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- Assessment of the 18F-Labeled PET Tracer LMI1195 for Imaging Norepinephrine Handling in Rat Hearts. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Nucl Med 2013 May 13.
A novel (18)F-labeled tracer, LMI1195 (N-[3-bromo-4-(3-(18)F-fluoro-propoxy)-benzyl]-guanidine), is being developed for sympathetic nerve imaging; its high specificity for neural uptake-1 mechanism has previously been demonstrated in cell associative studies and in rabbit and nonhuman primate studies assessing heart uptake. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of (18)F-LMI1195 cardiac uptake in the rat, which is known to contain norepinephrine uptake mechanisms beyond uptake-1.
METHODS:Tracer accumulation in the heart was studied over time after intravenous administration of (18)F-LMI1195 in healthy male Wistar rats by quantitative in vivo PET imaging. The uptake mechanism was assessed by pretreatment with the nonselective norepinephrine uptake-1 and norepinephrine uptake-2 inhibitor phenoxybenzamine (50 mg/kg intravenously; n = 4), the selective norepinephrine uptake-1 inhibitor desipramine (2 mg/kg intravenously; n = 4), or saline control (intravenously; n = 4).
RESULTS:(18)F-LMI1195 produced high and sustained heart uptake allowing clear delineation of the left ventricular wall over 60 min after tracer administration. Pretreatment with phenoxybenzamine markedly reduced the (18)F-LMI1195 cardiac uptake when compared with controls. In contrast, there was preserved (18)F-LMI1195 uptake after desipramine pretreatment.
CONCLUSION:In rats, cardiac uptake of (18)F-LMI1195 was significantly inhibited by phenoxybenzamine but not desipramine, suggesting (18)F-LMI1195 is a substrate for the uptake-2 mechanism and is consistent with the rat heart having a dominant level of the mechanism.
- A proposal for refining the forced swim test in Swiss mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2013 May 8.
The forced swim test (FST) is a preclinical test to the screening of antidepressants based on rats or mice behaviours, which is also sensitive to stimulants of motor activity. This work standardised and validated a method to register the active and passive behaviours of Swiss mice during the FST in order to strength the specificity of the test. Adult male Swiss mice were subjected to the FST for 6 min without any treatment or after intraperitoneal injection of saline (0.1 ml/10 g), antidepressants (imipramine, desipramine, or fluoxetine, 30 mg/kg) or stimulants (caffeine, 30 mg/kg or apomorphine, 10 mg/kg). The latency, frequency and duration of behaviours (immobility, swimming, and climbing) were scored and summarised in bins of 6, 4, 2 or 1 min. Parameters were first analysed using Principal Components Analysis generating components putatively related to antidepressant (first and second) or to stimulant effects (third). Antidepressants and stimulants affected similarly the parameters grouped into all components. Effects of stimulants on climbing were better distinguished of antidepressants when analysed during the last 4 min of the FST. Surprisingly, the effects of antidepressants on immobility were better distinguished from saline when parameters were scored in the first 2 min. The method proposed here is able to distinguish antidepressants from stimulants of motor activity using Swiss mice in the FST. This refinement should reduce the number of mice used in preclinical evaluation of antidepressants.
- Test-retest repeatability of quantitative cardiac (11)C-meta-hydroxyephedrine measurements in rats by small animal positron emission tomography. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nucl Med Biol 2013 May 8.
INTRODUCTION:The norepinephrine analogue (11)C-meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED) has been used to interrogate sympathetic neuronal reuptake in cardiovascular disease. Application for longitudinal studies in small animal models of disease necessitates an understanding of test-retest variability. This study evaluated the repeatability of multiple quantitative cardiac measurements of HED retention and washout and the pharmacological response to reuptake blockade and enhanced norepinephrine levels.
METHODS:Small animal PET images were acquired over 60min following HED administration to healthy male Sprague Dawley rats. Paired test and retest scans were undertaken in individual animals over 7days. Additional HED scans were conducted following administration of norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine or continuous infusion of exogenous norepinephrine. HED retention was quantified by retention index, standardized uptake value (SUV), monoexponential and one-compartment washout. Plasma and cardiac norepinephrine were measured by high performance liquid chromatography.
RESULTS:Test retest variability was lower for retention index (15%±12%) and SUV (19%±15%) as compared to monoexponential washout rates (21%±13%). Desipramine pretreatment reduced myocardial HED retention index by 69% and SUV by 85%. Chase treatment with desipramine increased monoexponential HED washout by 197% compared to untreated controls. Norepinephrine infusion dose-dependently reduced HED accumulation, reflected by both retention index and SUV, with a corresponding increase in monoexponential washout. Plasma and cardiac norepinephrine levels correlated with HED quantitative measurements.
CONCLUSION:The repeatability of HED retention index, SUV, and monoexponential washout supports its suitability for longitudinal PET studies in rats. Uptake and washout of HED are sensitive to acute increases in norepinephrine concentration.
- Electro-assisted solid-phase microextraction based on poly(3,4-etylenedioxythiophen) combined with GC for the quantification of tricyclic antidepressants. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Sep Sci 2013 May 10.
In this study, a platinum wire coated with poly(3,4-etylenedioxythiophen) was used as an electro-assisted solid-phase microextraction fiber for the quantification of tricyclic antidepressant drugs in biological samples by coupling to GC employing a flame ionization detector. In this study, an electric field increased the extraction rate and recovery. The fiber used as a solid phase was synthesized by the electropolymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophen monomers onto a platinum wire. The ability of this fiber to extract imipramine, desipramine, and clomipramine by using the electro-assisted solid-phase microextraction technique was evaluated. The effect of various parameters that influence the extraction efficiency, which include solution temperature, extraction time, stirring rate, ionic strength, time and temperature of desorption, and thickness of the fiber, were optimized. Under optimized conditions, the linear ranges and regression coefficients of calibration curves were in the range of 0.5-250 ng mL(-1) and 0.990-0.998, respectively. Detection limits were in the range of 0.15-0.45 ng mL(-1) . Finally, this method was applied to the determination of drugs in urine and wastewater samples and recoveries were 4.8-108.9%.
- Genotoxic effects induced by zearalenone in a human embryonic kidney cell line. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mutat Res 2013 Apr 30.
Mycotoxins are considered to be significant contaminants of food and animal feed. Zearalenone (ZEA) is a hepatotoxic mycotoxin with estrogenic and anabolic activity found in cereal grains worldwide. ZEA affects hematological and immunological parameters in humans and rodents. The compound can induce cell death, cause lipid peroxidation, inhibit protein and DNA synthesis, and exert genotoxic effects. ZEA may cause increased phagolysosomal fragility in the kidney. Our research showed that exposure of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells to ZEA (10 or 20μM) resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in DNA strand breaks measured with the comet assay. Damage was reduced in cells pretreated with NH4Cl, pepstatin A, or desipramine for 1h. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased in cells exposed to ZEA, but DNA strand break induction could not be inhibited by the antioxidant hydroxytyrosol (HT). These results suggest that oxidative stress does not play a key role in DNA strand breaks induced by ZEA, that lysosomal injury precedes DNA strand breaks, and that the lysosome may be a primary target for ZEA in HEK293 cells.
- Regulator of G protein signaling is a crucial modulator of antidepressant drug action in depression and neuropathic pain models. [Journal Article]
- Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013 May 14; 110(20):8254-9.
Regulator of G protein signaling 4 (Rgs4) is a signal transduction protein that controls the function of monoamine, opiate, muscarinic, and other G protein-coupled receptors via interactions with Gα subunits. Rgs4 is expressed in several brain regions involved in mood, movement, cognition, and addiction and is regulated by psychotropic drugs, stress, and corticosteroids. In this study, we use genetic mouse models and viral-mediated gene transfer to examine the role of Rgs4 in the actions of antidepressant medications. We first analyzed human postmortem brain tissue and found robust up-regulation of RGS4 expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of subjects receiving standard antidepressant medications that target monoamine systems. Behavioral studies of mice lacking Rgs4, including specific knockdowns in NAc, demonstrate that Rgs4 in this brain region acts as a positive modulator of the antidepressant-like and antiallodynic-like actions of several monoamine-directed antidepressant drugs, including tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Studies using viral-mediated increases in Rgs4 activity in NAc further support this hypothesis. Interestingly, in prefrontal cortex, Rgs4 acts as a negative modulator of the actions of nonmonoamine-directed drugs that are purported to act as antidepressants: the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist ketamine and the delta opioid agonist (+)-4-[(αR)-α-((2S,5R)-4-Allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide. Together, these data reveal a unique modulatory role of Rgs4 in the brain region-specific actions of a wide range of antidepressant drugs and indicate that pharmacological interventions at the level of RGS4 activity may enhance the actions of such drugs used for the treatment of depression and neuropathic pain.
- A whole cell pathway screen reveals seven novel chemosensitizers to combat chloroquine resistant malaria. [Journal Article]
- Sci Rep 2013 Apr 25.:1734.
Due to the widespread prevalence of resistant parasites, chloroquine (CQ) was removed from front-line antimalarial chemotherapy in the 1990s despite its initial promise of disease eradication. Since then, resistance-conferring mutations have been identified in transporters such as the PfCRT, that allow for the efflux of CQ from its primary site of action, the parasite digestive vacuole. Chemosensitizing/chemoreversing compounds interfere with the function of these transporters thereby sensitizing parasites to CQ once again. However, compounds identified thus far have disappointing in vivo efficacy and screening for alternative candidates is required to revive this strategy. In this study, we propose a simple and direct means to rapidly screen for such compounds using a fluorescent-tagged CQ molecule. When this screen was applied to a small library, seven novel chemosensitizers (octoclothepin, methiothepin, metergoline, loperamide, chlorprothixene, L-703,606 and mibefradil) were quickly elucidated, including two which showed greater potency than the classical chemosensitizers verapamil and desipramine.
- Human UGT2B10 in Drug N-glucuronidations: Substrate Screening and Comparison with UGT1A3 and UGT1A4. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Metab Dispos 2013 Apr 23.
Recent observations revealed that human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B10 catalyzes N-glucuronidation of amine-containing compounds. Knowledge of the substrate specificity and clinical significance of UGT2B10 is still limited. The purpose of this study was to expand the knowledge of UGT2B10 substrates and to evaluate its significance in drug clearance. Using recombinant UGT2B10, we found that it catalyzes the N-glucuronidation of amitriptyline, imipramine, ketotifen, pizotifen, olanzapine, diphenhydramine, tamoxifen, ketoconazole and midazolam. These are drugs that were previously reported to be substrates for UGT1A4 or UGT1A3 and that contain in their structure either tertiary aliphatic amines, cyclic amines, or an imidazole group. UGT2B10 was inactive in the glucuronidation of desipramine, nortriptyline, carbamazepine and afloqualone. This group of drugs contains secondary or primary amines, and these results suggest that UGT2B10 preferably conjugates tertiary amines. This preference is partial because UGT2B10 did not conjugate the tertiary cyclic amine in trifluoperazine. Kinetic analyses revealed that the affinity and clearance of UGT2B10 for amitriptyline, imipramine, and diphenhydramine are significantly higher than the corresponding values of UGT1A4 and UGT1A3, although the Vmax values of UGT1A4 toward these drugs are considerably higher. These findings suggest that UGT2B10 plays a major role in the N-glucuronidation of these drugs at therapeutic concentrations. These results are also supported by inhibition studies with nicotine and hecogenin. In conclusion, this study expands the understanding of the substrate specificity of UGT2B10, highlighting its preference for tertiary amines with higher affinities and clearance values than those of UGT1A4 and UGT1A3.
- Cardiac retention of PET neuronal imaging agent LMI1195 in different species: Impact of norepinephrine uptake-1 and -2 transporters. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nucl Med Biol 2013 Apr 16.
INTRODUCTION:Released sympathetic neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) in the heart is cleared by neuronal uptake-1 and extraneuronal uptake-2 transporters. Cardiac uptake-1 and -2 expression varies among species, but the uptake-1 is the primary transporter in humans. LMI1195 is an NE analog labeled with (18)F for PET evaluation of cardiac neuronal function. This study investigated the impact of cardiac neuronal uptake-1 associated with different species on LMI1195 heart uptake.
METHODS:Cardiac uptake-1 was blocked by desipramine, a selective uptake-1 inhibitor, and sympathetic neuronal denervation was induced by 6-hydroxydopamine, a neurotoxin, in rats, rabbits and nonhuman primates (NHP). Tissue biodistribution and cardiac imaging of LMI1195 and (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) were performed.
RESULTS:In rats, uptake-1 blockade did not alter LMI1195 heart uptake compared to the control at 60-min post injection [1.41±0.07 vs. 1.47±0.23 % injected dose per gram tissue (%ID/g)]. In contrast, LMI1195 heart uptake was reduced by 80% in uptake-1 blocked rabbits. In sympathetically denervated rats, LMI1195 heart uptake was similar to the control (2.18±0.40 vs. 2.58±0.76 %ID/g). However, the uptake decreased by 79% in denervated rabbits. Similar results were found in MIBG heart uptake in rats and rabbits with uptake-1 blockade. Consistently, LMI1195 cardiac imaging showed comparable myocardial activity in uptake-1 blocked or sympathetically denervated rats to the control, but marked activity reduction in uptake-1 blocked or denervated rabbits and NHPs.
CONCLUSIONS:LMI1195 is retained in the heart of rabbits and NHPs primarily via the neuronal uptake-1 with high selectivity and can be used for evaluation of cardiac sympathetic denervation. Similar to the human, the neuronal uptake-1 is the dominant transporter for cardiac retention of NE analogs in rabbits and NHPs, but not in rats.
- Applications of CYP450 Testing in the Clinical Setting. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Diagn Ther 2013 Apr 16.
Interindividual variability in drug response is a major clinical problem. Polymedication and genetic polymorphisms modulating drug-metabolising enzyme activities (cytochromes P450, CYP) are identified sources of variability in drug responses. We present here the relevant data on the clinical impact of the major CYP polymorphisms (CYP2D6, CYP2C19 and CYP2C9) on drug therapy where genotyping and phenotyping may be considered, and the guidelines developed when available. CYP2D6 is responsible for the oxidative metabolism of up to 25 % of commonly prescribed drugs such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, opioids, antiarrythmics and tamoxifen. The ultrarapid metaboliser (UM) phenotype is recognised as a cause of therapeutic inefficacy of antidepressant, whereas an increased risk of toxicity has been reported in poor metabolisers (PMs) with several psychotropics (desipramine, venlafaxine, amitriptyline, haloperidol). CYP2D6 polymorphism influences the analgesic response to prodrug opioids (codeine, tramadol and oxycodone). In PMs for CYP2D6, reduced analgesic effects have been observed, whereas in UMs cases of life-threatening toxicity have been reported with tramadol and codeine. CYP2D6 PM phenotype has been associated with an increased risk of toxicity of metoprolol, timolol, carvedilol and propafenone. Although conflicting results have been reported regarding the association between CYP2D6 genotype and tamoxifen effects, CYP2D6 genotyping may be useful in selecting adjuvant hormonal therapy in postmenopausal women. CYP2C19 is responsible for metabolising clopidogrel, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and some antidepressants. Carriers of CYP2C19 variant alleles exhibit a reduced capacity to produce the active metabolite of clopidogrel, and are at increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. For PPIs, it has been shown that the mean intragastric pH values and the Helicobacter pylori eradication rates were higher in carriers of CYP2C19 variant alleles. CYP2C19 is involved in the metabolism of several antidepressants. As a result of an increased risk of adverse effects in CYP2C19 PMs, dose reductions are recommended for some agents (imipramine, sertraline). CYP2C9 is responsible for metabolising vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), sulfonylureas, angiotensin II receptor antagonists and phenytoin. For VKAs, CYP2C9 polymorphism has been associated with lower doses, longer time to reach treatment stability and higher frequencies of supratherapeutic international normalised ratios (INRs). Prescribing algorithms are available in order to adapt dosing to genotype. Although the existing data are controversial, some studies have suggested an increased risk of NSAID-associated gastrointestinal bleeding in carriers of CYP2C9 variant alleles. A relationship between CYP2C9 polymorphisms and the pharmacokinetics of sulfonylureas and angiotensin II receptor antagonists has also been observed. The clinical impact in terms of hypoglycaemia and blood pressure was, however, modest. Finally, homozygous and heterozygous carriers of CYP2C9 variant alleles require lower doses of phenytoin to reach therapeutic plasma concentrations, and are at increased risk of toxicity. New diagnostic techniques made safer and easier should allow quicker diagnosis of metabolic variations. Genotyping and phenotyping may therefore be considered where dosing guidelines according to CYP genotype have been published, and help identify the right molecule for the right patient.