Dermatology AND Intertrigo [keywords]
- Papular acantholytic dyskeratosis of the genitocrural area: A rare unilateral asymptomatic intertrigo. [Journal Article]
- JAAD Case Rep 2016 Mar; 2(2):132-4.
- Pressure and Friction Injuries in Primary Care. [Journal Article, Review]
- Prim Care 2015 Dec; 42(4):631-44.
Pressure and friction injuries are common throughout the lifespan. A detailed history of the onset and progression of friction and pressure injuries is key to aiding clinicians in determining the underlying mechanism behind the development of the injury. Modifying or removing the forces that are creating pressure or friction is the key to both prevention and healing of these injuries. Proper care of pressure and friction injuries to the skin is important to prevent the development of infection. Patient education on positioning and ergonomics can help to prevent recurrence of pressure and friction injuries.
- Study of the Etiological Causes of Toe Web Space Lesions in Cairo, Egypt. [Journal Article]
- Dermatol Res Pract 2015.:701489.
Background.The etiology of foot intertrigo is varied. Several pathogens and skin conditions might play a role in toe web space lesions.
Objective.To identify the possible etiological causes of toe web space lesions. Methods. 100 Egyptian patients were enrolled in this study (72 females and 28 males). Their ages ranged from 18 to 79 years. For every patient, detailed history taking, general and skin examinations, and investigations including Wood's light examination, skin scraping for potassium hydroxide test, skin swabs for bacterial isolation, and skin biopsy all were done.
Results.Among the 100 patients, positive Wood's light fluorescence was observed in 24 and positive bacterial growth was observed in 85. With skin biopsy, 52 patients showed features characteristic for eczema, 25 showed features characteristic for fungus, 19 showed features characteristic for callosity, and 3 showed features characteristic for wart while in only 1 patient the features were characteristic for lichen planus.
Conclusion.Toe web space lesions are caused by different etiological factors. The most common was interdigital eczema (52%) followed by fungal infection (25%). We suggest that patients who do not respond to antifungals should be reexamined for another primary or secondary dermatologic condition that may resemble interdigital fungal infection.
- [Risk factors associated with leg erysipelas (cellulitis) in sub-Saharan Africa: A multicentre case-control study]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ann Dermatol Venereol 2015 Nov; 142(11):633-8.
Acute bacterial cellulitis of the leg (erysipelas) is a common problem involving considerable morbidity in dermatology practice in Africa. Previous studies conducted in Europe and North Africa have highlighted lymphoedema and toe-web intertrigo as independent factors associated with leg erysipelas. The aim of this case-control study was to identify risk factors associated with leg erysipelas in sub-Saharan Africa, within a different socio-economic and culture context.We conducted a prospective case-control study in hospital dermatology departments in 8 sub-Saharan African countries over a 12-month period (October 2013 to September 2014). Each case of acute leg cellulitis was matched with 2 controls for age (±5 years) and sex. We analysed the general and local factors.During the study period, 364 cases (223 female, 141 male) were matched with 728 controls. The mean age was 42.15±15.15 years for patients and 42.11±36 years for controls. Multivariate analysis showed the following to be independent risk factors associated with leg erysipelas in our study: obesity (odds ratio [OR]=2.82 ; 95% confidence interval: 2.11-3.76), lymphoedema (OR=3.87, 95%CI: 2.17-6.89), voluntary cosmetic depigmentation (OR=4.29, 95%CI: 2.35-7.83), neglected traumatic wound (OR=37.2, 95%CI: 24.9-57.72) and toe-web intertrigo (OR=37.86, 95%CI: 22.27-64.5).The results of this study confirms the major role of local risk factors (toe-web intertrigo, lymphoedema) previously identified in other geographical settings. However, the originality of our study consists of the identification of voluntary cosmetic depigmentation as a risk factor for leg erysipelas in sub-Saharan Africa.
- Clinical characteristics of patients with lower limb cellulitis and antibiotic usage in Hospital Kuala Lumpur: a 7-year retrospective study. [Journal Article]
- Int J Dermatol 2016 Jan; 55(1):30-5.
Cellulitis commonly involved lower limbs. This study was carried out to determine the demography, clinical characteristics, risk factors, microbiological aspects, and antibiotics usage in this group of patients in Hospital Kuala Lumpur.A total of one hundred and twenty four patients with lower limb cellulitis treated in the Department of Dermatology, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, between January 2008 and May 2013 were included in this study.There were 70 male and 54 female patients, aged between 13 and 87 years (mean 57.23±12.854). Thirty-one of them (25%) had recurrent cellulitis. Fifty-seven (46%) had fever at presentation, 55 (44.4%) had bullous cellulitis. The top risk factors identified were toe web intertrigo (n = 79, 63.7%), hypertension (n=76, 61.3%), obesity (n = 55, 44.4%), and diabetes (n = 55, 44.4%). However, only toe web intertrigo (p = 0.003), peripheral vascular disease (p = 0.01), and varicose veins (p = 0.02) were significantly higher in recurrent cellulitis. Thirty patients (24.2%) were complicated with lipodermatosclerosis, and six (4.8%) had lymphostasis verrucosa cutis. Skin swab cultures were positive in 54 (43.5%) patients, and Pseudomonas sp. was the most frequently identified organism. Mean number of antibiotics given for one episode of cellulitis was 1.7±1. The antibiotics most given were cloxacillin (n=57, 46%) and other penicillins (n = 71, 57%), followed by cephalosporins (n = 40, 32%).Identifying clinical characteristics of those at risk may help to prevent recurrence of cellulitis and long-term complications.
- Hyperhidrosis, bromhidrosis, and chromhidrosis: Fold (intertriginous) dermatoses. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Review]
- Clin Dermatol 2015 Jul-Aug; 33(4):483-91.
Human sweat glands disorders are common and can have a significant impact on the quality of life and on professional, social, and emotional burdens. It is of paramount importance to diagnose and treat them properly to ensure optimal patient care. Hyperhidrosis is characterized by increased sweat secretion, which can be idiopathic or secondary to other systemic conditions. Numerous therapeutic options have been introduced with variable success. Novel methods with microwave-based and ultrasound devices have been developed and are currently tested in comparison to the conventional approaches. All treatment options for hyperhidrosis require frequent monitoring by a dermatologist for evaluation of the therapeutic progress. Bromhidrosis and chromhidrosis are rare disorders but are still equally disabling as hyperhidrosis. Bromhidrosis occurs secondary to excessive secretion from either apocrine or eccrine glands that become malodorous on bacterial breakdown. The condition is further aggravated by poor hygiene or underlying disorders promoting bacterial overgrowth, including diabetes, intertrigo, erythrasma, and obesity. Chromhidrosis is a rare dermatologic disorder characterized by secretion of colored sweat with a predilection for the axillary area and the face. Treatment is challenging in that the condition usually recurs after discontinuation of therapy and persists until the age-related regression of the sweat glands.
- Diaper (napkin) dermatitis: A fold (intertriginous) dermatosis. [Journal Article, Review]
- Clin Dermatol 2015 Jul-Aug; 33(4):477-82.
Diaper (napkin) dermatitis is an acutely presenting inflammatory irritant contact dermatitis of the diaper region. It is one of the most common dermatologic diseases in infants and children. In the past, the disease was thought to be caused by ammonia; however, a number of factors, such as friction, wetness, inappropriate skin care, microorganisms, antibiotics, and nutritional defects, are important. Diaper dermatitis commonly affects the lower parts of the abdomen, thighs, and diaper area. Involvement of skin fold regions is typical with diaper dermatitis. At the early stages of the disease, only dryness is observed in the affected area. At later stages, erythematous maceration and edema can be seen. Secondary candidal and bacterial infections can complicate the dermatitis. In the differential diagnosis of the disease, allergic contact dermatitis, intertrigo, psoriasis, atopic and seborrheic dermatitis, and the other diseases should be considered. Causes of the disease should be determined and eliminated primarily. Families need to be informed about the importance of a clean, dry diaper area and the frequency of diaper changes. The use of superabsorbent disposable diapers has decreased the incidence of the disease. Soap and alcohol-containing products should be avoided in cleaning the area. In some cases, corticosteroids and antifungal agents can be administered. If necessary, antibacterial agents and calcineurin inhibitors can also be beneficial.
- Pemphigus vegetans of the folds (intertriginous areas). [Journal Article, Review]
- Clin Dermatol 2015 Jul-Aug; 33(4):471-6.
Pemphigus vegetans (P Veg), the rarest form of pemphigus, is thought to be a variant of pemphigus vulgaris (PV). Classically, two subtypes of P Veg are recognized: (1) Neumann P Veg, which usually begins as PV with vesicles and bullae that rupture to form hypertrophic granulating erosions, then evolving into vegetating exuding masses; (2) Hallopeau P Veg, initially characterized by pustular lesions that, after rupturing, merge and gradually evolve into vegetating erosions with a centrifugal expansion. The disease typically affects the big folds (axillary, inframammary, inguinocrural, intergluteal), where semiocclusion, maceration, and mixed infections continuously incite exudation and granulation tissue formation (wet P Veg). In nonintertriginous locations, the vegetating buttons can dry out to change into warty, fissured, painful, seborrheic keratosis-like lesions (dry P Veg). Histologic examination indicates hyperplastic epidermis with intramalpighian leukocyte microabscesses and indistinct traits of suprabasal acantholysis. Immunofluorescence findings are similar to those of PV. Diagnosis is straightforward when PV lesions coexist. Difficulties can arise in cases with nonflexural location. Cytology (Tzanck test), histology, immunofluorescence, and ELISA search for anti-desmoglein antibodies are the diagnostic laboratory tools. Systemic treatment is similar to that for PV, high-dose steroids being the first choice therapy. Immunosuppressive agents and etretinate may allow a steroid-sparing effect. Topical treatment is aimed at countering the granulation tissue formation by means of several strategies (sublesional steroid injection, application of medicated gauzes in the involved flexures, chemical cautery or surgical excision of vegetating lesions).
- Acanthosis nigricans: A fold (intertriginous) dermatosis. [Journal Article, Review]
- Clin Dermatol 2015 Jul-Aug; 33(4):466-70.
Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a mucocutaneous disorder that is characterized by focal or diffuse hyperkeratotic, surfaces, which are symmetrically distributed hyperpigmented lesions of the skin. It rarely affects mucosal surfaces like oral cavities. Although it is commonly seen in adolescents, AN is also increasingly seen in children who are obese. Recent studies have found that AN can be a cutaneous indicator of insulin resistance and malignancy. Acanthosis nigricans has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, endocrinopathies, drugs, and malignancies.
- Baboon syndrome and toxic erythema of chemotherapy: Fold (intertriginous) dermatoses. [Journal Article, Review]
- Clin Dermatol 2015 Jul-Aug; 33(4):462-5.
Three decades ago, researchers described an eruption with a very characteristic distribution pattern that was confined to the buttocks and the intertriginous and flexor areas. They gave this reaction pattern one of the most unforgettable names in dermatology, baboon syndrome (BS), due to the characteristic, bright-red, well-demarcated eruption predominantly on the buttocks and genital area, reminiscent of the red bottom of a baboon. The authors described three cases provoked by ampicillin, nickel, and mercury. They were convinced that BS represented a special form of hematogenous or systemic contact-type dermatitis, but several important papers that appeared during the past decade disagreed and suggested that BS should be distinguished from hematogenous or systemic contact-type dermatitis. A new acronym, SDRIFE (symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexoral exanthema), was proposed along with five diagnostic criteria: (1) exposure to a systemically administered drug at the time of first or repeated doses (contact allergens excluded), (2) sharply demarcated erythema of the gluteal/perianal area and/or V-shaped erythema of the inguinal/perigenital area, (3) involvement of at least one other intertriginous/flexural fold, (4) symmetry of affected areas, and (5) absence of systemic symptoms and signs. Although there are merits to the arguments in favor of SDRIFE, many of us still prefer to use the wittier name baboon syndrome, and even more authors use both terms. We confess that we find it difficult to relinquish the term BS, which has served us so well for years; however, recognition, familiarity, and knowledge of the characteristics of this form of drug eruption must supersede sentimental attachment to a certain nomenclature and so, however reluctantly, we must embrace change. Another intertriginous drug eruption is the one induced by chemotherapy. Toxic erythema of chemotherapy (TEC) is a useful clinical term that recently has been introduced to describe this group of chemotherapy-induced eruptions. This group of overlapping toxic reactions is characterized by areas of painful erythema often accompanied by edema usually involving the hands and feet, intertriginous zones (eg, axilla, groin), and, less often, the elbows, knees, and ears. Toxic erythema of chemotherapy is briefly discussed.