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Dermatology AND Tinea unguium [keywords]
- Dermatophyte isolation in the socks of patients with tinea pedis and onychomycosis. [LETTER]
- J Dermatol 2013 Apr 27.
- Ciclopirox delivery into the human nail plate using novel lipid diffusion enhancers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2013 Apr 19.
Context:Onychomycosis is a common fungal infection of the nail plate and bed that affects up to 14% of the population and can have a substantial impact on the quality of life of those affected.
Objective:This study compared the onychopharmacokinetics, nail absorption, nail distribution, and nail penetration of [(14)C]-ciclopirox dissolved in novel lipid diffusion enhancers with that of a commercial ciclopirox nail lacquer using the in vitro finite dose model. Materials and methods: The penetration rate of ciclopirox was determined by applying doses of topical formulation twice daily to human nail plates for 11 d. Drug absorption was then measured by monitoring its rate of appearance in each nail layer and in the cotton pad/nail supporting bed.
Results:After a multiple day treatment, cumulative concentrations of ciclopirox formulated with lipid enhancers in the deep nail layer and the nail bed were significantly greater than cumulative concentrations of the commercial ciclopirox lacquer (p < 0.001) as well as several orders of magnitude greater than the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) deemed necessary to inhibit the growth of the causative dermatophyte species.
Conclusion:When formulated with lipid enhancers, the amount of ciclopirox in the ventral/intermediate layer and supporting bed dramatically exceed the inhibitory concentration of ciclopirox for the most common onychomycosis organisms. These results suggest that topical ciclopirox with lipid enhancers has the potential to be an effective topical treatment for onychomycosis, and the lipidic pathway of the nail can be utilized as a means of effective transungual delivery.
- Efficacy of NVC-422 in the treatment of dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes using a guinea pig model. [Journal Article]
- Int J Dermatol 2013 May; 52(5):567-71.
Objectives Dermatophytes, belonging to genera including Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, are the causative agents of superficial fungal infections, prevalences of which are estimated to be as high as 25% in the worldwide population. This study evaluated the activity of topical formulations of NVC-422 (sodium 2-[dichloroamino]-2-methylpropane-1-sulfonate), the lead compound in a new class of antimicrobials that consist of broad-spectrum, fast-acting, nonantibiotic antimicrobial molecules based on the endogenously produced N-chlorotaurines. Methods The antifungal efficacy of NVC-422 was investigated using a guinea pig model of infection with Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Infected guinea pigs were randomly assigned to four treatment and two control groups. The efficacy of the treatments was assessed clinically and mycologically at 72 hours after the final topical dose. Results The test compound 2% NVC-422 in 1% Noveon Gel demonstrated the highest level of clinical efficacy. Outcomes of treatment with all other test compounds differed significantly from outcomes in the untreated control group (P = 0.003, P = 0.029, P = 0.012, and P < 0.0001, respectively). Fungal elements were detectable in skin sections from untreated guinea pigs but not in skin sections obtained from any of the treatment groups. Conclusions Evaluation of the efficacy of NVC-422 in the treatment of dermatophytosis using an experimental guinea pig model showed that this compound possesses potent antifungal efficacy as measured by mycological and clinical endpoints. The highest degree of clinical and mycological efficacy was demonstrated by 2% NVC-422 in 1% Noveon Gel. These data show that NVC-422 has potent antifungal activity in vivo. Clinical evaluation of NVC-422 in the treatment of superficial infections caused by dermatophytes, including onychomycosis, is warranted.
- Efficacy of 4 weeks topical bifonazole treatment for onychomycosis after nail ablation with 40% urea: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mycoses 2013 Apr 16.
Onychomycosis is a common fungal infection most often affecting the toenails. If untreated, it can cause discomfort sufficient to reduce quality of life. To evaluate efficacy and safety of bifonazole cream vs. placebo in onychomycosis treatment after non-surgical nail ablation with urea paste. Fifty-one study centres randomized 692 subjects with mild-to-moderate onychomycosis to receive bifonazole 1% cream or placebo for 4 weeks following non-surgical nail ablation with urea 40% paste over 2-4 weeks. Efficacy of the two phase treatment was evaluated by overall cure of the target nail comprising clinical and mycological cure 2 weeks, 3 and 6 months after end of treatment. At 2 weeks (primary endpoint), overall cure rate was superior in bifonazole-treated group (54.8% vs. 42.2% for placebo; P = 0.0024). The clinical cure rate was high in both treatment groups (86.6% bifonazole vs. 82.8% placebo), but proportion with mycological cure was higher with bifonazole treatment (64.5%) vs. placebo treatment 49.0%, (P = 0.0001). We observed higher early overall cure rate with 4 weeks topical bifonazole compared with placebo after removal of infected nail parts with urea. This two stage treatment was well tolerated and offers an additional option in topical onychomycosis therapy.
- An observational and descriptive study of the epidemiology of and therapeutic approach to onychomycosis in dermatology offices in Brazil. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- An Bras Dermatol 2013 Feb.:3-11.
Onychomycosis is a type of fungal infection that accounts for over 50% of all onycopathies. Some authors consider superficial mycosis the most difficult to be treated. Very few studies have been carried out in order to assess the epidemiology of onychomycosis in Brazil.To describe the epidemiological profile of onychomycosis in Brazilian dermatology offices and to assess the etiology of the disease, how often mycosis exams are requested, and the treatment adopted.A descriptive, observational study was carried out between May and July, 2010. Thirty-eight dermatologists from different Brazilian regions participated in the study, and 7,852 patients with any skin diseases who had all of their nails examined were included in the study.Of the 7,852 patients, 28.3% were clinically diagnosed as having onychomycosis. Women over 45 years old who practiced exercises or with a personal history of the disease showed greater likelihood of having onychomycosis. The disease was most seen in the feet, and the majority of cases involved the hallux. On the hands, the index finger was the most affected. Mycosis exams were not requested for all clinically suspected cases. When exams were done, results showed that the most common fungus was Trichophyton rubrum. The most common clinical lesion was distal-lateral. The most prescribed topical treatments were amorolfine and ciclopirox olamine, while systemic treatments included fluconazole and terbinafine.This study was important to describe the epidemiological behavior of onychomycosis in Brazilian dermatology offices and to determine important risk factors, such as gender, age, practice of exercises, personal history of the disease, and comorbidities.
- Onychomycosis as a Warning Sign for Peripheral Arterial Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Derm Venereol 2013 Mar 25.
Abstract is missing (Letter).
- Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of an Optimized Avulsion Technique with Onyster® (40% Urea Ointment with Plastic Dressing) Ointment Compared to Bifonazole-Urea Ointment for Removal of the Clinically Infected Nail in Toenail Onychomycosis: a Randomized Evaluator-Blinded Controlled Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dermatology 2013; 226(1):5-12.
Background:Toenail onychomycosis is highly prevalent, with 14-28% of people aged 60 or over suffering from the disease. Use of a topical antifungal alone in toenail onychomycosis is associated with low cure rates. This may be due to limited penetration of the topical antifungal through the diseased nail. The objective of the present study was to compare two treatment modalities to obtain diseased nail chemical avulsion in toenail onychomycosis.
Methods:In this European, multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, open-label, active-controlled study, male or female adult patients with distal-lateral or lateral subungual dermatophyte onychomycosis on at least 12.5% of the great toenail were randomized either to a 40% urea ointment with plastic dressing group (n = 53) or to a bifonazole-urea ointment group (n = 52). The ointments were applied daily for a maximum of 3 weeks according to the summary of product characteristics. After assessment of infected nail debridement, topical antifungal treatment with bifonazole cream was applied daily in both groups for 8 weeks. 102 patients were evaluated, i.e. 51 in the 40% urea ointment with plastic dressing group and 51 in the bifonazole-urea group. The primary end point was complete removal of the nail plate at day 21 (D21). Secondary end points were: complete cure and mycological cure evaluated at D105. Ease of use and local tolerability were also assessed.
Results:Complete removal of the clinically infected target nail plate area, assessed by blinded evaluators, was significantly higher in the 40% urea ointment with plastic dressing group (61.2%) than in the control group (39.2%), showing the superiority of 40% urea ointment with plastic dressing (p = 0.028). The same results were observed in the per-protocol population (63.0 vs. 36.6%; p = 0.014). Complete removal of the infected area assessed by the investigator at D21 showed a significantly higher success rate in patients treated with 40% urea ointment with plastic dressing (86.3%) as compared to patients treated with bifonazole-urea (60.8%), confirming the superiority of 40% urea ointment with plastic dressing (p = 0.004). At D105, the complete cure of onychomycosis, a criterion combining clinical and mycological assessments, showed a success rate of 27.7% for 40% urea ointment with plastic dressing versus 20.8% for the control group. No statistical difference was observed between the two treatment groups. The number of patients with at least one adverse event was twice as high in the bifonazole-urea group in comparison to the 40% urea ointment with plastic dressing group. Overall assessment of local tolerability by the investigator was considered good/very good in 98.0% of the 40% urea ointment with plastic dressing patients versus 90.4% of the bifonazole-urea patients, at D21, with no significant difference between both groups.
Conclusion:This study shows the superiority of 40% urea ointment with plastic dressing to bifonazole-urea ointment for complete removal of the infected target nail assessed by blinded evaluators and by the investigators. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of preliminary chemical nail avulsion on the efficacy of topical treatment of onychomycosis as assessed by complete cure at 1 year.
- Dermatologist-diagnosed skin diseases among immigrant Latino poultry processors and other manual workers in North Carolina, USA. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Dermatol 2013 Mar 3.
Background Immigrant Latino workers represent an expanding workforce in rural areas of the USA, where their employment is concentrated in occupations such as poultry processing that entail chemical, infectious, and mechanical skin exposures. Occupation-related skin illnesses in this vulnerable population are not well characterized. Objectives This study was designed to describe the prevalences of skin diseases among immigrant Latino poultry processors and other manual workers in North Carolina. Methods Community-based sampling was used to recruit 742 immigrant Latino workers, 518 of whom underwent a physical examination supervised by a board-certified dermatologist. The presence or absence of skin disease on the face, neck, arms, hands, and feet was recorded. Results Workers ranged in age from 18 years to 68 years. Slightly over half of the sample were male (52.6%). Poultry workers represented 55.8% of the study sample. Infectious skin diseases were the most common diagnosis, present in 52.3% of workers. Inflammatory skin diseases were present in 28.2% and pigmentary disorders in 21.8% of workers. The most common skin conditions were tinea pedis (37.6%), onychomycosis (31.9%), scars (13.7%), acne (11.8%), and melasma (9.3%). Age, sex, first language, and work as a poultry processor accounted in part for the prevalence of these diseases. Conclusions Several skin diseases are highly prevalent in immigrant Latino workers and may relate to work environment. These may impair the quality of life of these workers and predispose them to further illness.
- Nail psoriasis - a treatment challenge. [Journal Article]
- J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2013 Mar; 11(3):203-19; quiz 220.
Nail involvement in psoriasis is common and mostly occurs with other lesions but can also occur alone. Besides psychosocial and aesthetic impairments, patients often complain about functional impairment. Nail psoriasis is a predictor for more severe psoriasis, decreased quality of life, and a higher risk for the development of psoriatic arthritis. Onychomycosis and other differential diagnoses should be excluded prior to treatment. This article presents an overview of different clinical appearances of nail psoriasis, the essential diagnostic assessment before treatment, important differential diagnoses, and published data on treatment options for nail psoriasis.
- The diagnostic value of fungal fluorescence in onychomycosis. [Journal Article]
- J Cutan Pathol 2013 Apr; 40(4):385-90.
Fluorescence of pathogenic fungi has been previously shown when hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections are examined under a fluorescent microscope. We hypothesize that this phenomenon could aid in the evaluation of nail specimens for onychomycosis.Forty-eight routinely stained nail sections of periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive onychomycosis, along with 23 PAS-negative control specimens with a clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis, were studied under a fluorescent microscope to determine the clinical usefulness of this technique.In most cases, fluorescence of fungal organisms was noted. Fungi were identified by their tubular or annular shapes with fluorescence surrounding them. The sensitivity and specificity of the method were 96 and 90%, respectively. In some cases, it was difficult to identify the fungi because of the relative paucity of organisms, weak fluorescence and high background fluorescence of eosinophilic nail keratin.We conclude that fluorescence microscopy can be used as a rapid screening tool for identification of fungi in nail specimens.