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Cystic fibrosis [keywords]
- Bisphosphonate therapy for osteogenesis imperfecta. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014 Jul 23.:CD005088.
Osteogenesis imperfecta is caused by a genetic defect resulting in an abnormal type I collagen bone matrix which typically results in multiple fractures with little or no trauma. Bisphosphonates are used in an attempt to increase bone mineral density and reduce these fractures in people with osteogenesis imperfecta.To assess the effectiveness and safety of bisphosphonates in increasing bone mineral density, reducing fractures and improving clinical function in people with osteogenesis imperfecta.We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Inborn Errors of Metabolism Trials Register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of journals and conference proceedings. We additionally searched PubMed and major conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search: 07 April 2014.Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing bisphosphonates to placebo, no treatment, or comparator interventions in all types of osteogenesis imperfecta.Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included trials.Fourteen trials (819 participants) were included. Overall, the trials were mainly at a low risk of bias, although selective reporting was an issue in several of the trials. Data for oral bisphosphonates versus placebo could not be aggregated; a statistically significant difference favouring oral bisphosphonates in fracture risk reduction and number of fractures was noted in two trials. No differences were reported in the remaining three trials which commented on fracture incidence. Five trials reported data for spine bone mineral density; all found statistically significant increased lumbar spine density z scores for at least one time point studied. For intravenous bisphosphonates versus placebo, aggregated data from two trials showed no statistically significant difference for the number of participants with at least one fracture, risk ratio 0.56 (95% confidence interval 0.30 to 1.06). In the remaining trial no statistically significant difference was noted in fracture incidence. For spine bone mineral density, no statistically significant difference was noted in the aggregated data from two trials, mean difference 9.96 (95% confidence interval -2.51 to 22.43). In the remaining trial a statistically significant difference in mean per cent change in spine bone mineral density z score favoured intravenous bisphosphonates at six and 12 months. Data describing growth, bone pain, and functional outcomes after oral or intravenous bisphosphonate therapy, or both, as compared to placebo were incomplete among all studies, but do not show consistent improvements in these outcomes. Two studies compared different doses of bisphosphonates. No differences were found between doses when bone mineral density, fractures, and height or length z score were assessed. One study compared oral versus intravenous bisphosphonates and found no differences in primary outcomes. Two studies compared the intravenous bisphosphonates zoledronic acid and pamidronate. There were no significant differences in primary outcome. However, the studies were at odds as to the relative benefit of zoledronic acid over pamidronate for lumbosacral bone mineral density at 12 months.Bisphophonates are commonly prescribed to individuals with osteogenesis imperfecta. Current evidence, albeit limited, demonstrates oral or intravenous bisphosphonates increase bone mineral density in children and adults with this condition. These were not shown to be different in their ability to increase bone mineral density. It is unclear whether oral or intravenous bisphosphonate treatment consistently decreases fractures, though multiple studies report this independently and no studies report an increased fracture rate with treatment. The studies included here do not show bisphosphonates conclusively improve clinical status (reduce pain; improve growth and functional mobility) in people with osteogenesis imperfecta. Given their current widespread and expected continued use, the optimal method, duration of therapy and long-term safety of bisphosphonate therapy require further investigation. In addition, attention should be given to long-term fracture reduction and improvement in quality of life indicators.
- Cystic fibrosis and AA amyloidosis: a survey in the French cystic fibrosis network. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Amyloid 2014 Jul 23.:1-7.
Abstract Introduction: To define the characteristics of CF patients developing AA amyloidosis. Methods: A 30-year retrospective survey conducted within the national French CF network to identify cases of CF associated with AA amyloidosis. Results: Nine cases of AA amyloidosis were identified (CF prevalence in France is approximately 6000 patients) and sufficient data were collected in six. The clinical presentation was renal disease in four cases, a compressive goiter in one case, and epigastric pain in one case. Organ involvement included kidney disease in all cases (proteinuria, with a median age at onset of 24 years, 4 cases with nephrotic syndrome, 5 with renal failure); gastrointestinal (4 cases with duodenal ulcer); thyroid (2 cases); and hepatobiliary system (3 cases). The median age at diagnosis of CF was 6.5 years. Five patients had pancreatic insufficiency. All patients had chronic respiratory infections requiring intravenous antibiotics several times a year. Five patients have died, at a median age of 29 years and a median duration of 6 years after the onset of proteinuria. Conclusion: AA amyloidosis is a rare but morbid complication of CF. Renal involvement is predominant.
- Disease-modifying genes and monogenic disorders: experience in cystic fibrosis. [Journal Article, Review]
- Appl Clin Genet 2014.:133-46.
The mechanisms responsible for the determination of phenotypes are still not well understood; however, it has become apparent that modifier genes must play a considerable role in the phenotypic heterogeneity of Mendelian disorders. Significant advances in genetic technologies and molecular medicine allow huge amounts of information to be generated from individual samples within a reasonable time frame. This review focuses on the role of modifier genes using the example of cystic fibrosis, the most common lethal autosomal recessive disorder in the white population, and discusses the advantages and limitations of candidate gene approaches versus genome-wide association studies. Moreover, the implications of modifier gene research for other monogenic disorders, as well as its significance for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic approaches are summarized. Increasing insight into modifying mechanisms opens up new perspectives, dispelling the idea of genetic disorders being caused by one single gene.
- Digestive system dysfunction in cystic fibrosis: Challenges for nutrition therapy. [REVIEW]
- Dig Liver Dis 2014 Jul 19.
Cystic fibrosis can affect food digestion and nutrient absorption. The underlying mutation of the cystic fibrosis trans-membrane regulator gene depletes functional cystic fibrosis trans-membrane regulator on the surface of epithelial cells lining the digestive tract and associated organs, where Cl(-) secretion and subsequently secretion of water and other ions are impaired. This alters pH and dehydrates secretions that precipitate and obstruct the lumen, causing inflammation and the eventual degradation of the pancreas, liver, gallbladder and intestine. Associated conditions include exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, impaired bicarbonate and bile acid secretion and aberrant mucus formation, commonly leading to maldigestion and malabsorption, particularly of fat and fat-soluble vitamins. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is used to address this insufficiency. The susceptibility of pancreatic lipase to acidic and enzymatic inactivation and decreased bile availability often impedes its efficacy. Brush border digestive enzyme activity and intestinal uptake of certain disaccharides and amino acids await clarification. Other complications that may contribute to maldigestion/malabsorption include small intestine bacterial overgrowth, enteric circular muscle dysfunction, abnormal intestinal mucus, and intestinal inflammation. However, there is some evidence that gastric digestive enzymes, colonic microflora, correction of fatty acid abnormalities using dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and emerging intestinal biomarkers can complement nutrition management in cystic fibrosis.
- Medical consensus, guidelines, and position papers: A policy for the ECFS. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Cyst Fibros 2014 Jul 19.
The terms consensus, guideline and position paper are sometimes employed as if they were interchangeable, but the purpose of such documents and the robustness of advice vary as the evidence base does not have the same depth in each. The Board of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society deemed it to be helpful to provide a short commentary on the definition of these terms, on their interconnections and on how ECFS considers them in documents endorsed by the society.
- Physical Capacity-Related Genetic Polymorphisms in Children With Cystic Fibrosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Exerc Sci 2014 Jul 15.
In patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), physical capacity (PC) has been correlated with mortality risk. In turn, PC is dependent on genetic factors. This study examines several polymorphisms associated with PC and health -related phenotype traits (VO2peak, FEV1, FVC, PImax and muscular strength) in a group of children with CF (n=66, primary purpose). The same analyses were also performed in a control group of healthy children (n=113, secondary purpose). The polymorphisms determined were classified as muscle function polymorphisms (ACE rs1799752; AGT rs699; ACTN3 rs1815739; PTK2 rs7843014 and rs7460; MSTN rs1805086; TRHR rs7832552; NOS3 rs2070744) or energy metabolism polymorphisms (PPARGC1A rs8192678; NRF1 rs6949152; NRF2 rs12594956; TFAM rs1937; PPARD rs2267668; ACSL1 rs6552828). No significant polymorphism/phenotype correlations were detected in children with CF, with marginal associations being observed between NOS3 rs2070744 and VO2peak and FEV1, as well as between PPARGC1A rs8192678 and FEV1. Overall, similar findings were observed in the control group, i.e., no major associations. The PC-related polymorphisms examined seem to have no effects on the PC or health of children with CF.
- Efficacy of Ciprofloxacin-Clarithromycin Combination Against Drug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Mature Biofilm Using In Vitro Experimental Model. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Microb Drug Resist 2014 Jul 22.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the main cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis patients and eradication of its biofilm represents a substantial problem clinically. In this study, biofilm of a cystic fibrosis strain P. aeruginosa PACI22 was established and confocal laser scanning microscopy was utilized for biofilm visualization. A quantitative time-kill biofilm model was implemented in vitro to assess the biocidal effect of ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, and their combination at concentration levels ranged from 0.5× to 64× minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBIC) against the biofilm and the mean log bacterial densities (Log CFU/ml) retrieved from the biofilm were monitored by frequent sampling at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 hr throughout the experiment. The results revealed that none of the tested antibiotics alone could completely eradicate the biofilm-ensconced bacteria at 0.5-64× MBIC values after 24 hr of treatment. Conversely, ciprofloxacin-clarithromycin combination at 32-64× MBIC entirely exterminated the biofilm. Furthermore, a substantial in vitro synergism between ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin against the biofilm was experimentally verified. This promising synergism affords scientific rationale for further in vivo investigations to evaluate the therapeutic potential of this combination for treatment of chronic pulmonary infections caused by P. aeruginosa biofilms.
- Long-Term Experience With Pancreatic Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ZENPEP®) in Infants With Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency Associated With Cystic Fibrosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2014 Jul 21.
The objective was to determine whether infants with CF, who developed EPI in early infancy, would tolerate long-term treatment with ZENPEP (pancrelipase) delayed-release capsules, containing 3000 USP units of lipase/capsule and demonstrate consistent long-term growth. The most common TEAEs were diarrhea, vomiting, and constipation (mild or moderate). At study completion, median weight-for-age percentiles increased from 22nd to 49th, median length-for-age percentiles increased from 36.5th to 42nd, and median weight-for-length percentiles increased from 41.5th to 55.5th. Long-term treatment (up to 12 months) of infants with EPI due to CF with Zenpep was well tolerated and associated with improved growth parameters. This is the first long-term study of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy conducted in this patient population.
- Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Ciprofloxacin Dry Powder for Inhalation in Cystic Fibrosis: A Phase I, Randomized, Single-Dose, Dose-Escalation Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 2014 Jul 22.
Abstract Background: Reliable, reproducible deposition to the lung is a major prerequisite for the clinical use of inhaled drugs. Ciprofloxacin dry powder for inhalation (ciprofloxacin DPI; Bayer HealthCare AG, Leverkusen, Germany) is an antibacterial therapy in development using Novartis' PulmoSphere™ technology (Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland) for the targeted delivery of ciprofloxacin to the lung via a T-326 inhaler. Methods: This randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study investigated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of single-dose ciprofloxacin DPI (32.5 mg [n=6] or 65 mg [n=6]) and matching placebo (n=4) in adult patients with cystic fibrosis and stable pulmonary status (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec ≥30%) who were colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: Peak sputum concentrations of 34.9 mg/L (range 2.03-229) and 376 mg/L (8.95-1283) for ciprofloxacin 32.5 mg and 65 mg, respectively, indicated targeting of ciprofloxacin DPI to the lung. This contrasted with low systemic exposure (peak plasma concentrations: 0.0790 mg/L [32.5 mg] and 0.182 mg/L [65 mg]). Single-dose ciprofloxacin DPI 32.5 mg or 65 mg was well tolerated with similar incidences of adverse events across all groups. No deaths, discontinuations, treatment-related serious adverse events, or clinically relevant changes in laboratory parameters, vital signs, or lung function tests were reported. Conclusions: Lung targeting with high pulmonary concentrations of ciprofloxacin combined with low systemic exposure was confirmed. These results support further study of ciprofloxacin DPI as a potentially more convenient alternative to nebulized antibiotic solutions for managing chronic lung infections.
- Synergy of Silver Nanoparticles and Aztreonam against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Biofilms. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2014 Jul 21.
Pathogenic bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), exhibit increased antimicrobial resistance due in part to the inherent architecture of the biofilm community. The protection provided by the biofilm limits antimicrobial dispersion and penetration and reduces the efficacy of antibiotics that normally inhibit planktonic cell growth. Thus, alternative antimicrobial strategies are required to combat persistent infections. The antimicrobial properties of silver have been known for decades, but recently silver and silver-containing compounds have seen renewed interest as antimicrobial agents for treating bacterial infections. The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy of citrate-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of various sizes, alone and in combination with the monobactam antibiotic aztreonam, for the ability to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms. Among the different sizes of AgNPs examined, 10 nm nanoparticles were most effective at inhibiting the recovery of P. aeruginosa biofilm cultures and there was a synergy of inhibition when combined with sub-minimal inhibitory concentrations of aztreonam. Visualization of biofilms treated with combinations of 10 nm AgNPs and aztreonam indicates the synergistic bactericidal effect is likely caused by better penetration of the small AgNPs into the biofilm matrix, which in turn enhances the deleterious effects of aztreonam against the cell envelope of P. aeruginosa within the biofilms. These data suggest that small AgNPs synergistically enhance the antimicrobial effect of aztreonam against P. aeruginosa in vitro and reveal a potential role for small AgNP/antibiotic combinations in treating patients with chronic infections.