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- Prevalence and conditions associated with chronic pelvic pain in women from São Luís, Brazil. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Braz J Med Biol Res 2014 Jul 25.:0.
The objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic pelvic pain in the community of São Luís, capital of the State of Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil, and to identify independent conditions associated with it. A cross-sectional study was conducted, including a sample of 1470 women older than 14 years predominantly served by the public health system. The interviews were held in the subject's home by trained interviewers not affiliated with the public health services of the municipality. The homes were visited at random according to the city map and the prevalence of the condition was estimated. To identify the associated conditions, the significant variables (P=0.10) were selected and entered in a multivariate analysis model. Data are reported as odds ratio and 95% confidence interval, with the level of significance set at 0.05. The prevalence of chronic pelvic pain was 19.0%. The independent conditions associated with this diagnosis were: dyspareunia (OR=3.94), premenopausal status (OR=2.95), depressive symptoms (OR=2.33), dysmenorrhea (OR=1.77), smoking (OR=1.72), irregular menstrual flow (OR=1.62), and irritative bladder symptoms (OR=1.90). The prevalence of chronic pelvic pain in Sao Luís is high and is associated with the conditions cited above. Guidelines based on prevention and/or early identification of risk factors may reduce the prevalence of chronic pelvic pain in São Luís, Brazil.
- Coring-type laparoscopic resection of a cavitated non-communicating rudimentary horn under hysteroscopic assistance. [Journal Article]
- J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2014 Jul; 40(7):1950-4.
Non-communicating accessory uterine horns with an endometrial cavity are the most common and clinically significant unicornuate subtype of Müllerian duct abnormality. They are generally associated with symptoms of dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, infertility, endometriosis, adhesions, and life-threatening cornual pregnancy. Treatment options include surgical resection of the rudimentary horn, hysteroscopic recanalization, and endometrial ablation. Currently, laparoscopic resection is the recommended treatment choice. Dissection of the rudimentary horn from the unicornuate uterus is the most challenging part of this procedure and may compromise the remaining unicornuate uterus wall. Here we describe a case of laparoscopic coring-type resection of a non-communicating functional rudimentary horn firmly attached to the unicornuate uterus, by using hysteroscopic assistance. The use of hysteroscopy, adjunct to laparoscopy, facilitates the coring-type resection and may strengthen the remaining myometrial scar.
- Comparison between two incision angles of mediolateral episiotomy in primiparous women: A randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2014 Jul; 40(7):1877-82.
To compare two incision angles (60° vs 40°) of mediolateral episiotomy in primiparous Egyptian women, regarding the incidence of anal sphincter injury as well as episiotomy-related pain and dyspareunia.The current prospective randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01930721) was conducted at Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital. Eligible women were randomized into two groups: group 1 included women who had the episiotomy incision made at an angle of 60° to the midline; and group 2 included women who had the episiotomy incision made at an angle of 40° to the midline. Primary outcome measures were differences in short-term related pain and rate of third/fourth degree perineal tears.A total of 330 primiparous women were recruited. The shortest distance to the outer edge of the anal epithelium was significantly shorter in women of group 2 when compared to that in women of group 1. Out of the included 330 women, 13 (4%) had third/fourth-degree perineal tears (4 [2.4%] in group 1 in contrast to nine [5.5%] in group 2). This difference was not significant A 60°-angled mediolateral episiotomy was associated with significantly higher rates of moderate/severe episiotomy-related pain post-partum. The rates of moderate/severe episiotomy-related pain and dyspareunia assessed 6 months post-partum were also higher among women of group 1, when compared to group 2; the latter two differences did not reach statistical significance, however.When compared to the 40°-angled mediolateral episiotomies, 60°-angled ones were associated with significantly higher short-term-related pain. Although they were also associated with lower rate of third/fourth-degree perineal tears and higher rate of long-term related pain and dyspareunia, these differences did not reach a statistically significant level.
- Treatment efficacy for pain complaints in women with endometriosis of the lesser pelvis after laparoscopic electroablation vs. CO2 laser ablation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Lasers Med Sci 2014 Jul 23.
Endometriosis is a chronic disease affecting mainly women of the reproductive age. Its most common manifestations include impaired fecundity, pelvic pain, and dyschezia. Laparoscopic removal of endometriotic foci remains to be the gold standard for the treatment of endometriosis. More effective techniques of endoscopic approach-among others, laser application-are continually being developed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of laparoscopic treatment with the use of CO2 laser ablation vs. electroablation with regard to pain complaints in the affected patients. The study included 48 women (aged 22-42) with varying degrees of endometriosis of the lesser pelvis. The Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) was used to evaluate pain intensity before the surgery in all patients, followed by either laser ablation or electroablation of the endometriotic foci. The results of the laparoscopic treatment were monitored after 3 and 6 months postoperatively. p value of 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Patients from both groups reported less intensive pain before/during menstruation (dysmenorrhea) 6 months postoperatively, with more distinct tendency in the electroablation group (p = 0.004) as compared to the laser ablation group (p = 0.025). Despite the initial improvement reported at the 3-month checkup (p = 0.008), 6 months postoperatively, a statistically significant increase in pain intensity was noted in both groups (p = 0.016 and p = 0.032 for CO2 laser ablation and electroablation, respectively). Both surgical methods seem to be effective only in the treatment of endometriosis-related dysmenorrhea, whereas the intensity of other pain complaints (dyspareunia, dysuria, dyschezia, pelvic pain syndrome (PPS)) has remained on the same level.
- Ospemifene for the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Atrophy and Dyspareunia in Postmenopausal Women. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacotherapy 2014 Jul 23.
Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) and dyspareunia are common problems experienced by postmenopausal women, although few seek treatment. Symptom-based therapies include nonhormonal vaginal lubricants, vaginal moisturizers, low-dose vaginal estrogen, and systemic estrogen. The 2013 United States Food and Drug Administration approval of ospemifene, an estrogen agonist/antagonist for the treatment of moderate-to-severe dyspareunia associated with VVA, increased options available to women. Several studies have evaluated the effects of ospemifene on VVA and dyspareunia and indicate an improvement in subjective findings. Objective findings such as a decrease in pH and recovery of a premenopausal vaginal maturation index have been reported. Beneficial effects have also been demonstrated in bone. Evaluations of breast health support the safety of ospemifene, although data are limited to 1 year. Short-term risks appear to be limited and include the development of hot flushes. Until additional comparative studies of ospemifene and estrogens have been performed, ospemifene should be recommended for women with symptoms of VVA and dyspareunia who are unable to tolerate or unwilling to take local or systemic estrogens. In this review, current evidence for the safety and efficacy of ospemifene in the treatment of moderate-to-severe VVA and dyspareunia are evaluated.
- Recent advances help understand and improve the safety of menopausal therapies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Menopause 2014 Jul 21.
Hormone therapy (HT) remains a mainstay of treatment of vasomotor symptoms, which are among the most common and most bothersome of menopausal symptoms. This review provides updates on HT and reviews newer menopausal therapies, focusing on recent safety data.An interpretative review of recent medical literature was conducted using computerized databases.The latest analyses from the Women's Health Initiative and other trials suggest that there is a window shortly after the onset of menopause in which HT provides optimal benefit with minimal risk. Risks of breast cancer, coronary heart disease, and probable dementia increase when a progestin is included in the HT regimen, which is necessary in nonhysterectomized women to counter the proliferative effects of estrogens on the endometrium. Attempts to further optimize the risk-benefit profile of menopausal therapies have led to the introduction of newer selective estrogen receptor modulators (bazedoxifene for osteoporosis, ospemifene for dyspareunia), tissue-selective estrogen complexes (conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene for vasomotor symptoms and osteoporosis), and non-HT (low-dose paroxetine for vasomotor symptoms).Recent studies suggest that HT has a neutral or even beneficial effect on coronary heart disease and cognition when used in the early postmenopausal years. The risk-to-benefit ratio of estrogen therapy in hysterectomized women is more favorable than that of estrogen-progestin regimens in nonhysterectomized women. Conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene now provides a progestin-free option for managing vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women with an intact uterus. Low-dose paroxetine may be an alternative for some women when hormonal treatments are contraindicated.
- Assessment of vaginal atrophy: a review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Urogynecol J 2014 Jul 22.
The aim of this study is to provide an evidence-based definition of vaginal atrophy (VA) and present an overview of subjective and objective measurements of VA applicable in clinical practice and research.A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify studies reporting on measurement properties of diagnostic instruments for VA. Additional searches in MEDLINE aimed to document the definitions, diagnostic criteria, and outcome measures of VA. Studies reporting on definitions, diagnosis, outcome measurements, and measurement properties of diagnostic instruments of VA were selected.Specific symptoms for VA that were consistently described could be identified to suggest an evidence-based definition of VA. As subjective outcome measurements, seven scoring systems to assess the signs of VA during physical examination were identified. The most bothersome symptom (MBS) approach is most useful in clinical practice and research as it focuses on the most common symptoms of VA. As objective outcome measurements, numerous ways to assess vaginal cytology and vaginal pH were identified.At the moment, there is no consensus on the definition and assessment of VA. We propose to define VA as a common manifestation of estrogen decline associated with specific symptoms of which the most common are: vaginal dryness, itching or irritation, and dyspareunia. In both clinical and research settings, subjective assessment (the MBS approach) and objective assessments of VA (measurement of vaginal maturation index and vaginal pH) should be combined.
- Are mood and anxiety disorders and alexithymia associated with endometriosis? A preliminary study. [Journal Article]
- Biomed Res Int 2014.:786830.
Objective.The aim of this preliminary study was to determine whether psychiatric disorders, psychopathological symptoms, and alexithymia are associated with endometriosis in an Italian population. Study Design. A preliminary study comprising 37 Italian patients with surgically confirmed endometriosis and 43 controls, without clinical and ultrasound signs of endometriosis, was carried out. Both patients and controls were evaluated for the presence/absence of psychiatric disorders, psychopathological symptoms, alexithymia, and pain symptoms (nonmenstrual pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and dyspareunia).
Results.Statistically significant differences were found between cases and controls for prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders, malfunctioning on obsessive-compulsive subscale (P < 0.01) and depression subscale (P < 0.05) of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revisited (SCL-90-R), and higher alexithymia levels (P < 0.01). Patients with endometriosis-associated pain showed greater prevalence of psychiatric disorders compared to pain-free patients but that difference was not significant. Significant correlation was found between malfunctioning in some SCL-90-R dimensions and pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and dyspareunia scores at the visual analog score (VAS).
Conclusion.Some psychopathological aspects, such as psychoemotional distress and alexithymia, are more frequent in women with endometriosis and might amplify pain symptoms in these patients.
- Do patients prefer mesh or anterior colporrhaphy for primary correction of anterior vaginal wall prolapse: a labelled discrete choice experiment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BJOG 2014 Jul 7.
We investigated patients' preferences for anterior colporrhaphy or mesh surgery as surgical correction of anterior vaginal wall prolapse.Labelled discrete choice experiment.Three Dutch teaching hospitals.Women with anterior vaginal wall prolapse Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification stage 2 or more, indicated for anterior colporrhaphy (n = 100).Discrete choice experiments are an attribute-based survey method for measuring preferences. In this experiment, women were asked to choose between two treatment scenarios, mesh surgery or anterior colporrhaphy. These surgical treatments differed in four treatment attributes: (i) recurrence rate, (ii) exposure rate, (iii) infection rate, (iv) dyspareunia. Data were analysed using a multinomial logit model.Women's preferences for anterior colporrhaphy or mesh surgery for the repair of vaginal wall prolapse.All treatment attributes, i.e. recurrence, exposure, infection and dyspareunia, proved to be significant in the woman's decision to choose mesh surgery (P < 0.001), while only two attributes out of three, recurrence and infection, were significant for anterior colporrhaphy (P < 0.001). The relative importance data showed that with regards to the four statistically significant attributes for mesh, dyspareunia was the most important attribute, and of the two significant attributes for anterior colporrhaphy, the risk of infection. Based on the attributes and levels in our discrete choice experiment, anterior colporrhaphy was preferred in 74% as a primary correction of anterior vaginal wall prolapse, followed by a preference for mesh in 26% of all choices.This study showed that next to the risk of recurrence, other aspects like risk of infection, dyspareunia and exposure play a role in the woman's preference for a surgical treatment. In addition, our results indicate that anterior colporrhaphy is preferred in the majority of the choices, followed by a preference for mesh surgery in a quarter of all choice sets. However, these results represent the average preference of a sample of women and cannot be taken as the preference of each individual. In the medical decision-making context, information from the current study should be personalised to fit patient's unique circumstances. For patients to construct their own, individual preferences, they should be well informed about the existence and magnitude of the potential benefits and risks related to either anterior colporrhaphy or mesh surgery.
- Minimally invasive cystocele repair technique using a polypropylene mesh introduced with the transobturator route. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arch Gynecol Obstet 2014 Jul 20.
Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the use of polypropylene mesh for cystocele repair using minimally invasive technique.We retrospectively evaluated the perioperative events, short-term postoperative side-effects, and follow up for 152 patients who underwent repair for cystocele grade 2 or more using a polypropylene mesh. The repair was performed through a small anterior vaginal wall incision, with the arms of the mesh passed through a transobturator route using a corkscrew needle. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) tests and the International Continence Society Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) staging systems were documented before and after surgery.The average time and blood loss for the procedure were 18 min and 100 cc, respectively. Bladder injury and excess bleeding (>500 cc) occurred in one and two cases during the procedure, respectively. The early postoperative complications included pain (10.5 %), mesh erosion (1.3 %), fever (1.3 %), and urinary tract infection (7.9 %). Among the 122 patients who were followed up (median follow-up time, 18.2 months), the subjective and objective cure rates for the prolapse were 98 and 95 %, respectively. Complications during the follow up included mesh erosion (four cases) and persistent dyspareunia (four cases).Cystocele repair with mesh placement through transobturator route can be considered a minimally invasive, promising method for the correction of cystocele and SUI based on the low rate of complications, the high rate of success, and the low incidence of recurrence.