Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Dry mouth xerostomia [keywords]
- Complete denture biofilm after brushing with specific denture paste, neutral soap and artificial saliva. [Journal Article]
- Braz Dent J 2013; 24(1):47-52.
This study compared the levels of biofilm in maxillary and mandibular complete dentures and evaluated the number of colony-forming units (cfu) of yeasts, after using auxiliary brushing agents and artificial saliva. Twenty-three denture wearers with hyposalivation and xerostomia were instructed to brush the dentures 3 times a day during 3 weeks with the following products: Corega Brite denture dentifrice, neutral liquid soap, Corega Brite combined with Oral Balance (artificial saliva) or tap water. For biofilm quantification, the internal surfaces of the dentures were disclosed, photographed and measured using a software. For microbiological analysis, the biofilm was scrapped off, and the harvested material was diluted, sown in CHROMagar™ Candida and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Mandibular dentures presented a mean biofilm percentage (µ=26.90 ± 21.10) significantly greater than the maxillary ones (µ=18.0 ± 15.0) (p<0.05). Brushing using Corega Brite combined with Oral Balance (µ=15.87 ± 18.47) was more effective (p<0.05) than using the denture dentifrice (µ=19.47 ± 17.24), neutral soap (µ=23.90 ± 18.63) or tap water (control; µ=32.50 ± 20.68). For the microbiological analysis, the chi-square test did not indicate significant difference between the hygiene products for either type of denture. The more frequently isolated species of yeasts were C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. In conclusion, mandibular dentures had more biofilm formation than maxillary ones. Denture brushing with Corega Brite dentifrice combined with the use of Oral Balance was the most effective method for reduction of biofilm levels, but the use of products did not show difference in yeast cfu counts.
- Limited Scleroderma with Pauci-Immune Glomerulonephritis in the Presence of Renal Cell Carcinoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Med Res 2013 May 8.
Connective tissue disorders increase the risk of malignancy; conversely, they may manifest as rheumatological paraneoplastic syndromes due to an underlying malignancy. We describe a patient with limited scleroderma whose rapid disease progression coincided with the discovery of a renal tumor. A female patient, aged 75 years, presented with a 3-month history of progressive difficulty grasping objects, unsteadiness, dyspnea, xerostomia, xerophthalmia, and significant weight loss. She had a 10-year history of gastroesophageal reflux and Raynaud's phenomenon. Pertinent physical examination findings included facial telangiectasias, bibasilar inspiratory rales, sclerodactyly, and absent pinprick and vibratory sensation in her toes. She also had swelling and tenderness in several metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints and both ankles. A renal mass was demonstrated on abdominal computed tomography. A left partial nephrectomy was performed, confirming an unclassified type of renal cell carcinoma, along with a focal proliferative crescentic pauci-immune glomerulonephritis. Medical therapy with rituximab, pulse methylprednisolone, and prednisone led to improvement in her symptoms. The patient's presentation is consistent with a rapid progression of pre-existing limited scleroderma with the development of new rheumatological symptoms, including vasculitis. We propose that this progression was secondary to paraneoplastic stimulation by the renal cell carcinoma. Clinicians should consider looking for a malignancy in patients with connective tissue disorders who present with a myriad of new symptoms.
- Prevalence of Candida spp., xerostomia, and hyposalivation in oral lichen planus - A controlled study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Oral Dis 2013 Apr 19.
OBJECTIVE:To determine the frequency of Candida spp., xerostomia, and salivary flow rate (SFR) in three different groups: patients with OLP (OLP group), patients with oral mucosal lesions other than OLP (non-OLP group), and subjects without oral mucosal lesions (control group).
MATERIAL AND METHODS:Xerostomia as well as SFR was investigated in the three groups. Samples for isolation of Candida spp. were collected from OLP lesions (38 patients), non-OLP lesions (28 patients), and healthy subjects (32 subjects).
RESULTS:There was no statistically significant difference regarding the frequency of xerostomia and hyposalivation among the three groups (P > 0.05). A higher prevalence for colonization by Candida spp. was found in the healthy subject as compared to that of patients with OLP (P = 0.03) and non-OLP (P = 0.02) groups. Low SFR was not a factor for colonization by Candida spp.
CONCLUSIONS:Xerostomia and hyposalivation occur with similar frequency in subjects with and without oral lesions; also, the presence of oral lesions does not increase the susceptibility to colonization by Candida spp. It seems that any study implicating Candida spp. in the malignant transformation of oral lesions should be carried out mostly on a biochemical basis, that is, by testing the capability of Candida spp. to produce carcinogenic enzyme.
- Clinical aspects of the use of dental adhesive materials in patients with chronic xerostomia. [Journal Article]
- Gerodontology 2013 Jun; 30(2):162-6.
doi: 10.1111/j.1741-2358.2012.00659.x Clinical aspects of the use of dental adhesive materials in patients with chronic xerostomia Adhesives are commonly used by denture wearers to increase the retention and stability of the complete denture, to improve the chewing and masticatory abilities and to psychologically support the patient to make the complete denture more acceptable. Denture fixatives can be especially recommended for use and to aid retention for patients with dryness of the mouth, poor secretion of saliva and xerostomia (e.g. diabetes mellitus). Dental adhesives may be contaminated with bacteria, yeast and fungi during the manufacturing process, and they have been shown to initiate and promote microbial growth. Some products have been shown to release formaldehyde, which is cytotoxic to cell culture and fibroblasts and is a potent allergen. Patients with chronic xerostomia may use denture adhesives during the course of the treatment and disease. These patients are often immunocompromised, and microorganisms they are exposed to must be considered potential pathogens.
- Analysis of saliva samples from oncological patients treated with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin calcium by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive system. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Oral Pathol Med 2013 May 6.
This work presents a chemical and morphological analysis of samples of saliva taken from patients who were under treatment with intravenous chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin calcium. Samples of saliva were extracted from fifteen patients during the three stages of the treatment: The initial stage (previous to the chemotherapy), the intermediate stage (during the chemotherapy), and the final stage (twenty-one days after finishing the treatment). An amount of 50 μl was collected in each visit. Chemical contrast images were taken by means of scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray characteristic spectra were obtained from all the studied samples by using an energy dispersive system from all the studied samples. Images that correspond to the intermediate stage showed important differences with respect to the initial and final stages. In addition, X-ray spectra provided information about the present elements in saliva and their relative abundance allowed us to determine variations in the chemical composition. The backscattered electron images and X-ray spectra from the intermediate stage showed clusters of crystals with fluorine content higher than those obtained in initial and final stages. This fact probably indicates the passage of metabolites of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin calcium from the plasma to the oral cavity. This finding enhances the hypothesis proposed by other authors about the secondary effects of the drugs on the stomatognathic system such as oral mucositis, dysgeusia, and xerostomia with or without hyposalivation.
- Cost-effectiveness landscape analysis of treatments addressing xerostomia in patients receiving head and neck radiation therapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2013 May 3.
Head and neck (H&N) radiation therapy (RT) can induce irreversible damage to the salivary glands thereby causing long-term xerostomia or dry mouth in 68%-85% of the patients. Not only does xerostomia significantly impair patients' quality-of-life (QOL) but it also has important medical sequelae, incurring high medical and dental costs. In this article, we review various measures to assess xerostomia and evaluate current and emerging solutions to address this condition in H&N cancer patients. These solutions typically seek to accomplish 1 of the 4 objectives: (1) to protect the salivary glands during RT, (2) to stimulate the remaining gland function, (3) to treat the symptoms of xerostomia, or (4) to regenerate the salivary glands. For each treatment, we assess its mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, clinical utilization, and cost. We conclude that intensity-modulated radiation therapy is both the most widely used prevention approach and the most cost-effective existing solution and we highlight novel and promising techniques on the cost-effectiveness landscape.
- Correlation between perceived experience of caries disease and recorded caries activity among adult patients at a Swedish Public Dental Clinic: A longitudinal study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Odontol Scand 2013 May 3.
Objective.To compare patients' perceived experiences of caries activity with recorded longitudinal caries prevalence, consequences of caries and length of recall intervals. Materials and methods. A questionnaire was mailed to 134 caries active (CA) and 40 caries inactive (CI) adult patients at a Swedish Public Dental Clinic. The overall response rate was 69%. The questionnaire included items regarding perceived caries activity, general health, dietary and oral hygiene habits, level of education and socioeconomic status. Questionnaire responses were studied for their association to clinical data extracted from patient dental records.
Results.There was a correlation between patient-perceived and documented caries activity for all respondents (rho = 0.65; p < 0.001). CA patients had significantly more perceived caries activity (p < 0.001), decayed teeth (p < 0.001), root fillings (p = 0.001) and extractions (p < 0.001) than CI patients. The mean recall interval was 1.5 years for CA and 2.1 years for CI (p < 0.001). In multiple logistic regression analysis, CA patients were at increased risk for xerostomia (OR = 22.66, p = 0.003), sleep disturbances (OR = 4.36, p = 0.04) and more frequent use of daily extra fluoride (OR = 3.58, p = 0.03).
Conclusions.Patient-perceived experience of caries correlated well with recorded caries activity in this group of middle-aged Swedish adults. Individuals with active caries were aware of their disease and made more frequent attempts to reduce caries activity by use of daily extra fluoride. Individual risk-based recall intervals did not seem to eliminate consequences of disease activity such as root fillings and extractions during the follow-up period.
- Treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by tomotherapy: five-year experience. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Radiat Oncol 2013 May 1; 8(1):107.
Purpose:To analyze of survival curve and toxicity outcomes for patients treated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivered by helical TomoTherapy (HT).Materials and methods: Since May 2006, 72 patients with primary NPC were treated. In 67 cases PET-CT was used to help delineate the gross tumor volume (GTV); in 4 of these cases distant metastases in bone, mediastinal lymph nodes and unexpected small neck nodes were detected by high SUV uptake. 3, 22, 19, and 27 patients, respectively, had AJCC stage I to IV disease. Patients received a median total dose of 72 Gy to the GTV, 64.8 Gy to the elective PTV, and 54 Gy to the clinically negative neck region.
RESULTS:At a median follow-up of 41 months (range 0.2 to 67 months), no patient has recurred locally. Two patients with stage IIb disease, both of whom received chemotherapy, recurred regionally. Ten patients developed distant metastases. One died from progressive disease with initial proved bony metastasis. Two patients with stage IIb disease, both of whom received chemotherapy, experienced neck node recurrence. 5-year locoregional control rate was 97%; freedom from distant metastases was 84.6% at 5 years. No evidence of disease was detected in 13 early stage (I/IIa/IIb) patients who did not receive chemotherapy. Acute grade 3 toxicity occurred in four patients and grade 4 in two patients. Late toxicities were low, with no grade 3+ xerostomia, grade 2 xerostomia in two patients (3%), and grade 3 hearing loss in two patients (3%).
CONCLUSIONS:HT resulted in excellent long-term disease control and survival in heterogeneous NPC patients. Generally mild acute and late toxicity, with low rates of xerostomia, were obtained. Image-guided HT offers the ability to deliver conformal, OAR-sparing dose distributions to a wide variety of NPC patients with good long-term clinical outcomes.
- Parotid gland sparing effect by computed tomography-based modified lower field margin in whole brain radiotherapy. [Journal Article]
- Radiat Oncol J 2013 Mar; 31(1):12-7.
Parotid gland can be considered as a risk organ in whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the parotid gland sparing effect of computed tomography (CT)-based WBRT compared to 2-dimensional plan with conventional field margin.From January 2008 to April 2011, 53 patients underwent WBRT using CT-based simulation. Bilateral two-field arrangement was used and the prescribed dose was 30 Gy in 10 fractions. We compared the parotid dose between 2 radiotherapy plans using different lower field margins: conventional field to the lower level of the atlas (CF) and modified field fitted to the brain tissue (MF).Averages of mean parotid dose of the 2 protocols with CF and MF were 17.4 Gy and 8.7 Gy, respectively (p < 0.001). Mean parotid dose of both glands ≥20 Gy were observed in 15 (28.3%) for CF and in 0 (0.0%) for MF. The whole brain percentage volumes receiving >98% of prescribed dose were 99.7% for CF and 99.5% for MF.Compared to WBRT with CF, CT-based lower field margin modification is a simple and effective technique for sparing the parotid gland, while providing similar dose coverage of the whole brain.
- Xerostomia poster wins in Seattle. [Journal Article]
- Br Dent J 2013 Apr 26; 214(8):382.