Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
EKG: right atrial enlargement [keywords]
- Effects of nandrolone and resistance training on the blood pressure, cardiac electrophysiology, and expression of atrial β-adrenergic receptors. [Journal Article]
- Life Sci 2013 May 30; 92(20-21):1029-35.
This study was performed to assess isolated and combined effects of nandrolone and resistance training on the blood pressure, cardiac electrophysiology, and expression of the β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors in the heart of rats.Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups and submitted to a 6-week treatment with nandrolone and/or resistance training. Cardiac hypertrophy was accessed by the ratio of heart weight to the final body weight. Blood pressure was determined by a computerized tail-cuff system. Electrocardiography analyses were performed. Western blotting was used to access the protein levels of the β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors in the right atrium and left ventricle.Both resistance training and nandrolone induced cardiac hypertrophy. Nandrolone increased systolic blood pressure depending on the treatment time. Resistance training decreased systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure, as well as induced resting bradycardia. Nandrolone prolonged the QTc interval for both trained and non-trained groups when they were compared to their respective vehicle-treated one. Nandrolone increased the expression of β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors in the right atrium for both trained and non-trained groups when they were compared to their respective vehicle-treated one.This study indicated that nandrolone, associated or not with resistance training increases blood pressure depending on the treatment time, induces prolongation of the QTc interval, and increases the expression of β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors in the cardiac right atrium, but not in the left ventricle.
- The role of electrocardiography in evaluation of severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in daily clinical practice. [Journal Article]
- Tuberk Toraks 2013 Mar; 61(1):38-42.
Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of chronic morbidity and mortality. Bronchial obstruction and increased pulmonary vascular resistance impairs right atrial functions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of bronchial obstruction on p wave axis in patients with COPD and usefulness of electrocardiography (ECG) in the evaluation of the severity of COPD. Patients and
Methods:Ninety five patients (64 male and 31 female) included to the study. Patients were in sinus rhythm, with normal ejection fraction and heart chamber sizes. Their respiratory function tests and 12 lead electrocardiograms were obtained at same day. Correlations with severity of COPD and ECG findings including p wave axis, p wave duration, QRS axis, QRS duration were studied.
Results:The mean age was 58 ± 12 years. Their mean p wave axis was 62 ± 18 degrees. In this study, p wave axis has demonstrated significant positive correlations with stages of COPD and QRS axis but significant negative correlations with FEV1, FEF, BMI and QRS duration. P wave axis increases with increasing stages of COPD.
Conclusion:Verticalization of the frontal p wave axis may be an early finding of worsening of COPD before occurrences of other ECG changes of hypertrophy and enlargement of right heart chambers such as p pulmonale. Verticalization of the frontal p wave axis reflecting right atrial electrical activity and right heart strain may be a useful parameter for quick estimation of the severity of COPD in an out-patient cared.
- ECG of the month. Cardiac failure and stroke in a 43-year-old woman. Coarse atrial fibrillation indicating left atrial enlargement and left ventricular hypertrophy with repolarization abnormality. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- J La State Med Soc 2012 Nov-Dec; 164(6):343-5.
A 43-year-old woman with a long history of heavy cigarette smoking was in good health until she developed fatigue, dyspnea on exertion, and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea approximately three months before admission to our hospital. Four weeks before admission, she was admitted to another hospital for the sudden onset of a right hemiparesis. She was noted to be in atrial fibrillation, and cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography revealed triple-vessel coronary arterial disease and moderately severe mitral regurgitation. Because of repeated episodes of paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, she was referred to our hospital for cardiac surgery. On admission, an electrocardiogram was recorded (Figure).
- Characterization of mid-term atrial geometrical and electrical remodeling following device closure of atrial septal defects in adults. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Cardiol 2012 Oct 9.
PURPOSE:Late-onset atrial arrhythmia after successful closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) is not uncommon. Right atrial (RA) enlargement and increased electrocardiographic P-wave dispersion (Pd) independently predict the development of atrial arrhythmia. Data on the degree of right atrial (RA) geometrical and electrical remodeling following device closure of ASD are limited.
METHODS:Echocardiography and electrocardiography (ECG) were performed in 58 consecutive patients (47±17years) before and at 3months after ASD closure. Persistent RA enlargement was defined as RA volume index (RAVI) ≥21ml/m(2) at 3months. Pd was calculated as the difference between maximal and minimal P-wave durations in 12-lead ECG.
RESULTS:RA size reduced (RAVI: 50±28 vs. 26±16ml/m(2), p<0.001) and Pd on ECG decreased (53±17 vs. 49±20ms, p<0.05) significantly at 3months when compared to baseline. However, persistent RA enlargement remained evident in 31 patients (53%). As a group, they were older with higher pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, larger Qp/Qs, longer maximal P-wave duration and Pd than those with normalized RA. Pd reduction only occurred in patients with normalized RA size. The 3-month Pd (hazard ratio: 1.033, p<0.001) predicted the presence of incomplete RA geometrical remodeling. ROC curve revealed that Pd ≥45ms at 3months was 77% sensitive and 86% specific in revealing residual RA enlargement.
CONCLUSION:Both atrial geometrical and electrical reverse remodeling were evident at 3months following ASD closure. However, only half of the included patients had normalization of RA size which could be revealed by a simple ECG surrogate of intra-atrial conduction disturbance.
- Electrocardiogram in pneumonia. [Journal Article]
- Am J Cardiol 2012 Dec 15; 110(12):1836-40.
Findings on electrocardiogram may hint that pulmonary embolism (PE) is present when interpreted in the proper context and lead to definitive imaging tests. However, it would be useful to know if electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities also occur in patients with pneumonia and whether these are similar to ECG changes with PE. The purpose of this investigation was to determine ECG findings in patients with pneumonia. We retrospectively evaluated 62 adults discharged with a diagnosis of pneumonia who had no previous cardiopulmonary disease and had electrocardiogram obtained during hospitalization. The most prevalent ECG abnormality, other than sinus tachycardia, was minor nonspecific ST-segment or T-wave changes occurring in 13 of 62 (21%). Right atrial enlargement occurred in 4 of 62 (6.5%). QRS abnormalities were observed in 24 of 62 (39%). Right-axis deviation and S(1)S(2)S(3) were the most prevalent QRS abnormalities, which occurred in 6 of 62 (9.7%). Complete right bundle branch block and S(1)Q(3)T(3) pattern occurred in 3 of 62 (4.8%). ECG abnormalities that were not present within 1 month previously or abnormalities that disappeared within 1 month included left-axis deviation, right-axis deviation, right atrial enlargement, right ventricular hypertrophy, S(1)S(2)S(3), S(1)Q(3)T(3), low-voltage QRS complexes, and nonspecific ST-segment or T-wave abnormalities. In conclusion, electrocardiogram in patients with pneumonia often shows QRS abnormalities or nonspecific ST-segment or T-wave changes. ECG findings are similar to ECG abnormalities in PE and electrocardiogram cannot assist in the differential diagnosis.
- Interatrial blocks. A separate entity from left atrial enlargement: a consensus report. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Electrocardiol 2012 Sep; 45(5):445-51.
Impaired interatrial conduction or interatrial block is well documented but is not described as an individual electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern in most of ECG books, although the term atrial abnormalities to encompass both concepts, left atrial enlargement (LAE) and interatrial block, has been coined. In fact, LAE and interatrial block are often associated, similarly to what happens with ventricular enlargement and ventricular block. The interatrial blocks, that is, the presence of delay of conduction between the right and left atria, are the most frequent atrial blocks. These may be of first degree (P-wave duration >120 milliseconds), third degree (longer P wave with biphasic [±] morphology in inferior leads), and second degree when these patterns appear transiently in the same ECG recording (atrial aberrancy). There are evidences that these electrocardiographic P-wave patterns are due to a block because they may (a) appear transiently, (b) be without associated atrial enlargement, and (c) may be reproduced experimentally. The presence of interatrial blocks may be seen in the absence of atrial enlargement but often are present in case of LAE. The most important clinical implications of interatrial block are the following: (a) the first degree interatrial blocks are very common, and their relation with atrial fibrillation and an increased risk for global and cardiovascular mortality has been demonstrated; (b) the third degree interatrial blocks are less frequent but are strong markers of LAE and paroxysmal supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. Their presence has been considered a true arrhythmological syndrome.
- T-wave inversion and diastolic dysfunction in patients with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy. [Journal Article]
- J Electrocardiol 2012 Nov-Dec; 45(6):764-9.
The aim of this study was to investigate if T-wave inversion (TWI) in the settings of electrocardiogram (ECG)-left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is associated with advanced diastolic dysfunction (DD) in subjects with preserved ejection fraction (EF).Animal studies suggested that an abnormal transmural repolarization sequence from endocardium to epicardium may contribute to DD. However, little is known about abnormal repolarization sequence and DD in humans.We studied 231 patients with ECG-diagnosed LVH and with an EF of 50% or greater (measured within 6 months of the index ECG). T-wave inversion was assessed on leads I, aVL, V(4), V(5), or V(6). Diastolic dysfunction was defined based on echocardiographic estimation of the left atrial pressure. We used multiple logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio of DD comparing patients with TWI with those without TWI.The average age was 65.0 ± 14.2 years, and 61% were women. The mean EF was 61.8% ± 6.6%. Patients with TWIs were more likely to have coronary artery disease (P = .013) and diabetes (P = .007). There was a 5.6-fold increased odds of DD in patients with TWI compared with those without TWI in a model adjusting for sex, age, relative wall thickness, body mass index, hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and smoking. When comparing different echocardiographic estimates of the left atrial pressure, patients with TWI displayed higher values for septal and lateral E/e', left atrial volume index, and right ventricular/right atrial peak systolic gradient (P < .01 for each parameter).T-wave inversion is associated with increased odds of DD in patients with ECG-LVH with preserved systolic function. The reversal of the normal sequence of repolarization manifested on the 12-lead ECG as TWI may be a factor to DD.
- P-wave morphology: underlying mechanisms and clinical implications. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Review]
- Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 2012 Jul; 17(3):161-9.
Increasing awareness of atrial fibrillation (AF) and its impact on public health revives interest in identification of noninvasive markers of predisposition to AF and ECG-based risk stratification. P-wave duration is generally accepted as the most reliable noninvasive marker of atrial conduction, and its prolongation has been associated with history of AF. However, patients with paroxysmal AF without structural heart disease may not have any impressive P-wave prolongation, thus suggesting that global conduction slowing is not an obligatory requirement for development of AF. P-wave morphology is therefore drawing increasing attention as it reflects the three-dimensional course of atrial depolarization propagation and detects local conduction disturbances. The factors that determine P-wave appearance include (1) the origin of the sinus rhythm that defines right atrial depolarization vector, (2) localization of left atrial breakthrough that defines left atrial depolarization vector, and (3) the shape and size of atrial chambers. However, it is often difficult to distinguish whether P-wave abnormalities are caused by atrial enlargement or interatrial conduction delay. Recent advances in endocardial mapping technologies have linked certain P-wave morphologies with interatrial conduction patterns and the function of major interatrial conduction routes. The value of P-wave morphology extends beyond cardiac arrhythmias associated with atrial conduction delay and can be used for prediction of clinical outcome of a wide range of cardiovascular disorders, including ischemic heart disease and congestive heart failure.
- ECG changes in octogenarians. [Journal Article]
- Nepal Med Coll J 2011 Sep; 13(3):216-9.
Numerous studies have been done about the Electrocardiogram (ECG) in the elderly but just a few regarding the changes in ECG in octogenarians. Ageing is definitely associated with changes in the cardiac conduction and physiology. This study attempts to evaluate the ECG in octogenarians. ECG recordings from 165 octogenarian subjects were obtained from subjects aged 80-89 years, mean age was 82.75 +/- 2.41 years. ECG's were normal in 27.27 % of the study population. The major abnormalities noted were right bundle branch block 15.15%, left ventricular hypertrophy in 13.93%, Poor R-wave progression in precordial leads in 10.91%, atrial fibrillation in 8.48%, ST changes in 8.48%, sinus tachycardia in 6.66% and sinus bradycardia in 4.84% of the study population. The mean QTc was 0.41s. Because of its non-invasive nature, ECG is a least expensive, readily available diagnostic tool for evaluating cardiac health issues in the growing elderly population. We hope the observations will be helpful in future studies, in evaluating cardiac health in octogenarians and in clinical practice.
- Morphological abnormalities in baseline ECGs in healthy normal volunteers participating in phase I studies. [Clinical Trial, Phase I, Journal Article]
- Indian J Med Res 2012 Mar.:322-30.
Morphological abnormalities in 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) are seen in subgroups of healthy individuals like athletes and air-force personnel. As these populations may not truly represent healthy individuals, we assessed morphological abnormalities in ECG in healthy volunteers participating in phase I studies, who are screened to exclude associated conditions.ECGs from 62 phase I studies analyzed in a central ECG laboratory were pooled. A single drug-free baseline ECG from each subject was reviewed by experienced cardiologists. ECG intervals were measured on five consecutive beats and morphological abnormalities identified using standard guidelines.Morphological abnormalities were detected in 25.5 per cent of 3978 healthy volunteers (2495 males, 1483 females; aged 18-76 yr); the presence was higher in males (29.3% vs. 19.2% in females; P<0.001). Rhythm abnormalities were the commonest (11.5%) followed by conduction abnormalities (5.9%), axis deviation (4%), ST-T wave changes (3.1%) and chamber enlargement (1.4%). Incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB), short PR interval and right ventricular hypertrophy were common in young subjects (<20 yr) while atrial fibrillation, first degree atrioventricular block, complete RBBB and left anterior fascicular block were more prevalent in elderly subjects (>65 yr). Prolonged PR interval, RBBB and intraventricular conduction defects were more common in males while sinus tachycardia, short PR interval and non-specific T wave changes were more frequent in females.Morphological abnormalities in ECG are commonly seen in healthy volunteers participating in phase I studies; and vary with age and gender. Further studies are required to determine whether these abnormalities persist or if some of these disappear on follow up.