because it was not possible to assess whether is was randomised. The three included trials comprised 483, 476 and 37 patients, respectively. No data have been published from one of the large trials, but the company stated in a press release that the trial failed to confirm the results from an earlier study and that further clinical development was suspended. In the other large trial, relative risk for chronic infection was 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.55 to 1.49), and in the small trial, the risk was also close to one. In the large trial, one patient was reported to have died in the observation period. In that trial, 227 adverse events (4 severe) were registered in the vaccine group and 91 (1 severe) in the control group. There was a marked rise in flagella antibody titres in the vaccine group and no change in the placebo group (P < 0.0001). AUTHORS'
CONCLUSIONS:Vaccines against Pseudomonas aeruginosa cannot be recommended.
- Distribution of Allelic Variants of the Chromosomal Gene bla OXA-114-like in Achromobacter xylosoxidans Clinical Isolates. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Microbiol 2013 Jun 15.
Achromobacter xylosoxidans is increasingly being documented in cystic fibrosis patients. The bla OXA-114 gene has been recognized as a naturally occurring chromosomal gene, exhibiting different allelic variants. In the population under study, the bla OXA-114-like gene was found in 19/19 non-epidemiological-related clinical isolates of A. xylosoxidans with ten different alleles including 1 novel OXA-114 variant.