Decubitus Ulcers [keywords]
- A new concept: 'Relative position between the external force and the bony prominence' explains location-specific occurrence of superficial injury over an undermining lesion. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Tissue Viability 2016 Aug 21.
A pressure ulcer is localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence, as a result of pressure, or pressure in combination with shear. Although the external forces and bony prominences differ depending on ulcer location, the way in which these anatomical differences affect pressure ulcer development is not well studied.To clarify the location-dependent factors for pressure ulcer development, we focused on superficial injuries that develop over an undermining lesion, which we have termed them bilayer pressure ulcers. Because it is thought that a deep pressure ulcer is caused by ischemia at the deep lesion and a shallow pressure ulcer is caused by shear force to the superficial skin, a bilayer pressure ulcer can be considered a mixed phenotype, induced by both pressure and shear force. We retrospectively examined the frequency of bilayer pressure ulcers by location in a total of 568 pressure ulcers.The ratio of bilayer pressure ulcers to deep pressure ulcers staged III or more was significantly larger for pressure ulcers over the sacrum.A new concept, the relative position between the external force and bony prominence, could explain the frequency and developmental mechanism of bilayer pressure ulcers. The external forces, shape of the bony prominence, and mobility of the soft tissue may be responsible for this concept.
- Clinical and biomechanical perspectives on pressure injury prevention research: The case of prophylactic dressings. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2016 Aug 12.:29-34.
In this perspective paper, we discuss clinical and biomechanical viewpoints on pressure injury (or pressure ulcer) prevention research. We have selected to focus on the case of prophylactic dressings for pressure injury prevention, and the background of the historical context of pressure injury research, as an exemplar to illuminate some of the good and not so good in current biomechanical and clinical research in the wound prevention and care arena. Investigators who are conducting medical or clinical research in academia, in medical settings or in industry to determine the efficacy of wound prevention and care products could benefit from applying some basic principles that are detailed in this paper, and that should leverage the research outcomes, thereby contributing to setting higher standards in the field.
- Nutrition and Chronic Wounds: Improving Clinical Outcomes. [Journal Article]
- Plast Reconstr Surg 2016 Sep; 138(3 Suppl):71S-81S.
There is increasing awareness that chronic wound healing is very dependent on the patient's nutritional status, but there are no clearly established and accepted assessment protocols or interventions in clinical practice. Much of the data used as guidelines for chronic wound patients are extrapolated from acutely wounded trauma patients, but the 2 groups are very different patient populations. While most trauma patients are young, healthy, and well-nourished before injury, the chronic wound patient is usually old, with comorbidities and frequently malnourished. We suggest the assumption that all geriatric wound patients are malnourished until proved otherwise. Evaluation should include complete history and physical and a formal nutritional evaluation should be obtained. Laboratory studies can be used in conjunction with this clinical information to confirm the assessment. While extensive studies are available in relation to prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers and perioperative nutrition, less is known of the effect of nutritional deficits and supplementation of the diabetic foot ulcer and venous stasis ulcer patient. This does not necessarily mean that nutritional support of these patients is not helpful. In the pursuit of wound healing, we provide systemic support of cardiac and pulmonary function and cessation of smoking, improve vascular inflow, improve venous outflow, decrease edema, and treat with hyperbaric oxygen. If we address all of these other conditions, why would we not wish to support the most basic of organismal needs in the form of nutrition?
- The Role of Pressure Offloading on Diabetic Foot Ulcer Healing and Prevention of Recurrence. [Journal Article]
- Plast Reconstr Surg 2016 Sep; 138(3 Suppl):179S-87S.
An increased plantar pressure is a causative factor in the development of plantar foot ulcers in people with diabetes mellitus, and ulcers are a precursor of lower extremity amputation.In this article, the evidence is reviewed that relieving areas of increased plantar pressure (ie, offloading) can heal plantar foot ulcers and prevent their recurrence.Noninfected, nonischemic neuropathic plantar forefoot ulcers should heal in 6 to 8 weeks with adequate offloading. Recent meta-analyses and systematic reviews show that nonremovable knee-high devices are most effective. This is probably because they eliminate the problem of nonadherence with the use of a removable device. Studies show a large discrepancy between evidence-based recommendations on offloading and what is used in clinical practice. Many clinics continue to use methods that are less effective or have not been proven to be effective, while ignoring evidence-based methods. Strategies are proposed to address this issue, notably the adoption and implementation of recent international guidelines by professional societies and a stronger focus of clinicians on expedited healing. For the prevention of plantar foot ulcer recurrence in high-risk patients, 2 recent trials have shown that the incidence of recurrence can be significantly reduced with custom-made footwear that has a demonstrated pressure-relieving effect through guidance by plantar pressure measurements, under the condition that the footwear is worn.This review helps to inform clinicians about effective offloading treatment for healing plantar foot ulcers and preventing their recurrence.
- Glasses: Hiding or causing skin cancer? [Journal Article]
- Orbit 2016 Oct; 35(5):262-6.
This article evaluates malignant transformation of lesions presenting in the periocular skin under the eye spectacle nose pad. A non-comparative retrospective chart review of clinical features and pathological findings of patients presenting with periocular malignancies in the exact vicinity where the nose pads of their eye spectacles rested was completed. The study took place in one tertiary oculoplastic referral center between 2007-2013. Ten patients were included, six of whom were male. All subjects wore eye spectacles while awake for at least 15 years, and had an evident suspicious lesion in the exact area that coincided with the resting place of the nose pad. The mean age was 73.5 years (range 65-85 years) and all patients had the lesion present for at least one year. Most cases were squamous skin malignancies (five squamous cell carcinomas [SCC], 2 intra-epidermal carcinomas [IEC], while 3 basal cell carcinomas [BCC]). Treatment involved surgical excision of the lesion with frozen section for margin control and reconstruction with a myocutaneous flap. Periocular malignancies of the inferior medial canthal area, where the nose pad of eye spectacle places pressure, can be easily missed or misdiagnosed. Marjolin ulcers (MU) classically present as an aggressive SCC in area of chronic inflammation, which has been previously correlated to constant pressure, repetitive trauma, or non-healing wounds in other areas of the body. We propose that the traumatic chronic pressure in the infero-medial canthal region from long-term eye spectacle nose pad use, may induce poor lymphatic regeneration leading to an immune system deficiency that predisposes this skin to a malignant transformation. The presence of chronic eye spectacle nose pads also prevents proper and timely detection of such malignancies. Complete excision of these lesions with margin control, adequate follow-up for possible recurrence, and surveillance for new lesions on the patient's contralateral side, is crucial for adequate management.
- Using clinical data to predict high-cost performance coding issues associated with pressure ulcers: a multilevel cohort model. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Am Med Inform Assoc 2016 Aug 18.
Hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs) have a mortality rate of 11.6%, are costly to treat, and result in Medicare reimbursement penalties. Medicare codes HAPUs according to Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient-Safety Indicator 3 (PSI-03), but they are sometimes inappropriately coded. The objective is to use electronic health records to predict pressure ulcers and to identify coding issues leading to penalties.We evaluated all hospitalized patient electronic medical records at an academic medical center data repository between 2011 and 2014. These data contained patient encounter level demographic variables, diagnoses, prescription drugs, and provider orders. HAPUs were defined by PSI-03: stages III, IV, or unstageable pressure ulcers not present on admission as a secondary diagnosis, excluding cases of paralysis. Random forests reduced data dimensionality. Multilevel logistic regression of patient encounters evaluated associations between covariates and HAPU incidence.The approach produced a sample population of 21 153 patients with 1549 PSI-03 cases. The greatest odds ratio (OR) of HAPU incidence was among patients diagnosed with spinal cord injury (ICD-9 907.2: OR = 14.3; P < .001), and 71% of spinal cord injuries were not properly coded for paralysis, leading to a PSI-03 flag. Other high ORs included bed confinement (ICD-9 V49.84: OR = 3.1, P < .001) and provider-ordered pre-albumin lab (OR = 2.5, P < .001).This analysis identifies spinal cord injuries as high risk for HAPUs and as being often inappropriately coded without paralysis, leading to PSI-03 flags. The resulting statistical model can be tested to predict HAPUs during hospitalization.Inappropriate coding of conditions leads to poor hospital performance measures and Medicare reimbursement penalties.
- Melanoma masquerading as nonmelanocytic lesions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Melanoma Res 2016 Aug 17.
Increased awareness among dermatologists as well as the development of dermoscopy and sequential dermoscopy have contributed significantly toward an increase in the diagnostic accuracy of pigmented melanoma and even of amelanotic melanoma. However, the dermatologist's nightmare is the small group of melanomas that present as common skin diseases, often associated with a significant delay in diagnosis and hence a poor prognosis. The study was carried out to prospectively assess the number of melanomas lacking any clinical suspicion of melanoma and to describe their clinical and histological features over a 6-year observation period in an University Tertiary Skin Cancer Center. Out of 502 cases of newly diagnosed cases of melanoma, seven (1.4%) nonpigmented and nonamelanotic cases of melanoma were identified. The mean age of the patients was 69 years (two females/five males). All cases were discovered by chance on a punch biopsy. The clinical diagnostic suspicions were basal cell carcinoma, fungal intertrigo, keratoacanthoma, lichenoid keratoma, diabetic foot ulcer, eczema, and necrotic pressure ulcer. Dermoscopy, performed after the punch biopsies, was only partially contributive. The mean histological thickness was 2.7 mm, the mean number of mitoses was 7/mm, local micrometastases were present in 5/7 (71%), the mean Ki67 count was 18.9%, and a positive sentinel lymph node was observed in 4/6 (66%) cases. Nonpigmented and nonamelanotic melanomas are rare, are at high risk, and have a poor prognosis because of a delayed diagnosis. Dermoscopy is only of partial diagnostic aid. Treatment resistance or atypical behavior of the above-mentioned lesions should lead to biopsy.
- Interdisciplinary development of an ergonomic prone mobility cart. [Journal Article]
- J Rehabil Res Dev 2016; 53(4):433-42.
Pressure ulcers remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in Veterans with neurologic impairment. Management of pressure ulcers typically involves pressure relief over skin regions containing wounds, but this can lead to loss of mobility and independence when the wounds are located in regions that receive pressure during sitting. An innovative, iterative design process was undertaken to improve prone cart design for persons with spinal cord injury and pressure ulceration. Further investigation of ways to improve prone carts is warranted to enhance the quality of life of persons with pressure ulcers.
- Effectiveness of pressure ulcer prevention strategies for adult patients in intensive care units: a systematic review protocol. [Journal Article]
- JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep 2016 Mar; 14(3):35-44.
The objective of this review is to identify the effectiveness of pressure ulcer (PU) prevention strategies on the incidence of hospital-acquired PUs in the intensive care unit (ICU).More specifically, the objectives are to identify the effectiveness of utilizing PU prevention strategies such as risk assessment, skin assessment, skin care, nutrition, position and repositioning, education and training, medical devices care or other strategies designed to manage the risk factors for PU development and reduce the incidence of PUs in ICUs.
- Current Status and Future of Skin Substitutes for Chronic Wound Healing. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Cutan Med Surg 2016 Aug 16.
Chronic wounds, including diabetic ulcers, pressure ulcers, venous ulcers, and arterial insufficiency ulcers, are both difficult and expensive to treat. Conventional wound care may sometimes lead to suboptimal wound healing and significant morbidity and mortality for patients. The use of skin substitutes provides an alternative therapy showing superior efficacy and, in some cases, similar cost-effectiveness compared to traditional treatments. This review discusses the different types of currently available commercial skin substitutes for use in chronic wounds as well as the paucity of strong evidence supporting their use. It then delves into the limitations of these skin substitutes and examines the most recent research targeting these limitations.