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Dermatology AND Tinea unguium [keywords]
- Emerging topical onychomycosis therapies - quo vadis? [Journal Article]
- Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 2014 Dec; 19(4):489-95.
Onychomycosis, a common chronic fungal infection affecting fingernails and toenails, globally may affect 10 - 30% of the population. This chronic disease is difficult to eradicate. The goal of developing a highly effective and safe topical treatment has not yet been reached as it depends on the type of onychomycosis and the variety of invaders.Topical drug delivery to the nail is highly desirable in treating nail disorders. However, efficacy of topical therapies is low due to their limited permeability across the nail plate. Advances have especially been made by the development of new therapeutic options including new drug entities, new formulations and reformulations. This overview updates emerging topical treatments for onychomycosis, research progress and future perspectives.Development of novel effective noninvasive topical therapy for treating onychomycosis and other nail diseases such as psoriasis is long overdue. Previously there was a lack of basic knowledge about nail and its barrier properties, but with the recent increased interest in this field both from industry and academia, we hope extensive research will continue in this field to bring about successful and safe treatments for such chronic diseases.
- When all you have is a dermatoscope- start looking at the nails. [Journal Article, Review]
- Dermatol Pract Concept 2014 Oct; 4(4):11-20.
Pigmented and non-pigmented nail alterations are a frequent challenge for dermatologists. A profound knowledge of clinical and dermatoscopic features of nail disorders is crucial because a range of differential diagnoses and even potentially life-threatening diseases are possible underlying causes. Nail matrix melanocytes of unaffected individuals are in a dormant state, and, therefore, fingernails and toenails physiologically are non-pigmented. The formation of continuous, longitudinal pigmented streaks (longitudinal melanonychia) may either be caused by a benign activation of matrix melanocytes (e.g., as a result of trauma, inflammation, or adverse drug reactions) or by a true melanocytic proliferation (e.g., in a nevus or melanoma). In general, non-continuous nail alterations, affecting only limited parts of the nail apparatus, are most frequently of non-melanocytic origin. Important and common differential diagnoses in these cases are subungual hemorrhage or onychomycosis. In addition, foreign bodies, bacterial infections, traumatic injuries, or artificial discolorations of the nail unit may less frequently cause non-continuous nail alterations. Many systemic diseases that may also show involvement of the nails (e.g., psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, lichen planus, alopecia areata) tend to induce alterations in numerous if not all nails of the hands and feet. A similar extensive and generalized alteration of nails has been reported after treatment with a number of systemic drugs, especially antibiotics and cytostatics. Benign or malignant neoplasms that may also affect the nail unit include glomus tumor, Bowen's disease, squamous cell carcinoma, and rare collision tumors. This review aims to assist clinicians in correctly evaluating and diagnosing nail disorders with the help of dermatoscopy.
- Onychomycosis by Fusarium oxysporum probably acquired in utero. [Journal Article]
- Med Mycol Case Rep 2014 Oct.:58-61.
Fusarium oxysporum has been described as a pathogen causing onychomycosis, its incidence has been increasing in immunocompetent and disseminated infection can occur in immunosuppressed individuals. We describe the first case of congenital onychomycosis in a child caused by Fusarium oxysporum. The infection being acquired in utero was proven by molecular methods with the identification of the fungus both in the nail and placenta, most probably as an ascending contamination/infection in a HIV-positive, immunosuppressed mother.
- Dermatology procedures: laser management and related therapies. [Journal Article]
- FP Essent 2014 Nov.:29-33.
Laser therapy is a new approach to treating cosmetic and medical skin conditions. Different laser units emit light at different wavelengths, and each wavelength acts on a different chromophore in tissue that is sensitive to the wavelength. Commonly targeted chromophores are hemoglobin (when vascular lesions are being treated), melanin (in pigmented lesions), and water (targeted to cause skin peeling that results in collagen remodeling). Ink is an exogenous chromophore targeted during laser treatments to remove tattoos. Lasers can be used to treat a variety of medical skin conditions, including psoriasis and onychomycosis. Care must be taken with lasers to avoid burns and inadvertent destruction of melanin-containing tissue in darker-skinned patients. Precautions also must be taken to prevent exposure of the eyes to the laser. Intense-pulsed light therapy differs from laser therapy in that it uses multiwavelength light, making it useful for managing many skin conditions with a single unit. However, this same characteristic can result in inadvertent damage to tissue adjacent to the treated site. Other approaches include radiofrequency, which uses radiofrequency energy to heat and destroy subcutaneous tissue, and photodynamic therapy, which uses a light source in combination with a photosensitizing agent.
- A 1,320-nm Nd: YAG Laser for Improving the Appearance of Onychomycosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dermatol Surg 2014 Oct 29.
Onychomycosis is a therapeutic challenge because of the toxicities of systemic medications. This has led to the investigation of light-based technologies for safe and effective alternative treatment modalities.The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of 4 treatments with a 1,320-nm neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser in improving the appearance of onychomycosis.This study was a 24-week, single-center randomized placebo-controlled study. Ten subjects were enrolled with culture-proven, bilateral great toenail onychomycosis. The subjects received 4 treatments with the 1,320-nm Nd:YAG laser to the treatment toenail on Days 1, 7, 14, and 60. The control toenail received a sham treatment of cryogen cooling only. Mycologic cultures were obtained at 3-month follow-up visits.Fifty percent of mycologic cultures were negative at the 3-month follow-up after 4 laser treatments. Toenails had improvement in subungual debris, hypertrophy, and yellowing. Patient satisfaction was upheld as assessed by the Nail Quality of Life Questionnaire.The 1,320-nm Nd:YAG laser may be a safe and effective therapy for improving the appearance of onychomycosis. Additional therapy may be necessary to enhance long-term results. Further investigation needs to explore the optimal treatment settings and the most effective treatment schedule.
- Histopathological examination of nail clippings using PAS staining (HPE-PAS): gold standard in diagnosis of Onychomycosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mycoses 2014 Oct 27.
Onychomycosis is fungal infection of one or more of the nail units. However, because fungi cause only about half of all nail dystrophies, the use of appropriate diagnostic techniques is important to ensure correct diagnosis and treatment. Aim of the present study was to compare direct microscopy, culture and HPE-PAS for diagnosis of onychomycosis by evaluating their sensitivity and various other relevant statistical parameters. A prospective, hospital-based, cross-sectional study was conducted on 216 patients with a high degree of clinical suspicion of onychomycosis. Nail specimens were evaluated using three diagnostic methods, i.e. direct microscopy using 20% Potassium hydroxide (KOH) & 40% Di-methyl-suphoxide (DMSO), culture and histopathological examination using PAS stain (HPE-PAS). Of 216 patients direct microscopy was positive in 138 (63.9%), culture in 147 (68%) and HPE-PAS in 164 patients (76%). One hundred and seventy-nine patients fitted into the criteria set for confirmed diagnosis of onychomycosis. Using this as a denominator; direct microscopy, culture and HPE-PAS had sensitivities of 77.1%, 70% and 91.6% respectively. Also, HPE-PAS showed the highest sensitivity of 94.7% in 19 cases with prediagnostic antimycotic treatment compared to direct microscopy (42.1%) or culture (57.9%). HPE-PAS shows high sensitivity for diagnosis of onychomycosis and can be considered as a gold standard in the diagnosis of onychomycosis.
- A Case of Onychomycosis Caused by Rhodotorula glutinis. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Dermatol Med 2014.:563261.
Rhodotorula spp. have emerged as opportunistic pathogens, particularly in immunocompromised patients. The current study reports a case of onychomycosis caused by Rhodotorula glutinis in a 74-year-old immunocompetent female. The causative agent was identified as R. glutinis based on the pinkish-orange color; mucoid-appearing yeast colonies on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar at 25°C; morphological evaluation in the Corn Meal-Tween 80 agar; observed oval/round budding yeast at 25°C for 72 hours; no observed pseudohyphae; positive urease activity at 25°C for 4 days; and assimilation features detected by API ID 32C kit and automated Vitek Yeast Biochemical Card 2 system. Antifungal susceptibility test results were as follows: amphotericin B (MIC = 0.5 µg/mL), fluconazole (MIC = 128 µg/mL), itraconazole (MIC = 0.125 µg/mL), voriconazole (MIC = 1 µg/mL), posaconazole (MIC = 0.5 µg/mL), anidulafungin (MIC = 0.5 µg/mL), and caspofungin (MIC = 16 µg/mL). Antifungal therapy was initiated with oral itraconazole at a dose of 400 mg/day; seven-day pulse therapy was planned at intervals of three weeks. Clinical recovery was observed in the clinical evaluation of the patient before the start of the third cure. Although R. glutinis has rarely been reported as the causative agent of onychomycosis, it should be considered.
- Combined Oral Terbinafine and Long-Pulsed 1,064-nm Nd: YAG Laser Treatment Is More Effective for Onychomycosis Than Either Treatment Alone. [Journal Article]
- Dermatol Surg 2014 Nov; 40(11):1201-7.
Onychomycosis is difficult to cure. Systemic and topical treatments, including the 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser, are not very effective when used individually.To compare the efficacy and safety of combined treatment with a long-pulsed 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser and oral terbinafine with those of either treatment alone.We randomly divided 53 patients with a total of 90 infected nails into 3 treatment groups: the T group received oral terbinafine, the L group received long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser treatment, and the T + L group received both treatments. We evaluated the mycological clearance rate (MCR) and the clinical clearance rate (CCR) of the 3 groups at Weeks 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24.The MCR and CCR increased in all 3 groups in a time-dependent manner. The MCR and CCR of the T + L group were significantly higher than those of the T group and the L group at Weeks 8, 12, 16, and 24 (p < .05).These data indicate that 12 weeks of combined treatment with a long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser and oral terbinafine produce more rapid and effective mycological and clinical clearance in patients with onychomycosis than either treatment alone, without any obvious side effects.
- Onychomycosis in qassim region of saudi arabia: a clinicoaetiologic correlation. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Diagn Res 2014 Aug; 8(8):YC01-4.
Onychomycosis is mainly caused by dermatophytes, but yeasts and nondermatophyte molds have also been implicated, giving rise to diverse clinical presentations. The aetiological agents of the disease may show geographic variation.The aim of the present study was to isolate the causative pathogens and to correlate the various clinical patterns of onychomycosis with causative pathogens.The study population comprised 170 patients with clinical suspicion of onychomycosis. Nail samples were collected for direct microscopic examination and culture. Clinical patterns were noted and correlated with causative pathogens.Out of total 170 cases included in the study, 140 (82.4%) were positive by microscopy and 77 (45.3%) showed positive mycological findings by both microscopy and culture. The male: female ratio was 1:2.5 and the mean age was 35.29 ± 16.47 years. Fingernails were involved in 51.9%, toenails in 28.6% and both fingernails and toenails in 19.5% of the 77 patients. The clinical types noted were distal lateral subungual onychomycosis (71.4%), proximal subungual onychomycosis (10.4%), total dystrophic onychomycosis (10.4%), superficial white onychomycosis (3.9%) and mixed pattern onychomycosis (3.9%). Yeasts were the most common pathogens isolated, being found in 36 patients (46.8%) followed by nondermatophyte molds which were isolated from 28 patients (36.4%) followed by dermatophytes which were isolated from 13 patients (16.9%).Distal lateral subungual onychomycosis was the most common clinical presentation. Candida albicans, Aspergillus species and Tricophyton rubrum were the major pathogens. A single pathogen can give rise to more than one clinical type.
- Luliconazole for the treatment of fungal infections: an evidence-based review. [Journal Article, Review]
- Core Evid 2014.:113-24.
Luliconazole is an imidazole antifungal agent with a unique structure, as the imidazole moiety is incorporated into the ketene dithioacetate structure. Luliconazole is the R-enantiomer, and has more potent antifungal activity than lanoconazole, which is a racemic mixture. In this review, we summarize the in vitro data, animal studies, and clinical trial data relating to the use of topical luliconazole. Preclinical studies have demonstrated excellent activity against dermatophytes. Further, in vitro/in vivo studies have also shown favorable activity against Candida albicans, Malassezia spp., and Aspergillus fumigatus. Luliconazole, although belonging to the azole group, has strong fungicidal activity against Trichophyton spp., similar to that of terbinafine. The strong clinical antifungal activity of luliconazole is possibly attributable to a combination of strong in vitro antifungal activity and favorable pharmacokinetic properties in the skin. Clinical trials have demonstrated its superiority over placebo in dermatophytosis, and its antifungal activity to be at par or even better than that of terbinafine. Application of luliconazole 1% cream once daily is effective even in short-term use (one week for tinea corporis/cruris and 2 weeks for tinea pedis). A Phase I/IIa study has shown excellent local tolerability and a lack of systemic side effects with use of topical luliconazole solution for onychomycosis. Further studies to evaluate its efficacy in onychomycosis are underway. Luliconazole 1% cream was approved in Japan in 2005 for the treatment of tinea infections. It has recently been approved by US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of interdigital tinea pedis, tinea cruris, and tinea corporis. Topical luliconazole has a favorable safety profile, with only mild application site reactions reported occasionally.