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Decubitus Ulcers [keywords]
- Sodium Hypochlorite Chemical Burn in an Endodontist's Eye during Canal Treatment Using Operating Microscope. [Journal Article]
- J Endod 2014 Aug; 40(8):1275-9.
This study describes a case of eye burn induced by sodium hypochlorite used as an irrigant during root canal preparation.A 24-year-old female endodontist was using an operating microscope during root canal treatment, and as the root canal was irrigated, the pressure cannula burst and the irrigant (3.5% sodium hypochlorite) came into direct contact with her left eye. She immediately sought ophthalmologic emergency care for pain, redness of the cornea, burning sensation, photophobia, intraocular pressure, and blurred vision. The initial treatment consisted of washing the eye with saline solution and administering analgesic and anti-inflammatory (steroid) medications. One day after the accident, a topical demulcent and hydroxypropyl medication were applied to the eyeball (conjunctiva), the eye was bandaged for 24 hours, and rest was prescribed for 7 days. Eight days later, a corneal ulcer was diagnosed, and antibiotic and anti-inflammatory (steroid) medications were used.Vision was restored without any sequelae 4 weeks after the accident. The endodontist was instructed to apply control medication (Lagricel; Sophia SA, Caracas, Venezuela) for 3 months and to return for ophthalmologic follow-up every 6 months.Sodium hypochlorite is an effective antibacterial irrigant indicated for the treatment of root canal infections. The tissue cytotoxicity highlights the need to inform the patient of the risk factors of accidents and enhance care with individual protection equipment for the patient and the professional during clinical procedures.
- Spinal Cord Injury Pressure Ulcer Treatment: An Experience-Based Approach. [REVIEW]
- Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2014 Aug; 25(3):671-680.
Pressure ulcers continue to impact the lives of spinal cord injury patients severely. Pressure ulcers must be accurately staged according to National Pressure Ulcer Advisory recommendations before treatment design. The first priority in treatment of pressure ulcers is offloading. Intact skin ulcers may be treated with noncontact nonthermal low-frequency ultrasound. Superficial pressure ulcers may be treated with a combination of collagenase and foam dressings. Deeper pressure ulcers warrant negative-pressure wound therapy dressings along with biologic adjuncts to fill in wound depth. Discovery and treatment of osteomyelitis is a high priority when initially evaluating pressure ulcers. Surgical intervention must always be considered.
- Functional Electrical Stimulation and Spinal Cord Injury. [REVIEW]
- Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2014 Aug; 25(3):631-654.
Spinal cord injuries (SCI) can disrupt communications between the brain and the body, resulting in loss of control over otherwise intact neuromuscular systems. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the central and peripheral nervous system can use these intact neuromuscular systems to provide therapeutic exercise options to allow functional restoration and to manage medical complications following SCI. The use of FES for the restoration of muscular and organ functions may significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality following SCI. Many FES devices are commercially available and should be considered as part of the lifelong rehabilitation care plan for all eligible persons with SCI.
- Protective effect of omeprazole on gastric mucosal of cirrhotic portal hypertension rats. [Journal Article]
- Asian Pac J Trop Med 2014 May; 7(5):402-6.
To observe the protective effect of omeprazole on gastric mucosal of cirrhotic portal hypertension rats.All rats were randomly divided into normal control group, cirrhosis and treatment group. Thioacetamide was used to establish rat model of cirrhotic portal hypertension. The necrotic tissue of gastric mucosa ulcer focus, degree of neutrophils infiltration at the ulcer margin, portal pressure, portal venous flow, abdominal aortic pressure, abdominal aortic blood flow at front end, gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF), glycoprotein (GP) of gastric mucosa, basal acid secretion, H(+)back -diffusion, gastric mucosal damage index, NO, prostaglandin E2(PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined respectively, and the pathological changes of gastric mucosa were also observed by microscope.Compared with cirrhosis group and the control group, the ulcer bottom necrotic material, gastric neutrophil infiltration and UI of the treatment group were all decreased significantly (P<0.01), GMBF value, GP values, serum NO, PGE2, TNF-α were all significantly increased.Omeprazole has an important protective effect on gastric mucosal and it can increase gastric mucosal blood flow and related to many factors.
- Getting evidence-based pressure ulcer prevention into practice: a multi-faceted unit-tailored intervention in a hospital setting. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Wound J 2014 Jul 25.
The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a multi-faceted, unit-tailored intervention using evidenced-based pressure ulcer prevention affects (i) the performance of pressure ulcer prevention, (ii) the prevalence of pressure ulcers and (iii) knowledge and attitudes concerning pressure ulcer prevention among registered and assistant nurses. A quasi-experimental, clustered pre- and post-test design was used. Five units at a hospital setting were included. The intervention was based on the PARIHS framework and included a multi-professional team, training and repeated quality measurements. An established methodology was used to evaluate the prevalence and prevention of pressure ulcers. Nurses' knowledge and attitudes were evaluated using a validated questionnaire. A total of 506 patients were included, of whom 105 patients had a risk to develop pressure ulcer. More patients were provided pressure ulcer prevention care (P = 0·001) and more prevention care was given to each patient (P = 0·021) after the intervention. Corresponding results were shown in the group of patients assessed as being at risk for developing pressure ulcers. Nurses' knowledge about pressure ulcer prevention increased (P < 0·001). Positive attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention remained high between pre- and post-test surveys. This multi-faceted unit-tailored intervention affected pressure ulcer prevention. Facilitation and repeated quality measurement together with constructed feedback of results seemed to be the most important factor for pressure ulcer prevention.
- Application of split gluteus maximus muscle-adipofascial turnover flap and subcutaneous tension-reducing suture technique in repair of decubitus ulcers. [Journal Article]
- Int Surg 2014 Jul-Aug; 99(4):447-51.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to study the clinical effect of split gluteus maximus muscle-adipofascial turnover flap and tension-reducing suture in the treatment of decubitus ulcers. Thirty-one cases of sacrococcygeal decubitus ulcers were repaired by split gluteus maximus muscle-adipofascial turnover flap. The surface of flaps ranged from 5 × 6 cm to 7 × 8 cm. The skin was then closed, primarily using subcutaneous tension-reducing suture. Eighty-eight percent of the flaps (27 of 31) healed primarily. The split gluteus maximus muscle-adipofascial turnover flap and tension-reducing suture technique was found to be a highly efficient method of repairing decubitus ulcers with a relatively low ratio of recurrence.
- Complications to evaluate adult trauma care: An expert consensus study. [Journal Article]
- J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2014 Aug; 77(2):322-30.
Complications affect up to 37% of patients hospitalized for injury and increase mortality, morbidity, and costs. One of the keys to controlling complications for injury admissions is to monitor in-hospital complication rates. However, there is no consensus on which complications should be used to evaluate the quality of trauma care. The objective of this study was to develop a consensus-based list of complications that can be used to assess the acute phase of adult trauma care.We used a three-round Web-based Delphi survey among experts in the field of trauma care quality with a broad range of clinical expertise and geographic diversity. The main outcome measure was median importance rating on a 5-point Likert scale (very low to very high); complications with a median of 4 or greater and no disagreement were retained. A secondary measure was the perceived quality of information on each complication available in patient files.Of 19 experts invited to participate, 17 completed the first (brainstorming) round and 16 (84%) completed all rounds. Of 73 complications generated in Round 1, a total of 25 were retained including adult respiratory distress syndrome, hospital-acquired pneumonia, sepsis, acute renal failure, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, wound infection, decubitus ulcers, and delirium. Of these, 19 (76%) were perceived to have high-quality or very high-quality information in patient files by more than 50% of the panel members.This study proposes a consensus-based list of 25 complications that can be used to evaluate the quality of acute adult trauma care. These complications can be used to develop an informative and actionable quality indicator to evaluate trauma care with the goal of decreasing rates of hospital complications and thus improving patient outcomes and resource use. DRG International Classification of Diseases codes are provided.
- Clinical Experience With the Combination of a Biceps Femoris Muscle Turnover Flap and a Posterior Thigh Fasciocutaneous Hatchet Flap for the Reconstruction of Ischial Pressure Ulcers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Plast Surg 2014 Jul 23.
The reconstruction of ischial pressure ulcers is problematic because of the distinctive anatomical properties of the region and high recurrence rates. To date, no single technique has been proven to be effective in reducing recurrence of the ulcers. We present our experience with the combination of a biceps femoris muscle turnover flap and a posterior thigh fasciocutaneous hatchet flap and discuss the long-term results.A retrospective clinical analysis of 15 patients with grade 4 ischial pressure ulcers reconstructed with biceps femoris muscle turnover flaps and laterally based posterior thigh fasciocutaneous hatchet flaps was carried out between January 2010 and January 2013. Debridement and reconstruction of the ulcers were accomplished in a single stage. The posterior thigh fasciocutaneous flap was elevated in a hatchet style. The long and/or short head of the biceps femoris muscle were dissected from their insertions, turned over on their major pedicles, and their distal portions were used to obliterate the cavitary defect. The skin defect over the muscles was covered by the fasciocutaneous hatchet flap. The average age of the patients was 42.6 years and the mean follow-up time was 27.2 months.Three patients had the following early postoperative complications: hematoma, suture dehiscence, and the necrosis of the short head of biceps muscle. Only 1 patient had a recurrent ulcer 15 months after surgery, which was treated with debridement and the readvancement of the fasciocutaneous flap. The overall recurrence rate was 6.6%.The biceps femoris muscle turnover flap combined with the posterior thigh fasciocutaneous hatchet flap is a worthwhile option to consider for the reconstruction of ischial pressure ulcers and this technique produces favorable results in terms of the lack of recurrence and complications. The use of the muscle and fasciocutaneous tissue as 2 different flaps, which have different roles in the early and late postoperative period, reduces the recurrence rate.
- Pressure ulcer risk assessment and prevention: What difference does a risk scale make? A comparison between Norway and Ireland. [Journal Article]
- J Wound Care 2014 Jul; 23(7):369-78.
Objective:To explore similarities and differences in nurses' views on risk assessment practices and preventive care activities in a context where patients' risk of developing pressure ulcers is assessed using clinical judgment (Norway) and a context where patients' risk of developing pressure ulcers is assessed using a formal structured risk assessment combined with clinical judgement (Ireland). Method: A descriptive, qualitative design was employed across two different care settings with a total of 14 health care workers, nine from Norway and five from Ireland.
Results:Regardless of whether risk assessment was undertaken using clinical judgment or formal structured risk assessment, identified risk factors, at risk patients and appropriate preventive initiatives discussed by participant were similar across care settings. Furthermore, risk assessment did not necessarily result in the planning and implementation of appropriate pressure ulcer prevention initiatives. Thus, in this instance, use of a formal risk assessment tool does not seem to make any difference to the planning, initiation and evaluation of pressure ulcer prevention strategies.
Conclusion:Regardless of the method of risk assessment, patients at risk of developing pressure ulcers are detected, suggesting that the practice of risk assessment should be re-evaluated. Moreover, appropriate preventive interventions were described. However, the missing link between risk assessment and documented care planning is of concern and barriers to appropriate pressure ulcer documentation should be explored further. Declaration of interest: This work is partly funded by a research grant from the Norwegian Nurses Organisation (NNO) (Norsk Sykepleierforbund NSF) in 2012. The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.
- The effect of a ceramide-containing dressing in preventing pressure ulcers. [Journal Article]
- J Wound Care 2014 Jul; 23(7):347-53.