Decubitus Ulcers [keywords]
- Comparison of the effects of remifentanil-based general anesthesia and popliteal nerve block on postoperative pain and hemodynamic stability in diabetic patients undergoing distal foot amputation: A retrospective observational study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Jul; 95(29):e4302.
Diabetic foot ulcer is the most common cause of diabetes-associated nontraumatic lower extremity amputation. Most patients who undergo lower extremity amputation for a diabetic foot have had diabetes for a long time and suffer from multiorgan disorder; thus, it can be a challenge to ensure sufficient anesthetic and analgesic effects while maintaining stable hemodynamics. Recently, peripheral nerve block has gained popularity owing to its attenuating effects of systemic concerns. This retrospective observational study aimed to compare the effects of remifentanil-based general anesthesia (GEA) and popliteal nerve block (PNB) on postoperative pain and hemodynamic stability in diabetic patients undergoing distal foot amputation.A total of 59 consecutive patients with a diabetic foot who underwent distal foot amputation between January 2012 and May 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients received remifentanil-based GEA (GEA group, n = 32) or PNB (PNB group, n = 27). The primary outcomes were to evaluate postoperative analgesic effects and perioperative hemodynamics. Also, postoperative pulmonary complications and 6-month mortality were assessed as secondary outcomes.Significant differences in pain scores using numeric rating scale were observed between the groups in a linear mixed model analysis (PGroup×Time = 0.044). Even after post hoc analysis with the Bonferroni correction, the numeric rating scale scores were significantly lower in the PNB group. Furthermore, patients in the PNB group required less pethidine during the first 6 hours after surgery (27 ± 28 vs 9 ± 18 mg; P = 0.013). The GEA group had a lower mean blood pressure (Bonferroni-corrected P < 0.01), despite receiving more ephedrine (P < 0.001). Significantly more patients in the GEA group suffered from postoperative pneumonia and required the management in intensive care unit (P = 0.030 and 0.038, respectively). However, the groups did not differ in terms of 6-month mortality.This study demonstrated that compared with remifentanil-based GEA, PNB might be a favorable option for diabetic patients undergoing distal foot amputation, despite the lack of significant mortality benefits, as PNB was associated with improved postoperative analgesia, hemodynamic stability, and a low incidence of pulmonary complications during the immediate postoperative period, especially in high-risk patients.
- Racial and Insurance Status Disparities in Patient Safety Indicators among Hospitalized Patients. [Journal Article]
- Ethn Dis 2016; 26(3):443-52.
To examine the association between patient race/ethnicity, insurance status, and their interaction with patient safety indicators among hospitalized patients.Cross-sectional study was conducted. Data were extracted from the 2009 National Inpatient Sample. A total of 3,052,268 patient safety indicator-related discharges were identified. Dependent variables were 11 patient safety indicators (PSI) whereas independent variables included race/ethnicity and insurance status.As compared with White patients, African American patients were more likely to experience pressure ulcer, post-operative hemorrhage or hematoma, and post-operative pulmonary embolism (PE) or deep vein thrombosis (DVE); Asian/Pacific Islander patients were more likely to experience pressure ulcer, post-operative PE or DVT, and two obstetric care PSIs; whereas Hispanic/Latino patients were more likely to experience post-operative physiometabolic derangement and accidental puncture/laceration. As compared with patients with private insurance, Medicaid patients were more likely to experience pressure ulcer, post-operative physiological metabolic derangement, post-operative PE or DVT, post-operative respiratory failure, post-operative wound dehiscence, and death among surgeries. However, both obstetric care PSIs showed that African Americans, Hispanics, and uninsured patients were less likely to incur them in comparison with their respective counterparts. Furthermore, strong interactive effects between African American and Medicaid on PSIs were detected.Although mixed findings in disparities in PSIs were observed in our study, Asian/Pacific Islander patients and Medicaid patients seem to be the most vulnerable. Further, interactive effects between African American and Medicaid indicate that poverty may be a key factor related to disparities in health care. Future research is merited to identify underlying factors that are related to PSIs among Asian/Pacific Islander patients. Strategies are needed to improve PSIs among Medicaid patients, especially during the current Medicaid program expansion due to the implementation of the Affordable Care Act.
- Systematic review of behavioral and educational interventions to prevent pressure ulcers in adults with spinal cord injury. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Rehabil 2016 Jul 20.
To investigate the efficacy of behavioral or educational interventions in preventing pressure ulcers in community-dwelling adults with spinal cord injury (SCI).Cochrane, Clinical Trials, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched in June 2016. The search combined related terms for pressure ulcers, spinal cord injury, and behavioral intervention. Each database was searched from its inception with no restrictions on year of publication.Inclusion criteria required that articles were (a) published in a peer-reviewed journal in English, (b) evaluated a behavioral or educational intervention for pressure ulcer prevention, (c) included community-dwelling adult participants aged 18 years and older with SCI, (d) measured pressure ulcer occurrence, recurrence, or skin breakdown as an outcome, and (e) had a minimum of 10 participants. All study designs were considered. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts. Extracted information included study design, sample size, description of the intervention and control condition, pressure ulcer outcome measures, and corresponding results.The search strategy yielded 444 unique articles of which five met inclusion criteria. Three were randomized trials and two were quasi-experimental designs. A total of 513 participants were represented. The method of pressure ulcer or skin breakdown measurement varied widely among studies. Results on pressure ulcer outcomes were null in all studies. Considerable methodological problems with recruitment, intervention fidelity, and participant adherence were reported.At present, there is no positive evidence to support the efficacy of behavioral or educational interventions in preventing pressure ulcer occurrence in adults with SCI.
- Influence of Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy on Tissue Oxygenation in Diabetic Feet. [Journal Article]
- Adv Skin Wound Care 2016 Aug; 29(8):364-70.
Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has become a common wound care treatment modality for a variety of wounds. Several previous studies have reported that NPWT increases blood flow in the wound bed. However, NPWT might decrease tissue oxygenation in the wound bed because the foam sponge of NPWT compresses the wound bed under the influence of the applied negative pressure. Adequate tissue oxygenation is an essential consideration during diabetic foot management, and the foot is more sensitive to ischemia than any other region. Furthermore, the issue as to whether NPWT reduces or increases tissue oxygenation in diabetic feet has never been correctly addressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of NPWT on tissue oxygenation in diabetic feet.Transcutaneous partial oxygen pressures (TcPO2) were measured to determine tissue oxygenation levels beneath NPWT dressings on 21 feet of 21 diabetic foot ulcer patients.A TcPO2 sensor was fixed at the tarsometatarsal area of contralateral unwounded feet. A suction pressure of -125 mm Hg was applied until TcPO2 reached a steady state. The TcPO2 values for diabetic feet were measured before, during, and after NPWT.The TcPO2 levels decreased significantly after applying NPWT in all patients. Mean TcPO2 values before, during, and after therapy were 44.6 (SD, 15.2), 6.0 (SD, 7.1), and 40.3 (SD, 16.4) mm Hg (P < .01), respectively.These results show that NPWT significantly reduces tissue oxygenation levels in diabetic feet.
- A Quantitative, Pooled Analysis and Systematic Review of Controlled Trials on the Impact of Electrical Stimulation Settings and Placement on Pressure Ulcer Healing Rates in Persons With Spinal Cord Injuries. [Journal Article]
- Ostomy Wound Manage 2016 Jul; 62(7):16-34.
Pressure ulcers (PrUs) are among the most common secondary complications following spinal cord injury (SCI). External electrical current applied to a wound is believed to mimic the body's natural bioelectricity and to restart and stimulate endogenous electrical fields to promote wound healing. A systematic review was conducted to critically appraise and synthesize updated evidence on the impact of electrical stimulation (ES) versus standard wound care (comprising cleansing, dressing, nutrition, and debridement as necessary) and/or sham stimulation on PrU healing rates in persons with SCIs. Medline, Embase, the Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, and Cochrane Central were searched using the terms spinal cord injury, electrical stimulation, and pressure ulcer in free text and MESH terms. Publications were limited to peer-reviewed, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs (CCTs) published in English from 1985 to 2014. The methodological quality of the RCTs was evaluated using the Jadad scale; CCTs were assessed using the Downs and Black tool. Pooled analyses were performed to calculate the mean difference (MD) for continuous data, odds ratio (OR) for dichotomous data, and 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 8 trials were reviewed - 6 RCTs and 2 CCTs included a total of 517 SCI participants who had at least 1 PrU. The number of patients per study ranged from 7 to 150 and the number of wounds from 7 to 192. Comparison models included ES irrespective of current type and placement of electrodes against sham/no ES (7 trials), ES delivered by electrodes overlaid on the ulcer versus sham/no ES (4 trials), ES delivered by electrodes placed on intact skin around the ulcer versus sham/no ES (4 trials), ES delivered by electrodes overlaid on the wound bed versus placed on intact skin around the ulcer (1 trial), ES with pulsed current versus sham/no ES (6 trials), ES with constant current versus sham/no ES (2 trials), pulsed current ES versus constant current ES (1 trial), number of PrUs closed (2 trials), and incidence of PrU worsened by ES versus sham/no ES (2 trials). The overall quality of studies was moderate; 2 trials were rated as good quality, 2 were poor quality, and 4 were moderate. Evidence showed ES increased the rate of PrU healing in patients with SCI (MD 4.97, 95% CI 1.97-7.98, P = 0.00; N = 7 studies and 559 ulcers), and a higher proportion of ulcers healed (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.17-6.14, P = 0.02; N = 2 studies and 226 ulcers). The data suggest pulsed current ES increased the healing rate (MD 6.27, 95% CI 2.77-9.78, P = 0.0005; N = 6 studies and 509 ulcers) more than constant current (MD 4.50, 95% CI 1.19-10.18, P = 0.12; N = 2 studies and 200 ulcers). In addition, wounds with electrodes overlaying the wound bed seemed to heal ulcer faster than wounds with electrodes placed on intact skin around the ulcer. Future preclinical, in vivo models and clinical trials examining the impact of electrodes configuration for PrU healing are warranted.
- Determining End Points for Critical Limb Ischemia Interventions. [Journal Article, Review]
- Tech Vasc Interv Radiol 2016 Jun; 19(2):104-12.
Critical limb ischemia is a condition that has increased in prevalence and carries a high degree of morbidity. Although endovascular therapy for treatment of patients with critical limb ischemia has undergone significant advances with improved outcomes over the past decade, these patients often have multilevel disease, and it may take weeks or months for ulceration healing. For this reason, the acceptable therapeutic end points during and immediately following revascularization remain somewhat obscure. There are multiple tools available to guide the treating vascular specialist in this regard. Establishment of in-line flow to the foot and the angiosome containing the ulceration, appearance of a "wound blush," restoration of pulses, and bleeding at the ulcer site are basic tenets intraprocedurally. Postprocedural noninvasive testing including the ankle-brachial and toe-brachial indices, segmental pressure measurements, pulse volume recordings, transcutaneous oxygen tension, skin perfusion pressures (SPPs), and toe pressures all play a role in determining the likelihood of clinical improvement. Newer technologies such as two-dimensional (2D) perfusion angiography, fluorescence angiography, and tissue oxygen saturation mapping may allow better real-time assessment of flow restoration. In combination with close clinical follow-up and wound care, these tools provide treating physicians with a better grasp of the necessary end points to optimize patients for clinical improvement.
- Chronic Conditions and Self-Reported Health in a Medicare Advantage Plan Population. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Popul Health Manag 2016 Jul 15.
Self-reported changes in physical and mental health by members are an important dimension by which the quality of a Medicare Advantage (MA) plan is rated by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. To better target their interventions, MA plans need a better understanding of what observed characteristics-including clinical health conditions-predict self-reported changes in physical and mental health. This study explored how one MA plan's survey of participants' responses regarding changes in physical and mental health is associated with a set of chronic conditions as well as sociodemographic characteristics. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to examine the influence of 9 chronic conditions and age, sex, race, education, dual eligibility status (Medicare/Medicaid eligible), marital and living status, and assistance with survey completion on changes in patient-reported physical and mental health. Six conditions-dementia (P < 0.001), diabetes (P = 0.003), congestive heart failure (P = 0.002), cerebrovascular disease (P = 0.001), coronary artery disease (CAD) (P < 0.001), and rheumatoid arthritis (P < 0.001)-were associated with self-reported worsening of overall physical health. Four conditions-dementia (P < 0.002), diabetes (P = 0.047), CAD (P = 0.001), and decubitus ulcers (P = 0.033)-were associated with self-reported worsening of overall mental health. Females, married respondents, and those needing assistance with survey completion were more likely to report worsening of their mental health. Enrollees older than age 65 actually were less likely to report worsening of overall mental health. Findings provide insight into which members may be more susceptible to reporting that their physical or mental health is worsening. (Population Health Management 2016;XX:XXX-XXX).
- The Use of Best Practice in the Treatment of a Complex Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Case Report. [Case Reports]
- Healthcare (Basel) 2016; 4(1)
Published guidelines for effective management of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) include total contact casting (TCC). The purpose of this case study is to describe the application of best practice guidelines for the treatment of a diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) in a complex patient where TCC offloading could not be utilized.The patient was a 47 year-old female with a five-plus year history of a full-thickness DFU on the left plantar mid-foot. Treatment included sharp and ultrasound debridement, the use of a silver hydrofiber dressing, edema management via compression therapy, negative pressure wound therapy, offloading via customized 1/4 inch adhesive-backed felt applied to the plantar foot in addition to an offloading boot and use of a wheelchair, patient education regarding diabetes management, and the application of a bilayered living skin-equivalent biologic dressing.At 15 weeks the wound was closed and the patient was transitioned into diabetic footwear.The felt offloading was a beneficial alternative to TCC. The patient's longer than average healing rate may have been complicated by the duration of her wound, her 41 year history of diabetes, and the fact that gold standard offloading (TCC) was not able to be used. Further research is needed regarding the use of felt for offloading, such as application technique for wounds on different areas of the foot, comparison of different types of felt, and the use of felt in conjunction with various offloading devices.
- Building a Biopsychosocial Conceptual Framework to Explore Pressure Ulcer Pain for Hospitalized Patients. [Journal Article]
- Healthcare (Basel) 2016; 4(1)
Although pressure ulcers are a prevalent condition, pain associated with pressure ulcers is not fully understood. Indeed, previous studies do not shed light on the association between pressure ulcer stages and the experience of pain. Especially, pain characteristics of suspected deep tissue injury, which is a new category that was recently added by the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, are yet unknown. This is concerning because the incidence of pressure ulcers in hospitalized patients has increased exponentially over the last two decades, and health care providers are struggling to ensure providing adequate care. Thus, in order to facilitate the development of effective interventions, this paper presents a conceptual framework to explore pressure ulcer pain in hospitalized patients. The concepts were derived from a biopsychosocial model of pain, and the relationships among each concept were identified through a literature review. Major propositions are presented based on the proposed conceptual framework, which integrates previous research on pressure ulcer pain, to ultimately improve understanding of pain in hospitalized patients with pressure ulcers.
- The revised pressure ulcer staging criteria: where are we going and why? [Journal Article]
- J Wound Care 2016 Jul.:S3.