Dermatology AND Tinea unguium [keywords]
- The Diagnosis and Treatment of Nail Disorders. [Journal Article]
- Dtsch Arztebl Int 2016 Jul 25; 113(29-30):509-18.
Nail disorders can arise at any age. About half of all nail disorders are of infectious origin, 15% are due to inflammatory or metabolic conditions, and 5% are due to malignancies and pigment disturbances. The differential diagnosis of nail disorders is often an area of uncertainty.This review is based on publications and guidelines retrieved by a selective search in PubMed, including Cochrane reviews, meta-analyses, and AWMF guidelines.Nail disorders are a common reason for derma - tologic consultation. They are assessed by clinical inspection, dermatoscopy, diagnostic imaging, microbiological (including mycological) testing, and histopathological examination. Some 10% of the overall population suffers from onychomycosis, with a point prevalence of around 15%. Bacterial infections of the nails are rarer than fungal colonization. High-risk groups for nail disorders include diabetics, dialysis patients, transplant recipients, and cancer patients. Malignant tumors of the nails are often not correctly diagnosed at first. For subungual melanoma, the mean time from the initial symptom to the correct diagnosis is approximately 2 years; this delay is partly responsible for the low 10-year survival rate of only 43%.Evaluation of the nail organ is an important diagnostic instrument. Aside from onychomycosis, which is a common nail disorder, important differential diagnoses such as malignant diseases, drug side effects, and bacterial infections must be considered.
- Systematic mapping review about costs and economic evaluations of skin conditions and diseases in the aged. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Tissue Viability 2016 Jul 25.
Skin conditions and dermatological diseases associated with advanced age (e.g. fungal infection, dry skin and itch) receive increasingly attention in clinical practice and research. Cost and economic evaluations are important sources to inform priority setting and ressource allocation decisions in healthcare. The economics of skin conditions in aged populations has not been systematically reviewed so far.The aim of this mapping review was to summarize the economic evidence of selected skin conditions in the aged (65 + years).A mapping literature review and evidence summary was conducted. Searches were conducted in data bases Medline and Embase via OVID. Cinahl was searched using EBSCO. References lists of potential eligible studies, reviews, guidelines or other sources were screened for additional literature. For evaluation of methodological quality of full economic analyses the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria (CHEC) checklist was used.Database searches resulted in 1388 records. A total of 270 articles were read in full-text. Thirty-five publications were finally included in the data analysis reporting 38 economic analyses. Ten cost of illness analyses and 26 cost-effectiveness analyses reporting about pressure ulcers, skin tears, pressure ulcers, incontinence associated dermatitis and intertrigo/contact dermatitis/candidiasis treatment and prevention and onychomycosis testing were identified. Limited evidence indicated that low air loss beds were more cost effective than standard beds for prevention of pressure ulcers. Standardized skin care regimens seem to lower the incidence of pressure ulcers, skin tears and IAD but a cost saving effect was not always observed.Findings of this mapping review indicate that there is a paucity of high quality evidence regarding the economic impact of age-associated skin conditions and diseases. Substantial heterogeneity in terms of study design, evaluation perspective, time period, and way of cost estimation was identified. Because of the overall low methodological quality clear cut conclusions cannot be drawn. Robust and large scales economic evaluations about skin conditions and disease in aged populations are needed in the future.
- Tinea and Onychomycosis. [Journal Article]
- Semin Cutan Med Surg 2016 Jun; 35(6 Suppl):S110-3.
Onychomycosis and tinea pedis are common fungal infections affecting the nails and feet, respectively. Two newly approved topical agents for onychomycosis are efinaconazole and tavaborole, both of which have demonstrated respectable cure rates in clinical studies. For tinea pedis, naftifine 2% and luliconazole 1% are new agents, both administered for relatively short courses, that may foster greater adherence Semin Cutan Med Surg 35(supp6):S110-S113.
- Koilonychia: an update on pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and clinical relevance. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2016 Aug 17.
Koilonychia, a concave nail dystrophy, has multiple aetiologies and may be hereditary, acquired or idiopathic. Within dermatology, koilonychia is often a manifestation of an inflammatory dermatosis such as psoriasis or lichen planus, or a sign of onychomycosis. Other disease associations include iron store abnormalities, Plummer-Vinson Syndrome, nutritional deficiencies and occupational or traumatic aetiologies. In young children, koilonychia of the toenails is commonly transient and idiopathic, although familial and syndromic cases are reported. The dermatologist must be aware of the potential cutaneous and systemic associations with koilonychia in order to guide appropriate workup, treatment and/or referral. An algorithm for evaluation of koilonychia is presented along with discussion of common causes of koilonychia and a comprehensive list of all known associations.
- Onychomycosis in patients with nail psoriasis: a point to point discussion. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mycoses 2016 Aug 15.
Onychomycosis is the most common nail disease and affects large parts of the population. Psoriasis is a frequently encountered skin disorder with nail involvement being found in up to 80% of the patients at some time of the course of the disease. It has been postulated that onychomycosis occurs more frequently in patients with nail psoriasis, but the results of studies in the literature are controversial. Moreover, onychomycosis could exacerbate psoriasis through Koebner phenomenon and the treatment of psoriasis could predispose to onychomycosis. Finally, the differential diagnosis could be a real challenge due to many same clinical signs, the high prevalence and the possible coexistence of the two diseases. This article attempts to enlighten all these different aspects of a very close relationship.
- Treating onychomycosis with the short-pulsed 1064-nm-Nd:YAG laser: results of a prospective randomized controlled trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2016 Aug 13.
The role of the short-pulsed 1064-nm-Nd:YAG laser in treating onychomycosis has been the subject of controversial discussion ever since it received FDA approval in 2010. Research to date provides no valid conclusions supporting its use from an evidence-based perspective.In this prospective randomized controlled pilot study, we analysed the effect of the short-pulsed 1064-nm-Nd:YAG laser on the rate of mycological remission and clinical improvement after excluding relevant confounders with regard to our previous studies.Twenty patients with a total of 82 mycotic toenails were randomized to the treatment group (short-pulsed 1064-nm-Nd:YAG laser) or control group (no laser treatment). We conducted four laser treatments at 4- to 6-week intervals. In both groups, a local antimycotic agent was applied to the sole of the foot, the area between the toes and the skin directly surrounding the nails. The primary endpoint was complete remission of the onychomycosis after 12 months (fungal culture and histology); secondary endpoints included clinical improvement (Onychomycosis Severity Index, OSI) and the occurrence of pain or other adverse events.Mycological remission was not achieved in either study group. A comparison of both groups yielded no difference in the OSI score, both at the beginning of the trial (P = 0.9873) and after 12 months (P = 0.4317). In the treatment group, the OSI score worsened by a mean 2.0 points, and in the control group, by a mean 3.5 points. On a visual analogue scale (0 = 'no pain' to 10 = 'most intense pain'), pain in the treatment group was indicated at a mean score of five. Other adverse events were not reported.The short-pulsed 1064-nm-Nd:YAG laser shows no long-term efficacy as a monotherapy. Its role as an adjuvant therapy should be investigated in upcoming trials.
- Methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy for onychomycosis: a multicentre, randomized, controlled clinical trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2016 Aug 12.
Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail infection that responds poorly to antifungals.To investigate the efficacy and safety of methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of onychomycosis.A multicentre (3), randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial compared the effects of three sessions of urea (40%) plus conventional MAL-PDT with urea (40%) plus placebo (red light) photodynamic therapy (pPDT) in onychomycosis patients. Efficacy, both clinical (onychomycosis severity index, OSI) and microbiological, was blindly evaluated after 36 weeks of follow-up.Forty patients were analysed in the trial. Twenty-two received MAL-PDT and 18 pPDT. A complete response (OSI = 0) was observed for four patients (18.18%) in the MAL-PDT group and one (5.56%) in the pPDT group (NTT 7.92, 95% CI: 2.98-9.69, P = 0.23). A decrease in OSI score of over 75% (OSI75) was achieved by 40.91% of the patients in the MAL-PDT group and 16.67% in the pPDT group (P = 0.096). Microbiological cure was achieved by seven patients (31.82%) in the MAL-PDT group and two (11.11%) in the pPDT group (P = 0.178). MAL-PDT resulted in better rates of clinical response [OSI >75%: 53.85% vs. 18.75% (P =0.048)] and microbiological cure [41.56% vs. 7.14% (P = 0.037)] in non-dystrophic vs. dystrophic onychomycosis patients. No significant side-effects were reported. The limitations of the study were the reduced sample size and the unexpected efficacy of the control treatment, which was attributed to the 40% urea pre-treatment.This study did not show significant differences between urea 40% + MAL-PDT and urea 40% + pPDT in the treatment of onychomycosis. However, some results suggest that this treatment may constitute an alternative for dermatophyte and non-dermatophyte mould onychomycosis in patients not eligible for systemic treatment, particularly in the absence of total nail dystrophy.
- Nail changes in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. [Journal Article]
- Turk J Med Sci 2016; 46(2):495-500.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine. To our knowledge, no studies to date pertain to the profile of nail changes in IBD, except for onychomycosis. We aimed to study the frequency and pattern of nail changes among patients with IBD and evaluate their potential relationships with several parameters in IBD.The study included 73 patients with IBD and 51 healthy control subjects. Nails of both groups were examined for changes with regard to color, striations, texture, curvature of nail plates, dystrophy of nail plates, and pigmentation. Mycological examinations were performed when onychomycosis was suspected.Nail changes were statistically higher in patients with IBD than in the control group (P = 0.001). The presence of onychomycosis was significantly more common in patients with IBD (P = 0.041). Subungual hyperkeratosis and brownish discoloration of the nail were the most common findings in patients with IBD.Our study is the first report showing all nail changes in IBD. Further studies with more subjects are needed to reveal more detailed information about nail changes in IBD.
- Self-controlled Study of Onychomycosis Treated with Long-pulsed Nd:YAG 1064-nm Laser Combined with Itraconazole. [Journal Article]
- Chin Med J (Engl) 2016 Aug 20; 129(16):1929-34.
Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nail plate and subungual area. In this study, we examined the efficacy of laser treatment using self-controlled study programs involving a long-pulsed Nd:YAG 1064-nm laser combined with oral medication.Self-controlled strategies were followed in this study. The patients received treatment with oral itraconazole in conjunction with long-pulsed Nd:YAG 1064-nm laser treatment at the nails of the unilateral limb once a week for a total of four times. A total of 84 affected nails were divided into Group A (mild to moderate) and Group B (severe) according to disease severity. Affected nails with the same Scoring Clinical Index for Onychomycosis scores were selected to compare the therapeutic effects of the pure medication treatment group and the combination treatment group with a 24-week follow-up period.In Group A, at the 8th, 16th, and 24th weeks of follow-up, the efficacies in the pure medication treatment group were 81.0%, 81.0%, and 90.5%, respectively, while those in the combination treatment group were 100%, 95.2%, and 90.5%, respectively. The differences between groups were not significant (8th week: χ2 = 4.421, P> 0.05; 16th week: χ2 = 2.043, P> 0.05; 24th week: χ2 = 0.00, P > 0.05). In Group B, at the 8th, 16th, and 24th weeks of follow-up, the efficacies in the pure medication treatment group were 61.9%, 66.7%, and 52.4%, respectively, while those in the combination treatment group were 95.2%, 90.5%, and 100%, respectively. The differences between groups at the 8th and 24th weeks of follow-up were statistically significant (8th week: χ2 = 6.929, P< 0.05; 24th week: χ2 = 13.125, P < 0.05).For patients with mild or moderate onychomycosis, we recommended a pure medication treatment or combination treatment with medication and laser. For those patients with severe onychomycosis, we recommended a combination of medication and laser therapy.
- Nail psoriasis in an adult successfully treated with a series of herbal skin care products family – a case report. [Journal Article]
- J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2016 Apr-Jun; 30(2 Suppl 3):21-8.
Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory dermatosis that causes significant distress and morbidity. Approximately 50% of patients with cutaneous psoriasis and 90% of patients with psoriatic arthritis demonstrate nail involvement of their psoriasis. Left untreated, nail psoriasis may progress to debilitating nail disease that leads to not only impairment of function but also on quality of life. We report the case of a 50-year-old male patient with recalcitrant nail dystrophies on the fingers since the age of 40, who responded successfully to Dr. Michaels® product family. The patient had a 35-year history of plaque psoriasis localised on the scalp, ears, groin, limbs, and trunk and with psoriatic arthritis. The nail symptoms consisted of onycholysis, onychomycosis, leukonychia, transverse grooves, nail plate crumbling and paronychia of the periungal skin. This case represents the efficacy and safety of the Dr. Michaels® (Soratinex® and Nailinex®) product family with successful resolution of nail dystrophies and surrounding paronychia with no reported adverse events.