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ENT AND Head neck cancer [keywords]
- Primary Treatment Results of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(5):e63706.
Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) is a major health problem in southern and eastern Asia. In Indonesia NPC is the most frequent cancer in the head and neck area. NPC is very sensitive to radiotherapy resulting in 3-year disease-free and overall survival of approximately 70% and 80%, respectively. Here we present routine treatment results in a prospective study on NPC in a top referral; university hospital in Indonesia.All NPC patients presenting from September 2008 till January 2011 at the ear, nose and throat (ENT) department of the Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, were possible candidates. Patients were included if the biopsy was a histological proven NPC without distant metastasis and were assessed during counselling sessions prior to treatment, as being able to complete the entire treatment.In total 78 patients were included for treatment analysis. The median time between diagnosis and start of radiotherapy is 120 days. Forty-eight (62%) patients eventually finished all fractions of radiotherapy. The median duration of the radiotherapy is 62 days for 66 Gy. Median overall survival is 21 months (95% CI 18-35) from day of diagnosis.The results presented here reveal that currently the treatment of NPC at an Indonesian hospital is not sufficient and cannot be compared to the treatment results in literature. Main reasons for these poor treatment results are (1) a long waiting time prior to the start of radiotherapy, (2) the extended overall duration of radiotherapy and (3) the advanced stage of disease at presentation.
- Micro-ribonucleic acids in head and neck cancer: an introduction. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Laryngol Otol 2013 Apr 24.:1-6.
Background and methods: Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Advances in management have not greatly altered overall survival. Over the last decade, there have been significant scientific advances in our knowledge of cell cycle regulation and the complex oncogenic processes. MicroRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs which are integral to the regulation of gene expression and which play a part in carcinogenesis. The literature on the role of microRNA in head and neck cancer is reviewed.
Objective:To introduce the role and significance of microRNAs in head and neck cancer.
Results:The possibilities of incorporating microRNAs into clinical practice are discussed, including their potential role in diagnosis, prognosis, prediction of metastatic spread, therapy and tumour surveillance.
Conclusion:Discoveries in expression profiling of microRNA in head and neck oncology promise advancements in the diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of these cancers.
- A false-positive FDG uptake in Teflon granuloma: A case report. [Journal Article]
- Ear Nose Throat J 2013 Apr-May; 92(4-5):E1-2.
Positron emmision tomography (PET) is successfully used to monitor malignancies. Unfortunately it is not tumor specific. We present a case with history of rectum cancer and lentigo maligna who underwent PET-CT which revealed an increased uptake in the larynx. What was first considered as a third primary turned out to be a Teflon granuloma.
- Pathological characteristics and clinical perspectives of papillary thyroid cancer: study of 714 patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2013 Apr 9.
Papillary thyroid cancer belongs to most commonly diagnosed well-differentiated malignant tumor of the thyroid gland, with only minority of cases being more aggressive, recurring locoregionally and developing distant metastatic foci. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical relationship between parameters of age, gender, size of primary tumor, intraglandular dissemination and regional metastatic spread and evaluate the importance of each parameter; analyze other major aggressive factors (tumor border, thyroid capsule invasion, perivascular, perilymphatic spread) on prevalence and extent of intraglandular dissemination and relation to metastatic spread in neck. This study is a retrospective analysis of clinical and pathological data from 714 patients with papillary thyroid cancer, presented and operated at the Department of ENT/Head and Neck surgery, Sisters of Charity University Hospital, Zagreb, in the period from 1980 to 2008. All patients were operated upon with total thyroidectomy and some type of neck lymphonode dissection (paratracheal or lateral). In results, we found 46.9 % tumors were aggressive; 34.7 % tumors were multicentric, with foci in the contralateral lobe nearly twice as often as in the ipsilateral lobe; 27.8 % were regionally metastatic, with equal distribution between paratracheal and lateral regions. In conclusion, we revealed contralateral lobe multicentricity and male gender as independent risk factors for regional metastatic dissemination. Nodular goiter has been identified as a protective parameter.
- [Rational approach of antibioprophylaxis: Systematic review in ENT cancer surgery.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 2013 Apr 5.
In head and neck cancer surgery antibiotic prophylaxis is effective in reducing the incidence of surgical site infections (SSI). However, controversies between antibiotic prophylaxis and curative antibiotic therapy exist, particularly when complex and decaying surgeries are performed in risky underlying conditions, with a risk of persisting salivary effusion in the postoperative period, or in the case of reconstruction with myo-cutaneous flaps. We have performed a systematic review of the literature according to PRISMA recommendations to answer the following questions: indications for antibiotic prophylaxis and curative antibiotic therapy, optimal duration, and choice of antibiotics for prophylaxis in head and neck cancer surgery. Literature analysis allows to conclude that patients undergoing Altemeier classes 2 and 3 surgical procedures should receive perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis restricted to the first 24 postoperative hours. No benefit has been shown with its extension beyond these 24hours. The most adapted combinations of antibiotics in this setting are "amoxicillin+clavulanic acid" and "clindamycin+gentamicin". However, the level of evidence regarding the most decaying surgeries with high risk of SSI is low, making it necessary to perform new high-powered randomized trials in these patients. Eventually, it should be noted that antibiotic prophylaxis should be an integral part of SSI preventive measures, including application of hygiene measures, and postoperative monitoring of SSI clinical signs.
- Case report: Metastatic breast cancer presenting as a hypopharyngeal mass. [Journal Article]
- Ear Nose Throat J 2013 Mar; 92(3):E5-6.
Although carcinoma of the breast has a propensity toward distant metastasis, metastasis to the head and neck is uncommon. Most patients with metastasis to the head and neck region present with cervical lymphadenopathy; however, spread to the upper aerodigestive tract has been described previously. We present a case of a patient found to have a pedunculated mass in her right piriform sinus. When she swallowed, the mass would completely prolapse into the esophagus and cause symptoms. Subsequent workup revealed widespread metastatic disease, for which the patient was treated with chemoradiotherapy. Microlaryngoscopy with excision of the mass was performed for palliation of her dysphagia, and a diagnosis of metastatic breast carcinoma was obtained. The patient healed well from the excision and went on to be treated for the metastatic breast cancer. To our knowledge, our report represents the first case of metastatic breast carcinoma presenting as severe dysphagia.
- The role of Human papilloma virus (HPV) genotyping in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in Rasoul Akram Hospital. [Journal Article]
- Med J Islam Repub Iran 2012 May; 26(2):90-3.
The most common laryngeal mass in children is recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). Studies have attempted to correlate viral typing and its aggressiveness.29 patients with histologically confirmed RRP enrolled in adjuvant therapies. Patients underwent several surgical interventions.HPV genotyping demonstrated 45% HPV-6 and 55% HPV-11. The mean age at the first surgical intervention was 52.39 months (SD=102.28) (range from 4 months to 426 months). The mean number of surgical intervention was 10.39 (SD=7.76) (range from 2 to 30). The mean time of surgical intervals was 4.63 months (SD=4.02) (range from 2 to 24 months). In fourteen patients (48%) tracheotomy was done. All patients who had tracheotomy received alpha-interferon. One of our cases was a male who had pulmonary extension with HPV-6.A review of patients with RRP was regarding to HPV genotyping and need for adjuvant therapy and tracheostomy. Mean number of surgical procedure was 10/40 and nearly fourteen patients (48%) need to tracheotomy. The clinical differences between HPV6 and HPV11 disease may not be accurately predictable. Patients with less age and with HPV-11 seemed to have more severe problems, but these differences were not statistically significant which needs much more investigations for reasonable starting point of evaluation for these differences.
- The role of p16 expression as a predictive marker in HPV-positive oral SCCHN--a retrospective single-center study. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Anticancer Res 2013 Mar; 33(3):913-6.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is the sixth most common type of cancer worldwide; 600,000 new cases are diagnosed every year. Infected with high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) types are particularly linked to oropharyngeal cancer. Among over 100 different HPV types, HPV-16 and HPV-18 are detected in the majority of HPV-positive SCCHNs. The p16 gene is often mutated in SCCHN, its overexpression is caused by the viral E7 protein. Consequently, p16 is assumed to be an indirect marker of HPV-induced SCCHN. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of p16 expression as a predictive marker of HPV infection in SCCHN tumors in a retrospective single-center study.Oropharyngeal tumor samples from 45 patients (34 males, 11 females) were analyzed. Tumor samples were examined for HPV infection using a two-step PCR. p16 staining by immunohistochemistry was then performed.Samples with strong p16 signal were typed HPV-16-positive. Out of 14 tumor samples with HPV-positive PCR results, 13 samples contained the high risk variant HPV-16. In one sample, HPV-6 DNA was detected. All HPV-16-positive tumors overexpressed p16 (p16(+++)), whereas the HPV-6 sample was p16-negative.p16 is not a surrogate marker for replacing PCR testing, but both methods in combination, PCR and immunohistochemistry, could lead to a higher diagnostic validation.
- Maxillary antrolith: a rare cause of the recurrent sinusitis. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Otolaryngol 2013.:527152.
. An antrolith is a calcified mass within the maxillary sinus. The origin of the nidus of calcification may be extrinsic (foreign body in sinus) or intrinsic (stagnant mucus and fungal ball). Most antroliths are small and asymptomatic. Larger ones may present as sinusitis with symptoms like pain and discharge. . We report a case of a 47-year-old lady who presented with heaviness on the left side of the face and loosening of the left 2nd molar tooth since two months. CT scan of the osteomeatal complex and paranasal sinuses showed an opacification of bilateral maxillary sinus and an amorphous area of bone density in the left maxillary sinus. Because of the size of the mass, benign neoplasms were considered in the differential diagnosis. During an endoscopic sinus surgery, it was found to be an antrolith, which was successfully managed by antrostomy and Caldwell-Luc Surgery. . Antrolith is a rare condition. Rhinoliths are known to invade into the maxillary antrum, but a localised lesion in the antrum is very unusual. A case of an isolated antrolith is presented for its rarity and for differential diagnosis of localised antral disease. . Antrolith should be considered as differential diagnosis of unilateral radio-opaque paranasal sinus lesions.
- Enteral feeding methods for nutritional management in patients with head and neck cancers being treated with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013.:CD007904.
This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 3, 2010.For many patients with head and neck cancer, oral nutrition will not provide adequate nourishment during treatment with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy due to the acute toxicity of treatment, obstruction caused by the tumour, or both. The optimal method of enteral feeding for this patient group has yet to be established.To compare the effectiveness of different enteral feeding methods used in the nutritional management of patients with head and neck cancer receiving radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy using the clinical outcomes, nutritional status, quality of life and rates of complications.Our extensive search included the Cochrane ENT Group Trials Register, CENTRAL, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED and ISI Web of Science. The date of the most recent search was 13 February 2012.Randomised controlled trials comparing one method of enteral feeding with another, e.g. nasogastric (NG) or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feeding, for adult patients with a diagnosis of head and neck cancer receiving radiotherapy and/or chemoradiotherapy.Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data using standardised forms. We contacted study authors for additional information.One randomised controlled trial met the criteria for inclusion in this review. No further studies were identified when we updated the searches in 2012.Patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer, being treated with chemoradiotherapy, were randomised to PEG or NG feeding. In total only 33 patients were eligible for analysis as the trial was terminated early due to poor accrual. A high degree of bias was identified in the study.Weight loss was greater for the NG group at six weeks post-treatment than for the PEG group (P = 0.001). At six months post-treatment, however, there was no significant difference in weight loss between the two groups. Anthropometric measurements recorded six weeks post-treatment demonstrated lower triceps skin fold thickness for the NG group compared to the PEG group (P = 0.03). No statistically significant difference was found between the two different enteral feeding techniques in relation to complication rates or patient satisfaction. The duration of PEG feeding was significantly longer than for the NG group (P = 0.0006). In addition, the study calculated the cost of PEG feeding to be 10 times greater than that of NG, though this was not found to be significant. There was no difference in the treatment received by the two groups. However, four PEG fed patients and two NG fed patients required unscheduled treatment breaks of a median of two and six days respectively.We identified no studies of enteral feeding involving any form of radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) feeding or comparing prophylactic PEG versus PEG for inclusion in the review.There is not sufficient evidence to determine the optimal method of enteral feeding for patients with head and neck cancer receiving radiotherapy and/or chemoradiotherapy. Further trials of the two methods of enteral feeding, incorporating larger sample sizes, are required.