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EKG: ST depression or T wave inversion [keywords]
- Persistent Thebesian Vessels Involving the Right and Left Ventricles Leading to Coronary Steal Phenomena and Ischemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Congenit Heart Dis 2013 May 13.
We report an extremely rare case of thebesian vein microfistulae to both ventricles. A 65-year-old woman, with no major cardiovascular risk factors, presented with multiple episodes of chest pain. The resting electrocardiogram showed T-wave inversion in leads V1 -V4 . A Dipyridamole myocardial perfusion imaging revealed large and severe inferior defect with complete reversibility. Coronary angiography showed no coronary artery disease. On contrast injection, an exaggerated capillary blush from the distal portions of the right and left coronary artery systems was seen in both ventricles, mimicking the image of ventriculography. This appearance suggests prominent thebesian vessels, a congenital communication between the coronaries and the two ventricles. The clinical relevance of these myocardial sinusoids is still not well established. Although the majority of these fistulas are small in size and with no clinical significance, they can rarely present with chest pain, cardiac arrhythmia, syncope, myocardial infarction, and/or pulmonary hypertension. These fistulae when excessive can cause significant shunting of blood to the ventricles, leading to coronary steal phenomena and ischemia. This phenomenon is facilitated by the low resistance in these microfistulae as opposed to the higher resistance in the normal coronary circulation. Due to the diffuse nature of these microfistulae, neither surgery nor transcatheter therapy is feasible. This condition can only be managed medically; however, it should be noted that vasodilator agents, such as nitrates, can worsen the coronary steal phenomenon. Our patient was treated with ranolazine with significant improvement in her symptoms, which was not reported previously. Multiple coronary artery microfistulae could be an underestimated condition of angina in patient with normal coronaries.
- Electrocardiographic abnormalities in acute cerebrovascular events in patients with/without cardiovascular disease. [Journal Article]
- Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2013 Jan; 16(1):66-71.
Electrocardiographic (ECG) changes are reported frequently after acute strokes. It seems that cardiovascular effects of strokes are modulated by concomitant or pre-existent cardiac diseases, and are also related to the type of cerebrovascular disease and its localization. We aimed to determine the pattern of ECG changes associated with pathophysiologic categories of acute stroke among patients with/without cardiovascular disease and to determine if specific ECG changes are related to the location of the lesion.The electrocardiographic records of 361 patients with acute stroke were studied to assess the relative frequencies of ECG abnormalities among the pathophysiologic categories of stroke.In the present study, the most common ECG abnormalities associated with stroke were T-wave abnormalities, prolonged QTc interval and arrhythmias, which were respectively found in 39.9%, 32.4%, and 27.1% of the stroke patients and 28.9%, 30.7%, and 16.2 of the patients with no primary cardiac disease. We observed that other ECG changes comprising pathologic Q- wave, ST-segment depression, ST-segment elevation, and prominent U wave may also occur in selected or non-selected stroke patients; thereby simulate an acute myocardial injury. We observed an increased number of patients with abnormal T-wave and posterior fossa bleedings and more rhythm disturbances for ischemic lesions, localized in the anterior fossa.Ischemia-like ECG changes and arrhythmias are frequently seen in stroke patients, even in those with no history or signs of primary heart disease, which support a central nervous system origin of these ECG abnormalities. Further study is necessary to better define the brain-heart interaction.
- Analysis of electrocardiogram in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. [Journal Article]
- Med Pregl 2013 Mar-Apr; 66(3-4):126-9.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the fourth leading cause of mortality worldwide. It is defined as a persistent airflow limitation usually progressive and not fully reversible to treatment. The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and severity of disease is confirmed by spirometry. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease produces electrical changes in the heart which shows characteristic electrocardiogram pattern. The aim of this study was to observe and evaluate diagnostic values of electrocardiogram changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with no other comorbidity.We analyzed 110 electrocardiogram findings in clinically stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and evaluated the forced expiratory volume in the first second, ratio of forces expiratory volume in the first second to the fixed vital capacity, chest radiographs and electrocardiogram changes such as p wave height, QRS axis and voltage, right bundle branch block, left bundle branch block, right ventricular hypertrophy, T wave inversion in leads V1-V3, S1S2S3 syndrome, transition zone in praecordial lead and QT interval.We found electrocardiogram changes in 64% patients, while 36% had normal electrocardiogram. The most frequent electrocardiogram changes observed were transition zone (76.36%) low QRS (50%) and p pulmonale (14.54%). Left axis deviation was observed in 27.27% patients.Diagnostic values of electrocardiogram in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease suggest that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients should be screened electrocardiographically in addition to other clinical investigations.
- Stress (Takotsubo) Cardiomyopathy- A Short Review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Cardiol Rev 2013 May 3.
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM), otherwise cardiomyopathy,apical ballooning syndrome or broken heart syndrome is a reversible cardiomyopathy, predominantly occurs in post-menopausal women and commonly due to emotional or physical stress. Typically, patients present with chest pain and ST elevation or T wave inversion on their electrocardiogram mimicking acute coronary syndrome, but with normal or non-flow limiting coronary artery disease. Acute dyspnoea, hypotension and even cardiogenic shock may be the presenting feature of this condition. The wall motion abnormalities typically involve akinesia of the apex of the left ventricle with hyperkinesia of the base of the heart. Atypical forms of TCM have also recently been described. An urgent left ventriculogram or echocardiogram is the key investigation to identify this syndrome. Characteristically, there is only a limited release of cardiac enzymes disproportionate to the extent of regional wall motion abnormality. Transient right ventricular dysfunction may occur and is associated with more complications, longer hospitalisation and worse left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Recently, cardiac MRI has been increasingly used to diagnose this condition and to differentiate from acute coronary syndrome in those who have abnormal coronary arteries. Treatment is often supportive, however beta-blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocking agent are being used in routine clinical practice. The syndrome is usually spontaneously reversible and cardiovascular function returns to normal after a few weeks. This review article will elaborate on the pathophysiology, clinical features including the variant forms, latest diagnostic tools, management and prognosis of this condition.
- Analysis of the potential effect of ponatinib on the QTc interval in patients with refractory hematological malignancies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2013 Apr 23.
PURPOSE:Cardiac dysfunction, particularly QT interval prolongation, has been observed with tyrosine kinase inhibitors approved to treat chronic myeloid leukemia. This study examines the effects of ponatinib on cardiac repolarization in patients with refractory hematological malignancies enrolled in a phase 1 trial.
METHODS:Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were collected at 3 dose levels (30, 45, and 60 mg) at 6 time points. Electrocardiographic parameters, including QTc interval, were measured, and 11 morphological analyses were conducted. Central tendency analyses of ECG parameters were performed using time-point and time-averaged approaches. All patients with at least 2 baseline ECGs and 1 on-treatment ECG were included in the analyses. Patients with paired ECGs and plasma samples were included in the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis to examine the relationship between ponatinib plasma concentration and change from baseline in QT intervals.
RESULTS:Thirty-nine patients at the 30-, 45-, and 60-mg dose levels were included in the central tendency and morphological analyses. There was no significant effect on cardiac repolarization, as evidenced by non-clinically significant mean QTcF changes from baseline of -10.9, -3.6, and -5.0 ms for the 30-, 45-, and 60-mg dose levels, respectively. The morphological analysis revealed 2 patients with atrial fibrillation and 2 with T wave inversion. Seventy-five patients were included in the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis across all dose levels. The slope of the relationship for QTcF versus plasma ponatinib concentration was not positive (-0.0171), indicating no exposure-effect relationship.
CONCLUSIONS:Ponatinib is associated with a low risk of QTc prolongation in patients with refractory hematological malignancies.
- Basal and ischemia-induced transcardiac troponin release into the coronary circulation in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(4):e60163.
Cardiac troponin is a specific biomarker for cardiomyocyte necrosis in acute coronary syndromes. Troponin release from the coronary circulation remains to be determined because of the lower sensitivity of the conventional assay. We sought to determine basal and angina-induced troponin release using a highly sensitive troponin assay.The cardiac troponin T levels in serum sampled from the peripheral vein (PV), the aortic root (AO), and the coronary sinus (CS) were measured in 105 consecutive stable patients with coronary risk factor(s) and suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) and in 33 patients without CAD who underwent an acetylcholine provocation test. At baseline, there was a significant increase in the troponin levels from AO [9.0 (6.4, 13.1) pg/mL for median (25(th), 75(th) percentiles)] to CS [10.3 (7.3, 15.5) pg/mL, p<0.001] in 96 (91.4%) patients and the difference was 1.1 (0.4, 2.1) pg/mL, which reflected basal transcardiac troponin release (TTR). TTR was positively correlated with PV levels (r = 0.22, p = 0.03). Male sex, left ventricular hypertrophy determined by echocardiography, T-wave inversion, and CAD correlated with elevated TTR defined as above: median, 1.1 pg/mL. A significant increase in TTR was noted in 17 patients with coronary spasms [0.6 (0.2, 1.2) pg/mL, p<0.01] but not in 16 patients without spasms [0.0 (-0.5, 0.9) pg/mL, p = 0.73] after the acetylcholine provocation.Basal TTR in the coronary circulation was observed in most of the patients with suspected CAD and risk factor(s). This sensitive assay detected myocardial ischemia-induced increases in TTR caused by coronary spasms.
- ECG and morphologic adaptations in Arabic athletes: are the European Society of Cardiology's recommendations for the interpretation of the 12-lead ECG appropriate for this ethnicity? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Br J Sports Med 2013 Apr 5.
AIMS:To examine the cardiac structure and function of Arabic athletes and to establish if the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for the interpretation of an athlete's ECG are applicable to this ethnicity.
METHODS:600 high-level Arabic, 415 Black African, 160 Caucasian male athletes (exercising ≥6 h/week) and 201 Arabic controls presented for ECG and echocardiographic screening.
RESULTS:9 athletes (0.7%) were identified with a cardiac pathology associated with sudden cardiac death. Two Arabics (0.3%) and five Black Africans (1.2%) were diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; a prevalence four times greater in Black African compared to Arabic athletes. Arabic athletes had significantly greater (p<0.05) left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic diameters, maximal LV wall thicknesses and LV mass compared with controls; yet were significantly smaller than Black African and Caucasian athletes. The percentage of athletes demonstrating LV hypertrophy (≥12 mm) was comparable between Arabic, Black African and Caucasian populations (0.5%, 0.5% and 0.6%, respectively). There was no difference in the frequency of an uncommon and training-unrelated ECG between Arabic and Caucasian. However, Black Africans demonstrated a significantly greater prevalence than Arabic and Caucasian athletes (20% vs 8.4% and 6.9%, p<0.001); specifically more right/left atrial enlargement and T wave inversion.
CONCLUSIONS:Arabic athletes present significantly smaller cardiac dimensions than Black African and Caucasian athletes. There was no significant difference between the frequency of an uncommon and training-unrelated ECG between Arabic and Caucasian athletes. Therefore, the use of ESC guidelines for the interpretation of an athlete's ECG is clinically relevant and acceptable for use within Arabic athletes.
- Coronary heart disease diagnosis bases on the change of different parts in treadmill exercise test ECG. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Biochem Biophys 2013 Apr 2.
Summarize the value of the change of different parts in treadmill exercise test (TET) ECG to coronary heart disease (CHD) diagnosis. Four hundred and forty-five cases have been included in this investigation, which stayed in our hospital from January of 2006 to March of 2011 and underwent TET and coronary arteriography (CAG). The change of different parts in TET ECG in these patients had been retrospective summarized to determine its diagnosis value to CHD. (1) In the 445 cases of TET testers, 200 cases showed positive in TET with 150 cases of positive CAG, and 50 cases of negative CAG; 245 cases showed negative in TET with 206 cases of negative CAG, and 39 cases of positive CAG. The diagnosis sensitivity of CHD was 79.36 % (150/189), the specificity was 80.47 % (206/256), positive prediction value was 75.00 % (150/200), negative prediction value was 84.08 % (206/245), and false-positive rate was 25.00 % (50/200) with prediction accuracy of 80.00 % (356/445). (2) In the 200 cases with positive TET: 51 cases were in the limb lead group; 73 cases were in the chest lead group; and 76 cases were in the limb lead + chest lead group. There were 150 cases showing positive in CAG: 22 cases were in the limb lead group; 58 cases were in the chest lead group; and 70 cases were in the limb lead + chest lead group. The positive diagnosis rate of ST change in the chest lead was obviously higher than that of simple limb lead group (P < 0.05). (3) People with healthy coronary artery will have decreased amplitude of R wave while patients with coronary stenosis have elevated amplitude of R wave. (4) As for the T wave, the positive CAG had no statistical significance between normal T wave group and TET positive group (P > 0.05); CAG results had statistical significance between normal T wave group and TET negative group (P < 0.05). (5) Positive CAG results had no statistical significance between U-wave inversion group and TET positive group (P > 0.05); positive CAG results has statistical significance when TET negative group compared with U-wave inversion group or TET positive group (P < 0.05). TET is a relatively idea invasive diagnosis method for coronary disease, which can be utilized to evaluate the stage of CHD when integrating with the change of TET ECG.
- Early Cardiac Changes in Children with Anderson-Fabry Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JIMD Rep 2013 Apr 2.
Objective:Limited evidence is available about the early cardiac manifestation of Fabry disease (FD) in children. We aimed to evaluate cardiac involvement in children with FD by analysing serial structural and electrocardiographic changes.
Methods:The data were acquired from 22 children with FD [11 males; median age 9.8 (ranging 2.5-16) years]. Seven patients (5 males) were on enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with Agalasidase alpha. Echocardiography, ECG and 24-h ECG monitoring recordings were acquired during routine annual clinical controls. ECG data were compared to a group of age-and gender-matched controls.
Results:At baseline, ECG and ECHO parameters of left ventricular mass were similar in both males and females. Three boys (all were on ERT) developed left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) during two-year follow-up. The progression to LVH was accompanied by the appearance of frequent ventricular premature beats in two cases and supraventricular premature beats (SPBs) with T wave inversion in one case. T wave inversion and SPBs were detected in two younger relatives of a patient with LVH, in the absence of detectable LVH. Seven out of 22 patients had T wave abnormalities. Five of them were males (p = 0.03) all carrying the N215S mutation (p = 0.03). At baseline, median PR intervals were prolonged in FD subjects compared to controls [143 (122-177) vs. 122 (82-165) ms; p < 0.0001].
Conclusions:Cardiac complications of FD become apparent in childhood as subtle changes with slow but detectable progression over time, with males more frequently affected than females. Progression of LVH was apparent in three children despite ERT.
- High incidence of acute coronary occlusion in patients without protocol positive ST segment elevation referred to an open access primary angioplasty programme. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Postgrad Med J 2013 Mar 30.