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- Endometriosis: Survey of Current Diagnostic and Therapeutic Options and Latest Research Work. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 2014 Aug; 74(8):733-742.
Endometriosis is one of the most frequent benign diseases in women of child-bearing age. The main symptoms are chronic upper abdominal pain and infertility. However, the aetiology and pathogenesis of endometriosis are as yet insufficiently clarified. Thus, therapy is mainly symptomatic with laparoscopic surgery being the gold standard. The aim of drug therapy is to achieve a hypo-oestrogenic condition. In cases of severe endometriosis and a desire to have children there is often an indication for assisted reproduction. The present article illustrates almost all current aspects on the diagnosis of and therapy of endometriosis. From the clinical viewpoint, emphasis is placed on the rare cases of deeply infiltrating endometriosis that are, however, accompanied with a high morbidity. Current therapeutic options in cases of infertility are also presented in more detail. Furthermore, special attention is paid to the latest research results from both clinical and basic research fields in order to demonstrate our current knowledge on the pathogenesis and, where possible, potentially related therapeutic options.
- Female sexual pain disorders: dyspareunia and vaginismus. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Opin Psychiatry 2014 Sep 10.
To analyze literature on sexual pain disorders and to review and summarize the articles published throughout 2013 which contribute to the current knowledge on this subject.By age 40, 7.8% of women reported vulvar pain. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, has combined vaginismus and dyspareunia into the same diagnostic label. The research reviewed in this article seems to differently point toward two conditions, focusing on different aspects both on the etiological and on the treatment area. Higher levels of partner-perceived self-efficacy and lower levels of partner catastrophizing were associated with less pain intensity in women with entry dyspareunia, independent of women's pain perception and self-efficacy. Alexithymia and fear were found to be important etiological factors in vaginismus.The present findings did not provide clear evidence in support of the superiority of any treatment and highlight the need for randomized, placebo-controlled trials that compare treatments in the future. A lot of work remained to be done to understand such a complex and multifaceted disturbance as genital sexual pain, but the articles examined showed that we are slowly adding more knowledge on the etiological cause and treatment models for such conditions.
- Stress urinary incontinence and LUTS in women-effects on sexual function. [REVIEW]
- Nat Rev Urol 2014 Sep 9.
The sexual impact of urinary incontinence in women depends on a host of parameters, including physical, psychological, social and cultural dimensions. Evaluation of the effects of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and lower urinary tract symptoms on sexual function is often biased by their common association with other pelvic floor disorders, such as pelvic organ prolapse, which also affect sexual satisfaction. Indeed, these complexities are reflected in the literature, which shows considerable disparity in sexual functional characteristics in women with incontinence both before and after treatment. This discordance is further emphasized by heterogeneity in study design, quality and analysis. Here, we describe the nature of sexual dysfunction in women with incontinence, including coital incontinence. The various treatments for SUI, which include transvaginal tape surgeries, can also affect sexual function, positively or negatively. Coital incontinence seems to be a good predictor of an improvement in postoperative sexual parameters: its cure, achieved by >90% of women, to a large extent explains the sexual benefits reported in several studies. By contrast, deterioration in sexual function is sometimes reported after surgery, with de novo or worsened dyspareunia being the most common cause. The literature does not contain any convincing arguments for one treatment or another on the basis of sexual functional outcome.
- Dehydroepiandrosterone Intra Vaginal Administration for the Management of Postmenopausal Vulvovaginal Atrophy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2014 Sep 5.
The effects of intra vaginal administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for the management of symptomatic vulvovaginal atrophy are reviewed. A literature search related to vulvovaginal atrophy, vaginal atrophy, atrophic vaginitis, estrogen, dehydroepiandrosterone, vulvar itching, burning, dryness, dyspareunia, and libido was performed. Relevant articles addressing the incidence, management, and outcome of DHEA therapy were identified and used for this Expert Opinion. DHEA compared to a placebo is an effective treatment improving symptoms of vaginal atrophy: dyspareunia, burning, itching, and dryness. Objective parameters of vaginal atrophy, specifically pH, vaginal maturation index (VMI), and investigator-evaluated changes in the vagina: moisture, epithelia integrity and color were improved compared to baseline and placebo. There were significant improvements in libido and dyspareunia with the intravaginal use of DHEA that contribute to improved quality of life for postmenopausal women. Dehydroepiandrosterone administered intra vaginally on a daily basis is an effective treatment for symptoms, and signs of vulvovaginal atrophy along with libido in postmenopausal women.
- How to evaluate adenomyosis in patients affected by endometriosis? [Journal Article]
- Minim Invasive Surg 2014.:507230.
Objective.The aim of the study is to evaluate adenomyosis in patients undergoing surgery for different type of endometriosis. It is an observational study including women with preoperative ultrasound diagnosis of adenomyosis. Demographic data and symptoms were recorded (age, body mass index, parity, history of previous surgery, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, dyschezia, dysuria, and abnormal uterine bleeding). Moreover a particular endometrial shape "question mark sign" linked to the presence of adenomyosis was assessed.
Results.From 217 patients with ultrasound diagnosis of adenomyosis, we found 73 with ovarian histological confirmation of endometriosis, 92 with deep infiltrating endometriosis, and 52 patients who underwent surgery for infertility. Women with adenomyosis alone represented the oldest group of patients (37.8 ± 5.18 years, P = 0.02). Deep endometriosis patients were nulliparous more frequently (P < 0.0001), had history of previous surgery (P = 0.004), and complained of more intense pain symptoms than other groups. Adenomyosis alone was significantly associated with abnormal uterine bleeding (P < 0.0001). The question mark sign was found to be strongly related to posterior deep infiltrating endometriosis (P = 0.01).
Conclusion.Our study confirmed the strong relationship between adenomyosis and endometriosis and evaluated demographic aspects and symptoms in patients affected by different type of endometriosis.
- Polymorphisms of the Androgen Receptor Gene and Hormonal Contraceptive Induced Provoked Vestibulodynia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Sex Med 2014 Sep 4.
Women who developed vestibulodynia (vulvar vestibulitis) while taking combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) and a control group of women were tested for polymorphisms of the gene coding for the androgen receptor (AR) that is located on the X chromosome.DNA from 30 women who developed vestibulodynia while taking CHCs and 17 control women were tested for the number of cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeats in the AR. In addition, serum-free testosterone was tested in both groups.The mean number of CAG repeats in the study group was significantly greater than the control group (22.05 ± 2.98 vs. 20.61 ± 2.19, respectively; P = 0.025). This significant difference persisted when analyzing the CAG repeats from the longer allele from each subject. Among those who were taking drospirenone-containing CHCs, the mean calculated free testosterone was 0.189 ± 0.115 ng/dL in the study group and 0.127 ± 0.054 ng/dL in the control group, all of whom were taking drospirenone-containing CHCs (P = 0.042).In the study cohort, women who developed vestibulodynia while taking CHCs are more likely to have longer CAG repeats in the AR than women who took the same type of CHC but did not develop vestibulodynia. We speculate that the risk of developing CHC-induced vestibulodynia may be due to lowered free testosterone combined with an inefficient AR that predisposes women to vestibular pain. Goldtein AT, Belkin ZR, Krapf JM, Song W, Khera M, Jutrzonka SL, Kim NN, Burrows LJ, and Goldstein I. Polymorphisms of the androgen receptor gene and hormonal contraceptive induced provoked vestibulodynia. J Sex Med **;**:**-**.
- Women's Health Issues After Ileal Pouch Surgery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Inflamm Bowel Dis 2014 Sep 2.
: Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the surgical treatment of choice for patients with ulcerative colitis and familial polyposis who require colectomy. This surgical intervention allows for resection of colon, while offering intestinal continuity with fecal continence, discontinuation of most medications related to ulcerative colitis and reduction in the risk of colitis-associated neoplasia. As a proportion of these patients are women of childbearing age, it is important to understand the impact on reproductive health and function. Although limited data exist, restorative proctocolectomy/IPAA does not seem to adversely affect menstrual function. In general, sexual function is reported to improve postsurgery with the ability to achieve orgasm unaltered. However, dyspareunia is commonly reported post restoratively. Of concern, there are data to suggest that fertility is decreased post-IPAA. The reasons stated are pelvic adhesions and obstruction of fallopian tubes. Laparoscopic approach may improve fertility outcomes by reducing postoperative adhesions as compared with the open approach. Once achieved, pregnancy in patients with IPAA is characterized by a transient increase in stool frequency that resolves postdelivery. Whether vaginal delivery or cesarean section is preferred route of delivery in these patients is still controversial. But commonly cesarean section is advocated for patients' post-IPAA to prevent anal sphincter injury and long-term effects on pouch function. All of these issues should be included in the discussion with women who are contemplating IPAA, so they are well aware of them before deciding on the best management plan.
- Management of Infected Urethral Diverticulum With Urethral Dilation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg 2014 Sep 2.
Urethral diverticula are rare but underdiagnosed entities that may cause a variety of urinary and pelvic symptoms in women. Management can be very challenging, especially in cases of chronic infection.A 69-year-old gravida 4, para 2 woman with a history of type 2 diabetes and hypothyroidism presented with long history of a painful midline 3-cm suburethral cystic mass, recurrent urinary tract infections, dysuria, dyspareunia, and incomplete voiding. The diagnosis was consistent with an infected urethral diverticulum unresponsive to multiple courses of oral antibiotics. Given the patient's comorbidities and the persistence of infection of the diverticulum, conservative treatment with urethral dilation was performed before surgical treatment. Urethral dilation successfully alleviated the patient's symptoms; the surgical treatment was not ultimately required, and the patient continues to be completely asymptomatic well over 17 months later.We present a unique case of infected urethral diverticulum, which was conservatively treated with dilatation and resulted in resolution of all symptoms, and there is no need for further surgical management.
- Long-Term Sexual Functioning in Women After Surgical Treatment of Cervical Cancer Stages IA to IB: A Prospective Controlled Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Gynecol Cancer 2014 Aug 29.
Women with cervical cancer (CC) may be faced with changes in sexual functioning resulting from the cancer itself and/or its surgical treatment. The aims of this study were to prospectively investigate sexual adjustment of CC patients during a follow-up period of 2 years after radical hysterectomy without adjuvant treatment and to compare the results with women who underwent a hysterectomy for a benign gynecological condition and with healthy control women.In this prospective controlled study, participants completed the Short Sexual Functioning Scale, Specific Sexual Problems Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory Scale, World Health Organization-5 Well-Being Scale, and Dyadic Adjustment Scale to assess various aspects of sexual and psychosocial functioning at certain time intervals, namely, before surgery and 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after surgical treatment.Thirty-one women with CC, 93 women with a benign gynecological condition, and 93 healthy controls completed the survey. In CC survivors, no differences were found in sexual functioning during prospective analyses and in comparison with women with a benign gynecological condition. However, compared with healthy women, preoperatively and postoperatively, significantly more CC patients reported sexual dysfunctions, including sexual arousal dysfunction, entry dyspareunia, deep dyspareunia, abdominal pain during intercourse, and reduced intensity of the orgasm. Furthermore, compared with healthy controls, CC patients reported worse psychological functioning before surgery and at 6 months after surgery. Finally, before surgery, quality of partner relationship was rated significantly better by CC patients compared with healthy controls; however, quality of the partner relationship declined during the first year of follow-up compared with the situation before surgery.In CC patients, no differences were found in sexual functioning when prospectively comparing the situation before and after surgery. However, when compared with healthy controls, CC patients are at high risk for sexual dysfunctions, both before and after surgical treatment.
- Systematic review of endometriosis pain assessment: how to choose a scale? [REVIEW]
- Hum Reprod Update 2014 Sep 1.
Numerous studies concerning endometriosis and pain have been reported. However, there is no consensus on the best method to evaluate pain in endometriosis and many scales have been used. Moreover, there are only a few descriptions of minimal clinically important differences after treatment (MCID) to evaluate variations in pain. In our study, we aim to identify pain scales used in endometriosis pain treatment, to address their strong and weak points and to define which would be the ideal scale to help clinicians and researchers to evaluate endometriosis-related pain.A search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was carried out for publications in English, French or Portuguese from 1980 to December 2012, for the words: endometriosis, treatment, pain. Studies were selected if they studied an endometriosis treatment and a pain scale was specified. A quantitative and a qualitative analysis of each scale was performed to define strong and weak points of each scale (systematic registration number: CRD42013005336).A total of 736 publications were identified. After excluding duplications and applying inclusion criteria 258 studies remained. We found that the visual analog scale (VAS) is the most frequently used scale. Both VAS and the numerical rating scale (NRS) show a good balance between strong and weak points in comparison with others such as the Biberoglu and Behrman scale. Concerning MCID, only VAS, NRS and Brief Pain Inventory scales have reported MCID and, among these, only VAS MCID has been studied in endometriosis patients (VAS MCID = 10 mm). Adding the Clinical Global Impression score (CGI) to the pain scale allows calculation of the MCID.When using pain scales their strengths and weaknesses must be known and included in the analysis. VAS is the most frequently used pain scale and, together with NRS, seems the best adapted for endometriosis pain measurement. The use of VAS or NRS for each type of typical pain related to endometriosis (dysmenorrhea, deep dyspareunia and non-menstrual chronic pelvic pain), combined with the CGI and a quality-of-life scale will provide both clinicians and researchers with tools to evaluate treatment response.