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Depression Geriatric [keywords]
- Vascular dementia with left thalamic infarction: Neuropsychological and behavioral implications suggested by involvement of the thalamic nucleus and the remote effect on cerebral cortex. The Osaki-Tajiri project. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychiatry Res 2013 May 18.
Vascular dementia (VaD) is a condition whereby decreased cerebral perfusion causes cognitive deterioration. We hypothesized that lesions of the anterior nucleus (AN) including the mammillo-thalamic tract cause a decline in the recollection of past episodes/events, and that the left thalamic infarction can cause frontal dysfunction through the "diaschisis." We investigated 18 VaD cases with only left thalamic infarction. (99m)Tc-ECD single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was used to assess regional cerebral blood flow (CBF). To test the first hypothesis, the scores on the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) domain Recent memory or the rating on the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) domain Memory were analyzed. To test the second hypothesis, we selected the six regions of interest that correlated with the two measures, i.e., word fluency and/or depressive state, as assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). We found that all patients had amnesia, especially in the AN group, six of the eight patients had scores of 1+ on the CDR Memory scale, and all but one disclosed the CASI domain Recent memory impairment. There were significant correlations between the left anterior cingulate CBF and word fluency scores, and between the right rectal gyrus CBF and GDS scores. We suggest that these observations are due to a remote effect of the thalamic lesion.
- [An introduction to geriatric psychiatry: recent topics]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi 2013; 115(1):84-9.
In this lecture, first, the author reported the latest national data for the prevalence of dementia. A higher prevalence than the previously estimated one was stressed: about 14 percent prevalence for individuals aged 65 and older throughout Japan. Second, the author discussed the notion of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and impairment of the daily life function. The strategy for the treatment of these characteristic problems shown by individuals with dementia is indispensable for clinical services. Third, the recent findings about the relationship between dementia and depression were reported. The author explained the importance of the depressive symptoms that appeared during the prodromal stage of Lewy body dementia Finally, the newly proposed definition and terminology of organic mental disorders including dementia in the DSM-5 by American Psychiatric Association were reported.
- Pain management for older persons living in nursing homes: a pilot study. [Journal Article]
- Pain Manag Nurs 2013 Jun; 14(2):e10-21.
Because the prevalence of chronic pain among the elderly in nursing homes is high and decreases their quality of life, effective nonpharmacologic pain management should be promoted. The purpose of this quasiexperimental pretest and posttest control design was to enhance pain management in nursing homes via an integrated pain management program (IPMP) for staff and residents. Nursing staff and residents from the experimental nursing home were invited to join the 8-week IPMP, whereas staff and residents from the control nursing home did not receive the IPMP. Baseline data were collected from nursing staff and residents in both groups before and after the IPMP. The IPMP consisted of eight lectures on pain assessment, drug knowledge,and nondrug strategies for the nursing staff, and 8 weeks of activities, including gardening therapy and physiotherapy exercise, for the residents. There were 48 and 42 older people in the experimental and control groups, respectively. No significant differences were found in their educational level, sleep quality, bowel habits, past and present health conditions, pain conditions and psychologic well-being parameters (p > .05) at baseline. After the IPMP, the experimental nursing staff showed a significant improvement in their knowledge of and attitudes to pain management (p < .05), and the experimental residents reported significantly lower pain scores and used more nondrug strategies for pain relief compared with the control group (p < .05). Moreover, the psychologic well-being parameters, including happiness, loneliness, life satisfaction, and geriatric depression, had significantly improved among the experimental residents (p < .05). The IPMP was effective in enhancing the knowledge and attitudes of nursing staff, as well as reducing pain conditions and enhancing psychologic well-being for older persons in nursing homes.
- Neuropsychiatric symptoms in elderly inpatients: a multicenter cross-sectional study. [Journal Article]
- Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra 2013 Jan; 3(1):123-30.
We determined the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in geriatric rehabilitation patients to compare neuropsychiatric symptoms between patients with and without dementia, and to evaluate associations linking severity of cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms.In February 2009, we studied patients aged 75 years or older who had been admitted to four geriatric rehabilitation units in the Paris area. The twelve Neuropsychiatric Inventory items and four neuropsychiatric subsyndromes defined by the European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium were evaluated.Of the 194 patients, 149 (76.8%) had dementia, and 154 (79.4%) had exhibited at least one neuropsychiatric symptom during the past week. Agitation was the most common neuropsychiatric symptom in the group with dementia (36.9%) and depression in the group without dementia (35.6%). The dementia group had significantly higher prevalences of hyperactivity (p < 0.001) and delusions (p = 0.01) than the non-dementia group. In the dementia group, severity of cognitive impairment was associated with hyperactivity (p = 0.01) and psychosis (p = 0.02).The prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms among geriatric rehabilitation patients was high but not higher than in elderly outpatients.
- Family meetings for older adults in intermediate care settings: the impact of patient cognitive impairment and other characteristics on shared decision making. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Health Expect 2013 May 20.
BACKGROUND:Clinicians, older adults and caregivers frequently meet to make decisions around treatment and lifestyle during an acute hospital admission. Patient age, psychological status and health locus of control (HLC) influence patient preference for consultation involvement and information but overall, a shared-decision-making (SDM) approach is favoured. However, it is not known whether these characteristics and the presence of cognitive impairment influence SDM competency during family meetings.
OBJECTIVE:To describe meetings between older adults, caregivers and geriatricians in intermediate care and explore patient and meeting characteristics associated with a SDM communication style.
METHODS:Fifty-nine family meetings involving geriatricians, patients in an intermediate care setting following an acute hospital admission and their caregivers were rated using the OPTION system for measuring clinician SDM behaviour. The geriatric depression scale and multidimensional HLC scale were completed by patients. The mini-mental state exam (MMSE) assessed patient's level of cognitive impairment.
RESULTS:Meetings lasted 38 min (SD 13) and scored 41 (SD 17) of 100 on the OPTION scale. Nine (SD 2.2) topics were discussed during each meeting, and most were initiated by the geriatrician. Meeting length was an important determinant of OPTION score, with higher SDM competency displayed in longer meetings. Patient characteristics, including MMSE, HLC and depression did not explain SDM competency.
CONCLUSION:Whilst SDM can be achieved during consultations frail older patients and their caregivers, an increased consultation time is a consequence of this approach.
- The Relationship Between Geriatric Depression and Health-Promoting Behaviors Among Community-Dwelling Seniors. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Nurs Res 2013 Jun; 21(2):75-82.
BACKGROUND::People older than 65 years old account for about 10.9% of Taiwan's total population; it is also known that the older adults experience a higher incidence of depression. Public health nurses play an important role in promoting community health. Policymaking for community healthcare should reflect the relationship between health-promoting behavior and depression in community-dwelling seniors. Therefore, the encouragement of healthy aging requires strategic planning by those who provide health promotion services.
OBJECTIVE::This study was designed to elicit the health-promoting behaviors of community seniors and investigate the relationship between geriatric depression and health-promoting behaviors among seniors who live in rural communities.
METHODS::We used a cross-sectional, descriptive design and collected data using a demographic information datasheet, the Health Promotion for Seniors and Geriatric Depression Scale short forms.
RESULTS::The study included 427 participants. Most were women; mean age was 75.8 years. Most were illiterate; roughly half engaged in a limited number of health-promoting activities. The Geriatric Depression Scale score was negatively associated with health-promoting behavior. Social participation, health responsibility, self-protection, active lifestyle, and total Health Promotion for Seniors score all reached statistical significance. Multivariate analysis indicated that geriatric depression and physical discomfort were independent predictors of health-promoting behavior after controlling the confounding factors.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:: Participants practiced less than the recommended level of health-promoting behaviors. We found a negative correlation between the geriatric depression score and health-promoting behavior. Results can be referenced to develop strategies to promote healthy aging in the community, especially with regard to promoting greater social participation and increased activity for community-dwelling older adults experiencing depression.
- Vitamin D and depression in geriatric primary care patients. [Journal Article]
- Clin Interv Aging 2013.:509-14.
Vitamin D deficiency is common in the elderly. Vitamin D deficiency may affect the mood of people who are deficient. We investigated vitamin D status in older primary care patients and explored associations with depression.A cross-sectional study was conducted and association analyses were performed. Primary care patients at a single academic medical center who were ≥60 years with serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels were included in the analysis. The primary outcome was a diagnosis of depression. Frailty scores and medical comorbidity burden scores were collected as predictors.There were 1618 patients with a mean age of 73.8 years (±8.48). The majority (81%) had optimal (≥25 ng/mL) 25(OH)D range, but 17% met mild-moderate (10-24 ng/mL) and 3% met severe (<10 ng/mL) deficiencies. Those with severe deficiency were older (P < 0.001), more frail (P < 0.001), had higher medical comorbidity burden (P < 0.001), and more frequent depression (P = 0.013). The 694 (43%) with depression had a lower 25(OH)D than the nondepressed group (32.7 vs 35.0, P = 0.002). 25(OH)D was negatively correlated with age (r = -0.070, P = 0.005), frailty (r = -0.113, P < 0.001), and medical comorbidity burden (r = -0.101, P < 0.001). A 25(OH)D level was correlated with depression (odds ratio = 0.990 and 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.983-0.998, P = 0.012). Those with severe vitamin D deficiency were twice as likely to have depression (odds ratio = 2.093 with 95% CI 1.092-4.011, P = 0.026).Vitamin D deficiency was present in a fifth of this older primary care population. Lower vitamin D levels were associated with depression. Those with severe deficiency were older and more likely had depression.
- Improving mood through physical activity for carers and care recipients (IMPACCT): protocol for a randomised trial. [Journal Article]
- J Physiother 2013; 59(2):125.
Family carers play an important role in providing care for frail older Australians. Carers have increased rates of depression, burden and poor physical health compared with non-carers. Physical activity has been shown to improve outcomes; however there is limited research investigating outcomes in older carers and less on physical activity for both the carer and care recipient.Does a home-based individualised physical activity intervention designed for both the carer and care recipient improve depression severity in older carers?273 community-dwelling carers with depressive symptoms and their care recipients will be recruited for a randomised controlled trial. Baseline assessment will consist of functional, psychological, and physical measures and information about service use. INTERVENTION AND CONTROL: Participants will be randomised to receive either a physical activity program (intervention), a social support program (social control), or usual care (control). The intervention and social control groups will have five home visits over six months.All participants will be re-assessed after completion of the program and then six months later to evaluate sustainability of outcomes. The primary outcome measure is the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale for carers. Secondary outcomes include physical measures for carers and care recipients, carer burden, carer satisfaction, care recipient depression, and cost-effectiveness. All assessors will be blind to group allocation.This study has the potential to demonstrate that physical activity interventions can be delivered simultaneously to older carers and care recipients to improve mental and physical outcomes.
- Anorexia and eating patterns in the elderly. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(5):e63539.
To evaluate the change in eating habits occurring in community- dwelling and institutionalized elderly subjects with senile anorexia.Cross- sectional, observational.Community, nursing homes and rehabilitation or acute care facilities in four Italian regions.A random sample of 526 subjects, aged 65 years and older (217 free living individuals, 213 residents in nursing homes, and 93 patients in rehabilitation and acute wards).ALL SUBJECTS UNDERWENT A MULTIDIMENSIONAL GERIATRIC EVALUATION OF: nutritional status, anthropometric parameters, health and cognitive status, depression, taste, chewing and swallowing function, and some hormones related to appetite. Diet variety was assessed, considering the frequency of consumption of different food groups (milk and dairy products; meat, fish, and eggs; cereals and derivatives; fruit and vegetables).In anorexic elderly subjects the global food intake was reduced, and the eating pattern was characterized by the reduced consumption of certain food groups ("meat, eggs and fish" and "fruit and vegetables") whereas the frequency of consumption of milk and cereals remained almost unchanged. Nutritional parameters were significantly better in normal eating subjects and correlated with diet variety.Because of the high prevalence of senile anorexia in the geriatric population and its impact on the nutritional status, further research should be prompted to establish an intervention. protocol allowing the early diagnosis of anorexia of aging, aimed at identifying its causes and at optimizing treatment of anorexic patients.
- Depressive Symptoms After CABG Surgery: A Meta-analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Harv Rev Psychiatry 2013 March/April; 21(2):59-69.