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Decubitus Ulcers [keywords]
- Prevalence and risk factors for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an acute care hospital and long-term care facilities located in the same geographic area. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rev Esp Quimioter 2014 Sep; 27(3):190-195.
To determine the prevalence and risk factors (RF) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) during stay in 1 acute care hospital (ACH) and 4 long-term care facilities (LTCF). After obtaining the informed consent, nasal and skin ulcer swabs were taken and a survey was conducted to determine RF for MRSA. Six hundred and ninety nine patients were included, 413 LTCF and 286 ACH patients and MRSA prevalence were 22.5% and 7.3% respectively. MRSA was located in the nares, skin ulcers, and in both in 61.4%, 21.1%, and 17.5%. Among MRSA carriers, 81% of the ACH and 66.7% of the LTCF patients were only colonized. The multivariate analysis for the ACH revealed the following factors to be associated with MRSA: referral from an LTCF (OR 4.84), pressure ulcers (OR 4.32), a Barthel score < 60 (OR 2.60), and being male (OR 5.21). For the LTCF: urinary catheterisation (OR 3.53), pressure ulcers (OR 2.44), other skin lesions (OR 2.64), antibiotic treatment in ≤ 6 months, (OR 2.23), previous MRSA colonization (OR 2.15), and a Barthel score <20 (OR 1.28). Molecular typing identified 2 predominant clones Q, P, present in all centres. No relationship was found between clones and antibiotic susceptibility. In conclusion: MRSA prevalence is high in all centres but is 3 times greater in LTCF. The risk factors most strongly associated with MRSA were pressure ulcers and a stay in an LTCF. We propose preventive isolation in these cases.
- Ulcer dressings and management. [Journal Article]
- Aust Fam Physician 2014 Sep; 43(9):588-92.
Chronic leg ulcers caused by venous disease, arterial disease or a combination of both need to be clearly identified before treatment can be commenced. Their management will depend on the diagnosis, combining direct management of the ulcer as well as management of patient factors. Other chronic wounds commonly observed in practice include pressure wounds, skin tears, atypical leg ulcers.This paper will outline a simple way to manage people with chronic ulcers.Conclusion The prevalence of chronic wounds is expected to rise given that people are living longer and that the incidence of diabetes is increasing. There is a need is to clearly identify the underlying cause of any wound, including factors that may delay healing, and to treat appropriately. Treatment should address the wound environment, tissue base, presence of bacteria and the level of slough. If there is no improvement in wound healing after 4 weeks then seek help from a wound specialist.The prevalence of chronic ulcers in Australia has been estimated at 2-5%. Comprehensive assessment of the ulcer, the region and the whole person is an important first step in treatment. The aim of management is to promote healing and minimise the impact on the patient.
- A Single Long-Term Acute Care Hospital Experience with a Pressure Ulcer Prevention Program. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rehabil Nurs 2014 Sep 15.
The occurrence of pressure ulcers (PrUs) challenges care facilities. Few studies report PrU reduction efforts in long-term acute care (LTAC). This study described the PrU reduction efforts of a single, LTAC facility using the Medline Pressure Ulcer Prevention Program (mPUPP).This study was a quasi-experimental, quality improvement project, with pre- and postmeasurement design.Outcomes were tracked for 24 months. The mPUPP was implemented in month 11. Education for caregivers was provided through an interactive web-based suite. In addition, all Patient Care Technicians attended a 4-week 1-hour inservice. New skin care products were implemented. The facility also implemented an algorithm for treatment of wounds.There was a significant reduction in the mean monthly hospital-acquired PrU (nPrU) rate when preprogram is compared to postprogram.Sustainable nPrU reduction can be achieved with mPUPP.LTAC hospitals could expect to reduce nPrU with education and incentive of caregivers.
- Inter-rater reliability of three most commonly used pressure ulcer risk assessment scales in clinical practice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Wound J 2014 Sep 16.
The objective of this study was to evaluate inter-rater reliability of Braden Scale, Norton Scale and Waterlow Scale for pressure ulcer risk assessment in clinical practice. The design of the study was cross-sectional. A total of 23 patients at pressure ulcer risk were included in the study, and 6 best registered nurses conducted three subsequent risk assessments for all included patients. They assessed alone and independently from each other. An intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine the inter-rater reliability. For the Braden Scale, the ICC values ranged between 0·603 (95% CI: 0·435-0·770) for the item 'moisture' and a maximum of 0·964 (95% CI: 0·936-0·982) for the item 'activity'; for the Norton Scale, the ICC values ranged between 0·595 (95% CI: 0·426-0·764) for the item 'physical condition' and a maximum of 0·975 (95% CI: 0·955-0·988) for the item 'activity'; and for the Waterlow Scale, the ICC values ranged between 0·592 (95% CI: 0·422-0·762) for the item 'skin type' and a maximum of 0·990 (95% CI: 0·982-0·995) for the item 'activity'. The ICC values of total score for three scales of were 0·955 (95% CI: 0·922-0·978), 0·967 (95% CI: 0·943-0·984), and 0·915 (95% CI: 0·855-0·958) for Braden, Norton, and Waterlow scales, respectively. Although the inter-rater reliability of Braden Scale, Norton Scale and Waterlow Scale total scores were all substantial, the reliability of some items was not so good. The items of 'moisture', 'physical condition' and 'skin type' should be paid more attention. However, some studies are needed to find out high reliable quantitative items to replace these ambiguous items in new designed scales.
- Reduced pressure for fewer pressure ulcers: can real-time feedback of interface pressure optimise repositioning in bed? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Wound J 2014 Sep 16.
The aim of this study was to (i) describe registered nurses' and assistant nurses' repositioning skills with regard to their existing attitudes to and theoretical knowledge of pressure ulcer (PU) prevention, and (ii) evaluate if the continuous bedside pressure mapping (CBPM) system provides staff with a pedagogic tool to optimise repositioning. A quantitative study was performed using a descriptive, comparative design. Registered nurses (n = 19) and assistant nurses (n = 33) worked in pairs, and were instructed to place two volunteers (aged over 70 years) in the best pressure-reducing position (lateral and supine), first without viewing the CBPM monitor and then again after feedback. In total, 240 positionings were conducted. The results show that for the same person with the same available pressure-reducing equipment, the peak pressure varied considerably between nursing pairs. Reducing pressure in the lateral position appeared to be the most challenging. Peak pressures were significantly reduced, based on visual feedback from the CBPM monitor. The number of preventive interventions also increased, as well as patients' comfort. For the nurses as a group, the knowledge score was 59·7% and the attitude score was 88·8%. Real-time visual feedback of pressure points appears to provide another dimension to complement decision making with respect to PU prevention.
- The combination application of space filling and closed irrigation suction in reconstruction of sacral decubitus ulcer. [Journal Article]
- Int Surg 2014 Sep-Oct; 99(5):623-7.
Abstract Dead space and poor drainage are the main reasons for intractable sacral decubitus ulcers. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of treatment for sacral decubitus ulcer using space filling through muscle flap and closed irrigation. A total of 22 patients with serious sacral decubitus ulcer were treated with space filling through muscle flap and closed irrigation. After debridement of the decubitus ulcer, the infected areas over the bony prominence and osseous prominences were debrided. We elevated biceps femoris long head or semitendinosus and semimembranosus muscle. Pedicled by proximal part of muscle, the muscle flap was elevated to cover the ischial tuberosity. Transfusion systems of inflow and outflow drainage were placed between the muscle flap and ischial tuberosity. Wound healing and complications were observed. One wound dehiscence healed after secondary suturing. One wound gradually healed by dressing change after 3 weeks. The other cases had good results. Space filling and closed irrigation were complementary. The use of these two methods simultaneously is useful for the management of sacral decubitus ulcers.
- Simulating single cell experiments in mechanical testing of adipocytes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biomech Model Mechanobiol 2014 Sep 12.
This study introduces new three-dimensional finite element cell modeling for simulating the structural, large deformation behavior of maturing adipocytes, based on empirically acquired geometrical properties of cultured adipocyte cells. We created models of adipocyte differentiation and maturation, which represented four stages along that process. The modeling focused on two specific and commonly used experimental setups, one involving compression of individual adipocytes and the other stretching of adipocytes. Both are physiological loading regimes for fat tissues and cells in vivo, and both are often employed for testing cell responses to deformations in the context of obesity and pressure ulcer research. In both simulation types, and in all the cell models, external loads induced localized effective Lagrange strains in the plasma membrane that reached maximum values over the lipid droplets (LDs). We also observed that the effective stresses (averaged across the entire cell volume in each model case) increased with cell maturation and varied between cells with different structure and dimensions. This result points to an increase in the effective cell stiffness with maturation, which would have been expected, since the volume of the stiffer LDs increases as adipocytes mature. Overall, the mechanical behavior of an individual cell is influenced not only by the external mechanical loads that are exerted, but also by the cell structure and dimensions, and is fundamental to any interpretation of cell mechanics experiments, and particularly for testing adipocytes.
- A Retrospective Study Using the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) Tool to Examine Factors Affecting Stage II Pressure Ulcer Healing in a Korean Acute Care Hospital. [Journal Article]
- Ostomy Wound Manage 2014 Sep; 60(9):40-51.
Stage II pressure ulcers (PUs) should be managed promptly and appropriately in order to prevent complications. To identify the factors affecting Stage II PU healing and optimize care, the electronic medical records of patients with a Stage II PU in an acute care hospital were examined. Patient and ulcer characteristics as well as nutritional assessment variables were retrieved, and ulcer variables were used to calculate Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) scores. The effect of all variables on healing status (healed versus nonhealed) and change in PUSH score for healing rate were compared. Records of 309 Stage II PUs from 155 patients (mean age 61.2 ± 15.2 [range 5-89] years, 182 [58.9%] male) were retrieved and analyzed. Of those, 221 healed and 88 were documented as not healed at the end of the study. The variables that were significantly different between patients with PUs that did and did not heal were: major diagnosis (P = 0.001), peripheral arterial disease (P = 0.007), smoking (P = 0.048), serum albumin ( <2.5 g/dL) (P = 0.002), antidepressant use (P = 0.035), vitamin use (P = 0.006), history of surgery (P <0.001), PU size (P = 0.003), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) score (P = 0.020), Braden scale score (P = 0.003), and mean arterial pressure (MAP, mm Hg) (P = 0.026). The Cox proportional hazard model showed a significant positive difference in PUSH score change -indicative of healing - when pressure-redistribution surfaces were used (P <0.001, HR = 2.317), PU size was small (≤3.0 cm2, P = 0.006, HR = 1.670), MAP (within a range of 52-112 mm Hg) was higher P = 0.010, HR = 1.016), and patients were provided multivitamins (P = 0.037, HR=1.431). The results of this study suggest strategies for healing Stage II PUs in the acute care setting should include early recognition of lower-stage PUs, the provision of static pressure-redistribution surfaces and multivitamins, and maintaining higher MAP may facilitate healing and prevent deterioration. Further prospective research is warranted to verify the effect of these interventions.
- Compression for preventing recurrence of venous ulcers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014 Sep 9.:CD002303.
Up to 1% of adults will have a leg ulcer at some time. The majority of leg ulcers are venous in origin and are caused by high pressure in the veins due to blockage or weakness of the valves in the veins of the leg. Prevention and treatment of venous ulcers is aimed at reducing the pressure either by removing/repairing the veins, or by applying compression bandages/stockings to reduce the pressure in the veins.The majority of venous ulcers heal with compression bandages, however ulcers frequently recur. Clinical guidelines therefore recommend that people continue to wear compression, usually in the form of hosiery (tights, stockings, socks) after their ulcer heals, to prevent recurrence.To assess the effects of compression (socks, stockings, tights, bandages) in preventing the recurrence of venous ulcers. If compression does prevent ulceration compared with no compression, then to identify whether there is evidence to recommend particular levels of compression (high, medium or low, for example), types of compression, or brands of compression to prevent ulcer recurrence after healing.For this second update we searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 4 September 2014) which includes the results of regular searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 8).Randomised controlled trials (RCTs)evaluating compression bandages or hosiery for preventing the recurrence of venous ulcers.Two review authors undertook data extraction and risk of bias assessment independently.Four trials (979 participants) were eligible for inclusion in this review. One trial in patients with recently healed venous ulcers (n = 153) compared recurrence rates with and without compression and found that compression significantly reduced ulcer recurrence at six months (Risk ratio (RR) 0.46, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.76).Two trials compared high-compression hosiery (equivalent to UK class 3) with moderate-compression hosiery (equivalent to UK class 2). The first study (n=300) found no significant reduction in recurrence at five years follow up with high-compression hosiery compared with moderate-compression (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.12). The second study (n = 338) assessed ulcer recurrence at three years follow up and found that high-compression hosiery reduced recurrence compared with moderate-compression (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.81). Statistically significant heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis of the results from these studies. Patient-reported compliance rates were reported in both trials;,there was significantly higher compliance with medium-compression than with high-compression hosiery in one and no significant difference in the second.A fourth trial (166 patients) found no statistically significant difference in recurrence between two types of medium (UK class 2) compression hosiery (Medi versus Scholl: RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.2).No trials of compression bandages for preventing ulcer recurrence were identified.There is evidence from one trial that compression hosiery reduces rates of reulceration of venous ulcers compared with no compression. Results from one trial suggest that recurrence is lower in high-compression hosiery than in medium-compression hosiery at three years whilst another trial found no difference at 5 years. Rates of patient intolerance of compression hosiery were high. There is insufficient evidence to aid selection of different types, brands, or lengths of compression hosiery.
- Squamous Cell Carcinoma (Marjolin's Ulcer) Arising in a Sacral Decubitus Ulcer Resulting in Humoral Hypercalcemia of Malignancy. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Med 2014.:715809.
Long-standing burns, fissures, and ulcers that undergo malignant transformation into a variety of malignancies, including squamous cell carcinoma, is commonly referred to as a Marjolin's ulcer. It is well recognized that squamous cell carcinomas of the lung and esophagus can cause humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy secondary to paraneoplastic secretion of parathyroid hormone-related peptide. However, it is extremely rare for a squamous cell carcinoma developing in a sacral decubitus ulcer to cause humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. We describe the first case of a patient found to have elevated serum levels of parathyroid hormone related peptide related to his Marjolin's ulcer. A 45-year-old African American man with T6 paraplegia and a sacral decubitus ulcer present for 20 years was admitted for hypercalcemia of unclear etiology. He was subsequently found to have elevated parathyroid hormone related peptide and an excisional biopsy from the ulcer showed invasive squamous cell carcinoma suggestive of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. The patient ultimately succumbed to sepsis while receiving chemotherapy for his metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy is a rare and likely underrecognized complication that can occur in a Marjolin's ulcer.