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ENT AND Dysphonia [keywords]
- Manpower and portfolio of European ENT. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2013 Jun 15.
The aim of this study is to evaluate highly variable ENT manpower among European countries. A descriptive study design is used. Manpower in medicine is highly variable among European countries. EU and associated countries are keeping officially appointed representatives to the European Union of medical specialists-otorhinolaryngology section (UEMS-ORL section). UEMS-ORL section is running a working group for manpower in ENT collecting data regarding demographics and ENT manpower in European countries. These ENT manpower data are presented in this paper and compared to available data concerning manpower in European medicine in general. To further evaluate these huge differences, representatives of the particular countries were also asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning specifics of ENT healthcare in their country. Furthermore, typical tasks of ENT doctors based on the official UEMS logbook for ENT training were listed and could be rated regarding their frequency, performed in everyday routine of an average ENT doctor of the country. Divergences in doctors/inhabitants ratios were remarkable within European countries, but disparities in ENT manpower were even more so. The ratio of ENT doctors/inhabitants was the lowest in Ireland (1:80,000) and Great Britain (1:65,000). Greece (1:10,000), Italy, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Poland and Slovakia (1:12,000) were-at the time of the study-the countries with the highest density of ENT doctors. The EU average for 2009 was (1:21,000). The presence of non-surgical working ENT doctors was significantly associated with higher densities of ENT doctors, whereas the necessity of being referred to an ENT doctor (gatekeeping or similar measures) was not. Estimated average waiting times for an appointment in non-urgent, chronic conditions, respectively, diseases were highly variable and predominantly showed a significant correlation to the ENT doctors/inhabitants ratio in the investigated countries. But also for acute conditions like acute hypacusis, dysphonia and hemoptysis, significant differences correlating to the ENT doctors/inhabitants ratio in waiting times for an ENT appointment were found. Estimated frequencies of different ENT tasks in everyday routine were extremely diverse as well, however, without detectable correlations to the ENT doctors/inhabitants ratio. In countries like Great Britain, Ireland, Malta and The Netherlands ENT doctors are primarily seen and serving as surgeons. In most Central European countries like Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia, ENT doctors aside of surgery are also dealing with high percentages of conservative medicine, which may include vast fields like the management of Allergology, Phoniatrics, Audiology, etc. In some countries ENT doctors are even playing a significant role in primary health care as well. These various portfolios of ENT may be one explanation for the huge difference in numbers of European ENT manpower.
- Rare Sinonasal and Laryngeal Manifestations of Cowden's Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2013 May 21.
- Vocal fold scars: current concepts and future directions. Consensus report of the phonosurgery committee of the European laryngological society. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2013 Apr 21.
Scarring of the vocal folds leads to a deterioration of the highly complex micro-structure with consecutively impaired vibratory pattern and glottic insufficiency. The resulting dysphonia is predominantly characterized by a reduced vocal capacity. Despite the considerable progress in understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, the treatment of scarred vocal folds is still an unresolved chapter in laryngology and phonosurgery. Essential for a successful treatment is an individual, multi-dimensional concept that comprises the whole armamentarium of surgical and non-surgical (i.p. voice therapy) modalities. An ideal approach would be to soften the scar, because the reduced pliability and consequently the increased vibratory rigidity impede the easiness of vibration. The chosen phonosurgical method is determined by the main clinical feature: Medialization techniques for the treatment of glottic gap, or epithelium freeing techniques for improvement of vibration characteristics often combined with injection augmentation or implantation. In severe cases, buccal mucosa grafting can be an option. New developments, include treatment with anxiolytic lasers, laser technology with ultrafine excision/ablation properties avoiding coagulation (Picosecond infrared laser, PIRL), or techniques of tissue engineering. However, despite the promising results by in vitro experiments, animal studies and first clinical trials, the step into clinical routine application has yet to be taken.
- Medically unexplained symptoms and somatisation in ENT. [Journal Article]
- J Laryngol Otol 2013 May; 127(5):452-7.
Background:Somatisation has been described as the perception of a physiological event influenced by emotion. Method: A review of the medical literature was carried out using the following Medical Subject Headings: somatisation (which identified 357 articles), medically unexplained symptoms (749 articles), unexplained or idiopathic dizziness (142 articles), tinnitus (360 articles), catarrh (1068 articles) and globus pharyngeus (3114 articles).
Results:Up to 40 per cent of out-patient attendances have medically unexplainable symptoms. In ENT clinics, this includes patients with dizziness, tinnitus, 'pseudo' eustachian tube dysfunction, being 'unable to hear', catarrh and postnasal drip, atypical facial pain, globus pharyngeus, and functional dysphonia. Medical explanations of these symptoms often differ from patients' perceptions. Demonstrating normal test results and providing reassurance have little effect on patients' doubts and anxieties. Consultations that recognise the symptoms and their impact, and offer a tangible and involving explanation are more likely to satisfy and empower patients.
Conclusion:The treatment of medically unexplained symptoms has changed in recent years; there is now more emphasis on psychological factors due to an association with anxiety and depression.
- Unusual presentation of cervical spine metastases to the ENT surgeon. [Journal Article]
- J Laryngol Otol 2013 Jan; 127(1):92-5.
Cervical spine metastases account for 10 per cent of all spinal metastases. We report three cases of cervical spine metastases whose unusual primary presentation was with ENT-related symptoms.The three patients reported herein did not have a confirmed diagnosis of malignancy at presentation. The first patient presented with stridor, the second presented with dysphagia and the third presented with dysphonia. All patients complained of significant neck pain that preceded and was concomitant to the other symptoms. Clinical suspicion of cervical spine involvement led to radiological investigation with computed tomography, which showed metastatic lesions in the craniovertebral junction and cervical spine region. Histological confirmation of malignancy was obtained for two of the three patients. The condition proved uniformly fatal in the weeks following diagnosis. A review of the literature on this condition was conducted using PubMed and Medline databases.Cervical spine pathology may present initially to the ENT surgeon. A high degree of suspicion of cervical spine involvement should be maintained in elderly patients with persistent or progressive neck pain, with or without other ENT symptoms. Adequate radiological imaging will usually confirm the diagnosis.
- Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the superior cervical sympathetic ganglia. [Journal Article]
- Ear Nose Throat J 2012 Oct; 91(10):E18-21.
The prevalence of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) among the general population is only 0.001%. Most cases originate in peripheral nerve root trunks in the extremities; MPNST rarely occurs in the head and neck. We describe the case of a 61-year-old man who presented with Horner syndrome, dysphonia, and enlarged neck nodes. Imaging detected a paraspinal mass of the deep superior cervical chain next to the internal carotid artery. The patient underwent an upfront modified radical neck dissection of the right-sided lymph nodes from levels II through V. Postoperative irradiation was performed. Two years after the initial diagnosis, the patient was found to have a pulmonary metastasis of the MPNST. A wedge resection was performed, and at 6 months of follow-up, the patient was alive without disease. However, he subsequently developed soft-tissue metastases in his buttocks, and he died 2 years later of brain metastases. In our case, the clinical symptoms suggested the anatomic location of the primary tumor, and imaging findings suggested the diagnosis, which was confirmed on histopathology. As far as we know, no case of MPNST of the superior ganglia of the sympathetic chain has been previously described in the literature.
- Rosai-Dorfman disease with isolated laryngeal involvement. [Journal Article]
- Ear Nose Throat J 2012 Oct; 91(10):439-40.
Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rare histiocyte disorder that is typically characterized by massive cervical lymphadenopathy. Isolated extranodal involvement is uncommon, and isolated laryngeal involvement is extremely rare. We report an unusual case of Rosai-Dorfman disease with isolated laryngeal involvement that led to recurrent dysphonia and airway obstruction. We discuss the challenges we faced in reaching a correct pathologic diagnosis and in deciding on an appropriate treatment regimen. Based on our experience, we believe that Rosai-Dorfman disease should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients who present with a recurrent inflammatory (histiocytic) mass lesion of the larynx.
- Cervical osteophytes: a rare cause of obstructive sleep apnea. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- J Craniofac Surg 2012 Sep; 23(5):e444-6.
Uncertain etiology of cervical osteophytes, in particular emerging in geriatric population, is a rare skeletal system disease. Often, the cases are asymptomatic and may lead to symptoms such as dysphagia, cough, dyspnea, and dysphonia. We present a patient who had anterior osteophytes causing symptoms of severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and literature on etiology of OSA has been reviewed. A 57-year-old male patient with complaints of snoring and cessation of breathing during sleep was referred to the ear nose throat clinic. Cervical radiograph and computed tomography showed the osteophytes in the anterior of the vertebral corpus at the level C1-2. In addition, bridging osteophyte was observed between C6 and C7 vertebrae. The patient's neck circumference was 41 cm, body mass index was 29 kg/m2, Epworth Sleepiness Scale score was 11, and apnea hypopnea index was 62. Surgery was recommended, but the patient refused. Continuous positive airway pressure titration was applied with 12.6 cm H2O pressure; apnea control was attained with an AHI of 2.7. One of the rare causes of OSA, a case of cervical vertebral osteophyte, was presented, and we would like to draw attention to the importance of ear nose throat examination in the diagnosis of OSA.
- Effectiveness of the computed analysis of electroglottographic signals in muscle tension dysphonia. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Folia Phoniatr Logop 2012; 64(3):145-50.
To investigate the usefulness of electroglottography (EGG) parameters in the diagnosis and estimation of efficacy of voice therapy for muscle tension dysphonia (MTD).Nineteen MTD participants, an equivalent number of dysphonic ('organic') patients with vocal fold lesions and as many normal speakers were enrolled. Acoustic (Ac) and EGG signals during sustained phonation were recorded simultaneously. The period and amplitude perturbation quotient of both signals, the closed quotient (CQ) of EGG signals (mean CQ) and its standard deviation (CQSD) were calculated, and subsequently compared among the three groups. These parameters in the MTD group were compared before and after voice therapy.The perturbation measures of both signals in the MTD group were either as high as or significantly higher than those in the organic group or the control group, respectively. Both the Ac and EGG parameters after therapy significantly decreased. The CQSD, but not mean CQ, also decreased after therapy.EGG parameters related to the regularity of vocal fold vibration, but not to the degree of vocal fold contact (mean CQ), are useful for the diagnosis and estimation of voice therapy outcome in MTD.
- Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the true vocal fold. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Ear Nose Throat J 2012 Aug; 91(8):E23-5.
We report a rare case of extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) of the true vocal fold. Our patient, a 62-year-old woman, presented with dysphonia. On workup, fiberoptic laryngoscopy detected a lesion arising from the anterior half of her left true vocal fold. No evidence of other pathology was noted. The patient underwent radical radiotherapy, and the lesion resolved. Follow-up revealed no sign of recurrence. A type of myeloma, EMP is rare, especially in the larynx. To the best of our knowledge, our patient represents the sixth case of glottic EMP to be reported in the literature.