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Dermatology AND Rash, heat [keywords]
- Sensitive skin evaluation in the Japanese population. [Journal Article]
- J Dermatol 2013 Mar; 40(3):177-81.
Sensitive skin syndrome was first described in 1977; however, no robust study has been carried out to evaluate its prevalence in Japan. A national representative sample of the Japanese population over the age of 18 years was taken. Individuals were questioned by telephone and selected according to the quota method. When asked "Do you have a sensitive skin?", 52.84% of men and 55.98% of women answered "rather sensitive" or "very sensitive". There was no significant difference (P = 0.22) between the two sexes. The non-response rate among respondents was zero, suggesting that the term "sensitive skin" held a meaning for the majority of the population. Concerning questions about the onset of a rash, tingling or irritation in the presence of various factors, such as emotional issues, cold, heat, sun, dry air, air-conditioning, water, air pollution and temperature variations, respondents with rather sensitive or very sensitive skin responded "yes" more often than others: approximately three-times more often for water (18.97%/6.15%), air pollution (39.29%/12.45%) and warm climatic conditions (29.74%/9.8%). To our knowledge, this epidemiological study is the first to focus on sensitive skin among Japanese people of this century. It is of particular interest for two reasons: (i) it was conducted on a representative sample of the Japanese population; and (ii) the methodology used was identical to that used for sensitive skin assessment studies conducted in Europe and the USA, making it possible to draw certain comparisons.
- Bipolar radiofrequency in the treatment of dermatologic imperfections: clinicopathological and immunohistochemical aspects. [Clinical Trial, Journal Article]
- J Drugs Dermatol 2007 Sep; 6(9):890-6.
Rapid progress in the technology for skin rejuvenation has allowed for shorter post-treatment times than ever before. An example of such technology is the radiofrequency (RF) device, which offers nonablative skin rejuvenation, particularly for skin tightening and wrinkle reduction.Medical devices that emit RF energy produce a change in the electrical charges of the treated skin creating an electron movement, and the resistance of the tissue to the electron movement generates heat. This article examines the mechanism of action of a new bipolar RF device, which emits RF energy through a handpiece with a bipolar electrode configuration, and assesses the clinical histological and immunohistochemical results on a sample group of patients who underwent a cycle of sessions with this device.Thirty patients affected with periocular wrinkles, glabellar wrinkles, slackness of the cheeks with accentuation of the nasogenian furrow, striae distensae at the scapulohumeral joint, abdomen, and gluteal-trochanteric areas, or acne scars were included. These patients underwent a cycle of 6 to 8 sessions with 2-week intervals with the new bipolar RF device undergoing photographic monitoring before treatment and at the end of the cycle of sessions. In addition, 15 patients from the sample group were subjected to 2 biopsies, one at the start of treatment and the other 3 months after the last treatment.All the patients showed improvement in treated imperfections from the second session onward, and they expressed their satisfaction at the end of the treatment cycle. The most notable clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical results were observed in the patients with abdominal striae distensae. In most cases, the temporary side effects observed consisted of rashes and ecchymosis. Two patients reported the formation of blisters on the treated area caused by excessively high RF settings.The new bipolar RF device proved to be effective, noninvasive, and easy to use. The improvement in the treated areas is progressive and continues to be apparent several months after the last session. The duration of the results achieved still remains to be accurately determined.
- Nutritional deficiencies and the skin. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Clin Exp Dermatol 2005 Jul; 30(4):388-90.
Malnutrition states are relatively uncommon in the UK but we have seen two recent cases which have heightened our awareness of both dermatological manifestations of malnutrition and of nutritional sequelae of a dermatological problem. Case 1 is a patient with anorexia nervosa presenting with features of pellagra. This condition is due to deficiency of niacin and responds rapidly to replacement therapy. Classical presentation is an erythematous rash on photoexposed sites, often related to heat or friction. There are three reported cases of pellagra occurring in patients with anorexia nervosa. Case 2 is an adult atopic with sensitizations to multiple foodstuffs. A self-imposed restriction diet caused multiple nutritional deficiencies. Restriction diets in adult atopics are not particularly common in the UK, but there is some evidence to suggest that they may cause significant nutritional deficiency. A nutrition screen may be indicated more frequently than is currently recognized.
- Current epidemiology of atopic dermatitis in south-eastern Nigeria. [Journal Article]
- Int J Dermatol 2004 Oct; 43(10):739-44.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common pruritic, eczematous skin disorder that runs a chronic and relapsing course. In Nigeria, it is currently on the increase, particularly amongst infants, and has created cost burdens for families. It occurs in association with a personal or family history of asthma, allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis. Major and minor criteria exist as guidelines for arriving at a diagnosis of AD, and surveys from Western countries have shown that these features, in particular the minor features, vary with ethnicity and genetic background and can be used to aid diagnosis. African dermatologists have also voiced concern that the much used Hanifin criteria for diagnosis of AD may need some adaptation for use in Africa.To document the features and disease outcomes of AD seen amongst dermatology hospital patients in Enugu, south-eastern Nigeria, with a view to reflecting current features amongst Nigerian Blacks.A prospective study of AD patients seen over a 2-year period at a tertiary referral dermatology clinic (University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria) was carried out. A total of 1019 patients aged between 4 weeks and 57 years were included in the study.The prevalence of AD was 8.5%, which is much higher than the prevalence of AD reported in various parts of Nigeria 15 years ago. AD occurred before the age of 10 years in 523 (51.3%) patients, whilst 250 (24.5%) had onset after 21 years. The earliest age of onset in infants was in the first 6 weeks of life, and this was found in 129 patients (12.7%). Education and occupation of household heads were the most significant (P < 0.001) factors associated with seeking proper health care for the child's AD. Four hundred and forty-one (43.3%) patients presented with subacute atopic eczema and 326 (32%) patients with severe impeteginized eczema. Four hundred and twenty-five patients (41.7%) had at least one first-degree family member with AD (16.7%), allergic rhinitis (10.3%), asthma (14.6%) and allergic conjunctivitis (2.1%), while 55 (13.3%) of controls had a positive family history (P < 0.01) of allergy. A personal history of AD only, without concomitant respiratory allergies, was seen in 486 (47.7%) patients. The face was affected in 431 (42.3%) patients. Inverse distribution of a flexural rash was observed over the extensor aspect of the joints: the elbow in 502 patients (49.3%), the wrist joint in 183 patients (17.9%) and the knee joints in 354 patients (34.7). The commonly observed minor features included xerosis in 719 patients (71%), papular lichenoid lesions in 547 patients (54.1%), infraorbital folds in 498 patients (49.2%), palmar hyper linearity in 524 patients (51.8%) and raised peripheral blood eosinophils in 519 patients (51%), particularly for those with severe AD. Fissured heels, forehead lichenification, orbital darkening, nail pitting, sand paper-like skin lesions on the elbows/knees/lateral malleolli, knuckle dermatitis of the hands, palmar erythema and pitted keratolysis occurred more uncommonly as minor features. Infective complications were very common and included bacterial infections (folliculitis, impetiginized dermatitis and pyodermas) in 425 (41.7%) patients, fungal infections in 377 (37%) patients, parasitic infections (scabies) in 90 (8.8%) patients and viral infection (herpes simplex and molluscum contagiosum) in 29 (2.9%) patients. Thirteen of these atopics were also HIV positive. Aggravating factors most commonly reported included heat intolerance, excessive sweating, humidity, grass intolerance, thick woollen clothing and drug reactions. Only three patients had food intolerance. Three hundred and ten patients (30.4%) recalled their AD being worse in the hot humid periods and 383 (37.6%) could not recall any periods of relief or remission.The prevalence of AD amongst south-eastern Nigerian Blacks is on the increase, as in other areas, although it is still lower here than in other parts of the world. Many conventional minor features were found, but some occurred less frequently than in other countries, which may be attributed to ethnicity. Further studies will be required to confirm the ethnic differences in these features of AD amongst Nigerians and other Africans, to clarify the features of AD that are peculiar to Africans.
- Reticulated rash on the thighs. Erythema ab igne. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Postgrad Med 2004 Mar; 115(3):81-2.
- A netlike rash. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- West J Med 2000 Dec; 173(6):370-1.
- Neonatal skin care. [Journal Article, Review]
- Pediatr Clin North Am 2000 Aug; 47(4):757-82.
The relative importance of neonatal health and neonatal skin care has been highlighted in recent years as infant mortality rates have decreased while death rates during the neonatal period remain unacceptably high in many areas of the world. During the neonatal period, many newborns develop preventable, clinically apparent skin problems, and many more, especially preterm neonates, experience morbidity caused by compromised skin barrier integrity. Several strategies are available for protecting the integrity and promoting the hygiene of the skin and augmenting its function as a barrier to TEWL and heat loss and the entrance of infectious or toxic agents. Research defining optimal applications of many of these strategies, however, and the development of new approaches in skin care is one of the greatest challenges in pediatric dermatology and holds promise for improving neonatal outcome in the future. The ability to modulate epidermal barrier function and integrity relies largely on the topical use of protective materials and substances and manipulation of the external environment. As understanding of epidermal barrier development advances, perhaps pharmacologic manipulation of barrier development, as now practiced for augmentation of neonatal lung maturity, will become a reality. In the meantime, greater awareness among neonatal health care practitioners of state-of-the-art strategies for optimizing skin integrity in neonates is an important step toward improving neonatal health.
- Positive skin tests in late reactions to radiographic contrast media. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Allerg Immunol (Paris) 1999 Feb; 31(2):49-51.
In the last few years delayed reactions several hours after the injection of radiographic and contrast materials (PRC) have been described with increasing frequency. The authors report two observations on patients with delayed reactions in whom intradermoreactions (IDR) and patch tests to a series of ionic and non ionic PRC were studied. After angiography by the venous route in patient n degree 1 a biphasic reaction with an immediate reaction (dyspnea, loss of consciousness) and delayed macro-papular rash appeared, whilst patient n degree 2 developed a generalised sensation of heat, persistent pain at the site of injection immediately and a generalised macro-papular reaction after 24 hours. The skin tests revealed positive delayed reactions of 24 hours and 48 hours by IDR and patch tests to only some PRC with common chains in their structures. The positive skin tests are in favour of immunological reactions and may help in diagnosis of allergy in the patients.
- Cytokines and acute phase reactants during flare-up of contact allergy to gold. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Am J Contact Dermat 1998 Mar; 9(1):15-22.
Patients with contact allergy experience cutaneous, as well as general reactions, when exposed systemically to their contact allergen. This study focused on the release in blood of pertinent cytokines and acute phase reactants as a consequence of parenteral allergen exposure.Ten patients with contact allergy to gold were given one intramuscular injection of gold sodium thiomalate; plasma levels of some cytokines and acute phase reactants were followed for 24 hours.There was a flare-up of 1-week-old patch tests in all 10 patients; a maculopapular rash in 5 of 10; and a transient fever in 4 of 10. Biochemical analyses showed some increase of plasma levels of several cytokines in most patients, interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-ra) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in particular, and of C-reactive protein (CRP) and leukocyte proteins. A marked increase of IL-1ra, TNF-alpha, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF RI), neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), human (leukocyte) elastase antitrypsin (HEAT), and CRP was observed mainly in the four patients with fever and general skin reactions.Systemic exposure to the allergen in contact allergy elicits cutaneous and general reactions; at least in the case of gold allergy, it is accompanied by an emergence of cytokines and acute phase reactants.
- Itching in active patients: causes and cures. [Journal Article]
- Phys Sportsmed 1998 Jan; 26(1):47-53.
The cause of pruritus can be as benign as dry skin or as serious as liver disease. A variety of other conditions may trigger itching in active people, including eczema, heat rash, Grover's disease, sunburn, cholinergic urticaria, exercise-induced anaphylaxis, contact and systemic allergic reactions, infections, parasites, and several systemic diseases. Most of these conditions can be effectively managed with treatments that range from avoidance of environmental irritants to the use of topical agents, antihistamines, systemic corticosteroids, or antibiotics.