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- Delirium associated with donepezil in a patient with Alzheimer's disease: a case report. [Journal Article]
- Iran J Psychiatry 2013 Mar; 8(1):59-60.
Donepezil, a member of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor family, is approved for management of cognitive impairments as well as behavioral complications in patients with neurodegenerative Alzheimer's disease. Generally, donepezil is regarded as a safe medication in patients with Alzheimer's disease although there have been reports of several minor adverse events including gastrointestinal disturbances. Herein we describe a patient with Alzheimer's disease who demonstrated delirious behavior upon treatment with donepezil.
- Assessment of people with cognitive impairment and hip fracture: A systematic review and meta-analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2013 May 13.
This study systematically assesses the literature pertaining to the diagnostic test accuracy of assessment instruments to evaluate patients following hip fracture surgery who present with cognitive impairment. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. Studies assessing the reliability, validity, sensitivity or specificity of assessment tools for patients following hip fracture who were cognitively impaired were included. An assessment of published (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, AMED, Cochrane library, PEDro) and unpublished/trial registry (OpenGrey, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Current Controlled Trials, the UK National Research Register Archive) databases were undertaken. Methodological quality of the literature was assessed using the QUADAS-2 appraisal tool. Nine studies including 690 participants, with a mean age of 82.1 years were included. The literature demonstrated a high risk of bias for study methodology, but low risk of bias for applicability. Two assessment domains were recognized: pain and delirium. For pain, the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) and DOLOPLUS-2 tools possessed strong inter-rater reliability and internal consistency, with the FACS demonstrating concurrent validity with other pain scales. For delirium, the Delirium Rating Scale-Revisited-98 (DRS-R-98) demonstrated high inter-rater reliability and sensitivity and specificity, with the NEECHAM Confusion Scale possessing high internal consistency. To conclude, there is a paucity of literature assessing the reliability, validity and diagnostic test accuracy of instruments to assess people with cognitive impairment following hip fracture surgery. Based on the current available data, delirium may be best assessed using the NEECHAM Confusion Scale or DRS-R-98. Pain is most accurately evaluated using the FACS.
- Motor outcomes during hospitalization in Parkinson's disease patients: A prospective study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2013 May 13.
BACKGROUND:Retrospective studies suggest that many Parkinson's disease patients have a worsening of their motor status during hospitalization. We aimed to quantify this prospectively, and study possible contributing factors.
METHODS:Over one year we included all consecutive Parkinson's disease patients, newly admitted to a Dutch teaching hospital. We analyzed complications, interventions, and medication distribution. At inclusion and at discharge we assessed the motor status with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III).
RESULTS:48% of 46 admitted patients had complications, mainly confusion/delirium (24%) and infections (15%). At discharge 28% of the patients had a worse motor function with a mean increase of more than 5 points on the UPDRS-III. Medication errors occurred in 39%. This is the most important risk factor (p < 0.000) for motor function deterioration, followed by infections during hospitalization, and not being in control of own Parkinson's disease medication. 24% of patients were allowed to take control of their own Parkinson's disease medication, none of these patients did deteriorate.
CONCLUSIONS:This prospective study shows that a substantial part of hospitalized PD patients has a significant worse motor function at discharge mainly due to medication errors and infections. Quality of care could be improved by addressing preventable errors and allow patients to take control of their own Parkinson's disease medication.
- Understanding post-hospital morbidity associated with immobilisation of cervical spine fractures in older people using geriatric medicine assessment techniques: A pilot study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Injury 2013 May 13.
INTRODUCTION:There is a paucity of research into the outcomes and complications of cervical spine immobilisation (hard collar or halothoracic brace) in older people.
AIMS:To identify morbidity and mortality outcomes using geriatric medicine assessment techniques following cervical immobilisation in older people with isolated cervical spine fractures.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:We identified participants using an injury database. We completed a questionnaire measuring pre-admission medical co-morbidities and functional independence. We recorded the surgical plan and all complications. A further questionnaire was completed three months later recording complications and functional independence.
RESULTS:Sixteen patients were recruited over a three month period. Eight were immobilised with halothoracic brace, 8 with external hard collar. Three deaths occurred during the study. Lower respiratory tract infection was the most common complication (7/16) followed by delirium (6/16). Most patients were unable to return home following the acute admission, requiring sub-acute care on discharge. The majority of patients were from home prior to a fall, 6/16 were residing there at 3 months. Most participants had an increase in their care needs at 3 months. There was no difference in the type or incidence of complications between the different modes of immobilisation.
CONCLUSIONS:Geriatric medicine assessment techniques identified the morbidity and functional impairment associated with cervical spine immobilisation. This often results in a prolonged length of stay in supported care. This small pilot study recommends a larger study over a longer period using geriatric medicine assessment techniques to better define the issues.
- The incidence of postoperative delirium in elderly patients after urologic surgery. [Journal Article]
- Med Arh 2013; 67(1):45-7.
Postoperative delirium (POD) is a frequent postoperative disorder to the sick and elderly, and always has been associated with extended of day stay in hospital, and certainly more cost for the hospital as well. Additionally, delirium is associated with increased postoperative complications, longer length of stay, longer intensive care unit stay (ICU), and much higher rates of discharge to a nursing home. As a result, delirium adds significant cost to hospitalization and subsequent medical care. The delirium causes an increased mortality and an increasing of mental status deterioration characterized by reduction of environmental recognition as well as the disorder of alertness. The purposes of this study are: a) the effectiveness of routine screening of postoperative Delirium in the elderly using Confusion Assessment Method (CAM)). In those cases psychiatrists are not necessary; b) understanding of risk factors and strategies for prevention and treatment; c) understanding of the impact of this psychotic disorders in postoperative morbidity and mortality; d) recognition of the economic impact of these disorders in the health service; e) describing of the etiology and incidence of Delirium post-operative. MATERIAl AND METHODS: In this study are included 640 patients aged over 65 years who underwent an operation at the urologic clinic. This study is prospective and casual. Are excluded from the study all patients with psychological problems in admission and that were treated for these pathologies before admission in Urology Clinic.Are evaluated all the data taken from patients and from their examinations as: age, use of medications, symptoms and problems, biochemical and clinical balance, hemodynamic examination, and preoperative, intra operative and postoperative evaluations. Is observed that post operative Delirium occurred at 166 patients from 640 in total on the average of 26% of patients. Incidence was increased with increasing of age from 19% to 31%.Postoperative Delirium occurs as a result of the combination of several factors, not just those related to internal physiological age, but combining of these factors with the diseases which carries this age, with medications used for this age, with surgical stress, with biochemical imbalances, hemodynamic problems, and electrolytic disorders as well.
- Prolonged Delirium Secondary to Hypoxic-ischemic Encephalopathy Following Cardiac Arrest. [Journal Article]
- Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 2013 Apr; 11(1):39-42.
Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury encompasses a complex constellation of pathophysiological and cellular brain injury induced by hypoxia, ischemia, cytotoxicity, or combinations of these mechanisms and can result in poor outcomes including significant changes in personality and cognitive impairments in memory, cognition, and attention. We report a case of a male patient with normal premorbid functioning who developed prolonged delirium following hypoxic-ischemic brain insults subsequent to cardiac arrest. The case highlights the importance of adopting a multidisciplinary treatment approach involving the coordinated care of medical and nursing teams to optimise management of patients suffering from such a debilitating organic brain syndrome.
- A case of prolonged delirium tremens. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Singapore Med J 2013 May 16.
We present the case of delirium tremens lasting for five weeks in an alcohol-dependent individual. The patient required high dose benzodiazepines, which is quite atypical and rare. The clinical presentation and management of this patient is discussed.
- Subsyndromal Delirium and Its Determinants in Elderly Patients Hospitalized for Acute Medical Illness. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2013 May 15.
BACKGROUND:In older individuals, acute medical illnesses and admission to hospital are often associated with a deterioration of cognitive status, also in the absence of dementia and full-blown delirium. We evaluated the prevalence of subsyndromal delirium (SSD) and its correlates in a sample of elderly medical inpatients.
METHODS:From 763 consecutive inpatients, 325 participants with known dementia or delirium were excluded, whereas 438 (mean age: 80.6 years; female participants: 60.1%) were enrolled. SSD was diagnosed within 48 hour from admission, when at least two DSM-IV delirium criteria including disorientation, attention or memory deficit, altered level of consciousness, or perceptual disturbances were present. Cognitive performance was evaluated by Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE). General, clinical, and laboratory parameters were also registered.
RESULTS:One hundred and sixty-six patients (37%) had SSD. Compared with controls, SSD patients were older individuals, had less formal education, higher comorbidity, lower hemoglobin/lymphocytes counts, and higher creatinine levels. A trend toward higher prevalence of previous stroke and widowhood was observed. A MMSE score of less than 24/30 identified SSD with 88% sensitivity and 78% specificity. In SSD patients, MMSE independently correlated with years of education, high-sensitivity C reactive protein levels, and O2 arterial saturation (model adjusted r (2) = 0.30, p = .001); conversely, only years of education were associated with MMSE in controls (adjusted r (2) = 0.06, p = .01).
CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest that SSD is common in hospitalized older medical inpatients, and low MMSE score might be useful for identification of participants at risk of SSD. Current inflammatory response and reduced O2 arterial saturation were the only independent determinants of cognitive performance in SSD patients.
- Acute Polyarticular Gout Presenting as Delirium. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Rheumatol 2013 May 10.