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Dermatology AND Dermatology, general [keywords]
- Association between severe eczema in children and multiple comorbid conditions and increased healthcare utilization. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2013 Jun 16.
BACKGROUND:Atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with multiple comorbid conditions, such as asthma and food allergy. We sought to determine the impact of eczema severity on the development of these disorders and other non-atopic comorbidities in AD.
METHODS:We used the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a prospective questionnaire-based study of a nationally representative sample of 91,642 children aged 0-17 yr. Prevalence and severity of eczema, asthma, hay fever and food allergy, sleep impairment, healthcare utilization, recurrent ear infections, and visual and dental problems were determined.
RESULTS:In general, more severe eczema is correlated with poorer overall health, impaired sleep, and increased healthcare utilization, including seeing a specialist, compared with children with mild or moderate disease (Rao-Scott chi-squared test, p < 0.0001). Severe eczema was associated with a higher prevalence of comorbid chronic health disorders, including asthma, hay fever, and food allergies (p < 0.0001). In addition, the severity of eczema was directly related to the severity of the comorbidities. These associations remained significant in multivariate logistic regression models that included age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Severe eczema was also associated with recent dental problems, including bleeding gums (p < 0.0001), toothache (p = 0.0004), but not broken teeth (p = 0.04) or tooth decay (p = 0.13).
CONCLUSIONS:These data indicate that severe eczema is associated with multiple comorbid chronic health disorders, impaired overall health, and increased healthcare utilization. Further, these data suggest that children with eczema are at risk of decreased oral health. Future studies are warranted to verify this novel association.
- Inhibitory effect of melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 on invasion in vitro of human melanoma cancer cells. [Journal Article]
- J Korean Med Sci 2013 Jun; 28(6):833-9.
The acquisition of metastasis potential is a critical point for malignant tumors. Melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24) is a potential tumor suppress gene and frequently down-regulated in malignant tumors. It has been implicated that overexpression of MDA-7 led to proliferation inhibition in many types of human tumor. Invasion is an important process which is potential to promote tumor metastasis. However, the role and potential molecular mechanism of mda-7/IL-24 to inhibit the invasion of human melanoma cancer is not fully clear. In this report, we identified a solid role for mda-7/IL-24 in invasion inhibition of human melanoma cancer LiBr cells, including decreasing of adhesion and invasion in vitro, blocking cell cycle, down-regulating the expression of ICAM-1, MMP-2/9, CDK1, the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt, NF-κB and AP-1 transcription activity. Meanwhile, there was an increased expression of PTEN in mda-7/IL-24 over-expression LiBr cells. Our results demonstrated that mda-7/IL-24 is a potential invasion suppress gene, which inhibits the invasion of LiBr cells by the down-regulation of ICAM-1, MMP-2/9, PTEN, and CDK1 expression. The molecular pathways involved were the MAPK/ERK, PI3K-Akt, NF-κB, and AP-1. These findings suggest that mda-7/IL-24 may be used as a possible therapeutic strategy for human melanoma cancer.
- Disseminated granuloma annulare: study on eight cases. [Journal Article]
- Rom J Morphol Embryol 2013; 54(2):327-31.
Granuloma annulare (GA) is classified as localized, generalized÷disseminated, subcutaneous, and perforating types. The studies show connection with diabetes mellitus, lipidic metabolic disorders, malignant diseases, thyroid disorders, infections (HBV, HCV, HIV). We performed a retrospective study between 2010-2011, regarding disseminated GA (GAD), and the relationship between GAD and other comorbidities. We clinically and histologically diagnosed eight cases of GAD. The patients were also investigated for the diagnosis of associated diseases. The treatment included topical corticosteroids, antihistamines, Calcipotriol÷Betamethasone, Tacrolimus 0.03%, Pentoxifylline, Hydroxychloroquine. Therapeutic response was assessed one month and three months after hospitalization. Our patients were five women and three men, aged 46-68 years, mean age 57.25 years, with a disease history of one year and a half (between three months and four years). The lesions occurred in the upper extremities (eight cases), distal extremities (three cases), cervical area (two cases), and trunk (five cases). In seven cases, we found annular appearance and one patient had disseminated small papules eruption. Associated pathology was diabetes mellitus type II (five cases), overweight and obesity (five cases), dyslipidemia (three cases), hypothyroidism (one case), rheumatoid arthritis (one case), external ear canal basal carcinoma (one case). Although there is controversy regarding the relationship between GAD and associated diseases, it is accepted that it is significantly associated with diabetes mellitus, also found in our study in five out of eight cases. We noticed obvious improvements after local and general treatment. It is confirmed that GAD is prevalent in women, over 40-year-old. GAD is often associated with diabetes and dyslipidemia, therefore it is necessary to investigate patients in this direction. The histopathological exam is essential for an accurate confirmation of GA.
- Comparing endovenous laser ablation, foam sclerotherapy, and conventional surgery for great saphenous varicose veins. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vasc Surg 2013 Jun 12.
BACKGROUND:Many case series have been published on treatments of varicose veins, but comparative randomized controlled trials remain sparse.
OBJECTIVE:To compare the anatomic success rate, frequency of major complications, and quality-of-life improvement of endovenous laser ablation (EVLA), ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy (UGFS), and conventional surgery (CS), after 1-year follow-up.
METHODS:A total of 240 consecutive patients with primary symptomatic great saphenous vein reflux were randomized to EVLA, UGFS, or CS, consisting of high ligation and short stripping. Primary outcome was anatomic success defined as obliteration or absence of the treated vein on ultrasound examination after 1 year. Secondary outcomes were complications, improvement of the "C" class of the CEAP classification, and improvement of disease-specific (Chronic Venous Insufficiency Quality-of-Life Questionnaire) and general (EuroQol 5) quality-of-life scores.
RESULTS:More than 80% of the study population was classified as C2 or C3 venous disease. After 1 year, the anatomic success rate was highest after EVLA (88.5%), followed by CS (88.2%) and UGFS (72.2%) (P < .001). The complication rate was low and comparable between treatment groups. All groups showed significant (P < .001) improvement of EuroQol 5 and Chronic Venous Insufficiency Quality-of-Life Questionnaire scores after therapy; 84.3% of all treated patients showed an improvement of the "C" of the CEAP classification.
CONCLUSION:After 1-year follow-up, EVLA is as effective as CS and superior to UGFS according to occlusion on ultrasound duplex. Quality of life improves after treatment in all groups significantly.
- Prurigo nodularis: an update on etiopathogenesis and therapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Dermatolog Treat 2013 Jun 14.
Abstract Prurigo nodularis (PN) is a chronic, highly pruritic condition characterized by the presence of hyperkeratotic, excoriated, pruritic papules and nodules, with a tendency to symmetrical distribution. No reliable data exist about incidence and prevalence of PN in the general population, but it seems to be more frequent and more intense in females. PN may be associated with many dermatological and non dermatological comorbidities, including psychiatric disease. Recent findings suggest a neuropathic origin of PN, with alterations in the dermal and epidermal small diameter nerve fibers. PN may have a tremendous impact on the quality of life, and few effective treatment options are available. Few randomized controlled trials (RCT) on the therapy of PN are available, demonstrating the efficacy of phototherapy alone or with psoralen, and of topical calcipotriol and topical steroids in occlusive medications. Thalidomide may be effective, but no RCT are available and its use is impractical due to the unfavorable safety profile. Gabapentin, pregabalin and the neurokinin receptor 1 antagonist, aprepitant, seem also to be effective in the therapy of PN, but RCTs are still lacking.
- A retrospective analysis of dermatological problems in a hematology ward. [Journal Article]
- Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2013.:145-9.
Skin problems are common in patients with hematological disorders. Dermatologists play an important role in providing consultative service to other medical specialties. While most requests for dermatologic consultations are for common skin conditions, challenging scenarios and diagnostic dilemmas are frequently encountered, especially in acutely ill, immunocompromised patients.To characterize the profile of dermatological problems encountered in a hematology unit in a tertiary hospital, and to delineate clinical features that may help to distinguish cutaneous adverse drug reactions from toxic erythema of chemotherapy.A retrospective study was conducted reviewing all inpatient referrals for dermatology consultations from the hematology unit during a 6-month period from January 2010 to June 2010, at the largest multidisciplinary tertiary hospital in Singapore.Of the 692 referrals for dermatology consultation, 58 (8.3%) came from the hematology department. A total of 60 dermatological diagnoses were made. Most patients were referred for primary dermatological disorders (43.33%, n = 26). The most common diagnoses within this category were cutaneous infections (15%, n = 9) and dermatitis (13.33%, n = 8). Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (16.67%, n = 10) and toxic erythema of chemotherapy (10%, n = 6) were also frequently encountered. We could not identify any distinctive clinical feature that may help to differentiate the two conditions.Our study reinforces the importance of inpatient medical dermatology in terms of both service and education to nondermatologists, who continue to face difficulties diagnosing common skin disorders. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions and toxic erythema of chemotherapy are clinically similar and difficult to differentiate. Larger prospective studies are needed to examine this problem.
- Topical melatonin for treatment of androgenetic alopecia. [Journal Article]
- Int J Trichology 2012 Oct; 4(4):236-45.
In the search for alternative agents to oral finasteride and topical minoxidil for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA), melatonin, a potent antioxidant and growth modulator, was identified as a promising candidate based on in vitro and in vivo studies.One pharmacodynamic study on topical application of melatonin and four clinical pre-post studies were performed in patients with androgenetic alopecia or general hair loss and evaluated by standardised questionnaires, TrichoScan, 60-second hair count test and hair pull test.FIVE CLINICAL STUDIES SHOWED POSITIVE EFFECTS OF A TOPICAL MELATONIN SOLUTION IN THE TREATMENT OF AGA IN MEN AND WOMEN WHILE SHOWING GOOD TOLERABILITY: (1) Pharmacodynamics under once-daily topical application in the evening showed no significant influence on endogenous serum melatonin levels. (2) An observational study involving 30 men and women showed a significant reduction in the degree of severity of alopecia after 30 and 90 days (P < 0.001) based on questionnaires completed by investigators and patients. (3) Using a digital software-supported epiluminescence technique (TrichoScan) in 35 men with AGA, after 3 and 6 months in 54.8% to 58.1% of the patients a significant increase of hair density of 29% and 41%, respectively was measured (M0: 123/cm(2); M3: 159/cm(2); M6: 173/cm(2);) (P < 0,001). (4) In 60 men and women with hair loss, a significant reduction in hair loss was observed in women, while hair loss in men remained constant (P < 0.001). (5) In a large, 3-month, multi-center study with more than 1800 volunteers at 200 centers, the percentage of patients with a 2- to 3-fold positive hair-pull test decreased from 61.6% to 7.8%, while the percentage of patients with a negative hair-pull test increased from 12.2.% to 61.5% (P < 0.001). In addition, a decrease in seborrhea and seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp was observed.Since safety and tolerability in all of the studies was good, the topical application of a cosmetic melatonin solution can be considered as a treatment option in androgenetic alopecia.
- [Nitrous oxide - oxygen analgesia in aesthetic dermatology]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Hautarzt 2013 Jun; 64(6):435-42.
Local anaesthesia often is insufficient for more extensive procedures. Instead of general anaesthesia or sedation, pediatricians, gynaecologists and dentists increasingly use nitrous oxide (N2O). This study evaluates the suitability of this form of anesthesia in dermatology.In 24 patients (18 w, 6 m, mean age 49 y.) N2O/O2 inhalation (Livopan®) was used during 46 procedures with indications including fractional RF/wrinkle reduction, IPL/rosacea, q-sw. laser/tattoos and hemosiderosis as well as fractional Er:Glass laser for scars and hypopigmentation. In 26 procedures subjective pain intensity was measured (visual analogue scale 0-10).With N2O the treatment pain was lowered from 6.6 ± 1.6 to 2.9 ± 1.7 (median, p = 0.000). 23/24 patients chose N2O for their next treatment. Beside euphoria, fatigue, slight drowsiness, dizziness, nausea or change in auditory perception, no other side effects occurred.The pronounced analgesia, the easy self-administration, the fast onset and complete recovery after a few minutes and the low ratio of side effects make the N2O/O2 inhalation to an ideal addendum in the management of larger painful procedures in dermatology as long as contraindications and safety precautions are respected.
- Physical energy for drug delivery: Poration, concentration and activation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2013 Jun 7.
Techniques for controlling the rate and duration of drug delivery, while targeting specific locations of the body for treatment, to deliver the cargo (drugs or DNA) to particular parts of the body by what are becoming called "smart drug carriers" have gained increased attention during recent years. Using such smart carriers, researchers have also been investigating a number of physical energy forces including: magnetic fields, ultrasound, electric fields, temperature gradients, photoactivation or photorelease mechanisms, and mechanical forces to enhance drug delivery within the targeted cells or tissues and also to activate the drugs using a similar or a different type of external trigger. This review aims to cover a number of such physical energy modalities. Various advanced techniques such as magnetoporation, electroporation, iontophoresis, sonoporation/mechnoporation, phonophoresis, optoporation and thermoporation will be covered in the review. Special emphasis will be placed on photodynamic therapy owing to the experience of the authors' laboratory in this area, but other types of drug cargo and DNA vectors will also be covered. Photothermal therapy and theranostics will also be discussed.
- What's new in atopic eczema? An analysis of systematic reviews published in 2010-11. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Exp Dermatol 2013 Jun 11.
This review provides a summary of key findings from 24 systematic reviews of atopic eczema (AE) published or indexed between 1 August 2010 and 31 December 2011, updating published summaries from previous years. Epidemiological evidence points to the protective effects of early daycare, endotoxin exposure, consumption of unpasteurized milk, and early exposure to dogs, but antibiotic use in early life may increase the risk for AE. With regard to prevention of AE, there is currently no strong evidence of benefit for exclusive breastfeeding, hydrolysed protein formulas, soy formulas, maternal antigen avoidance, omega-3 or omega-6 fatty-acid supplementation, or use of prebiotics or probiotics. With respect to AE treatments, the most compelling new systematic review evidence was for proactive treatment with topical anti-inflammatory agents (topical corticosteroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors) for the prevention of AE flares in patients with moderate to severe AE. A meta-analysis of 4 trials confirmed the superiority of tacrolimus 0.1% over pimecrolimus for the treatment of AE, and a review of 17 trials found that tacrolimus (0.1% or 0.03%) was broadly similar in efficacy to mild/moderate topical corticosteroids. Evidence for the role of education in the management of AE was less conclusive, with evidence from randomized controlled trials showing mixed results. Further work is needed in this area to conduct high-quality trials of educational interventions that are clearly described and reproducible. There is no clear evidence for the efficacy of homeopathy, botanical extracts or Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of AE, as large well-designed trials are lacking in these areas.