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Elavil, for depression [keywords]
- Increased nuclear Olig1-expression in the pregenual anterior cingulate white matter of patients with major depression: A regenerative attempt to compensate oligodendrocyte loss? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Psychiatr Res 2013 Apr 21.
BACKGROUND:Structural and functional oligodendrocyte deficits as well as impaired myelin integrity have been described in affective disorders and schizophrenia, and may disturb the connectivity between disease-relevant brain regions. Olig1, an oligodendroglial transcription factor, might be important in this context, but has not been systematically studied so far.
METHODS:Nissl- and Olig1-stained oligodendrocytes were quantified in the pregenual anterior cingulate (pACC)/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and adjacent white matter of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 9), bipolar disorder (BD, n = 8), schizophrenia (SZ, n = 13), and matched controls (n = 16). Potential downstream effects of increased Olig1-expression were analyzed. Antidepressant drug effects on Olig1-expression were further explored in OLN-93 oligodendrocyte cultures.
RESULTS:Nissl-stainings of both white matter regions showed a 19-27% reduction of total oligodendrocyte densities in MDD and BD, but not in SZ. In contrast, nuclear Olig1-immunoreactivity was elevated in MDD in the pACC-adjacent white matter (left: p = 0.008; right: p = 0.018); this effect tended to increase with antidepressant dosage (r = 0.631, p = 0.069). This reactive increase of Olig1 was confirmed by partly dose-dependent effects of imipramine and amitriptyline in oligodendrocyte cultures. Correspondingly, MBP expression in the pACC-adjacent white matter tended to increase with antidepressant dosage (r = 0.637, p = 0.065). Other tested brain regions showed no diagnosis-dependent differences regarding Olig1-immunoreactivity.
CONCLUSIONS:Since nuclear Olig1-expression marks oligodendrocyte precursor cells, its increased expression along with reduced total oligodendrocyte densities (Nissl-stained) in the pACC-adjacent white matter of MDD patients might indicate a (putatively medication-boosted) regenerative attempt to compensate oligodendrocyte loss.
- [The combined therapy with valdoxan and amitriptyline of treatment resistant somatized depression]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2013; 113(2):20-4.
The combined treatment with valdoxan and amitriptyline has been suggested as one of the possible variants to overcome treatment resistance in somatized depression. A study design was based on the rhythmological model of depression which clinically characterized by altered sleep-awakeness cycles. According to this notion, 36 patients were divided into two groups by the presence (20 patients) or absence (16 patients) of severe sleep disorders. The combined treatment was more effective in the first group of patients with insomnia which was an indicator of altered sleep-awakeness cycles.
- A possible new option for migraine management: agomelatine. [Journal Article]
- Clin Neuropharmacol 2013 Mar-Apr; 36(2):65-7.
Migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of headache associated with gastrointestinal, neurologic, and autonomic symptoms. Some evidence in literature suggests that the melatonergic system possibly plays an important role in the pathogenesis of migraine. Few studies have been performed on the use of melatonin as an antimigraine agent. Other than amitriptyline, few antidepressants have been found to be efficacious for migraine prophylaxis. Among antidepressants, agomelatine has a novel neurochemical mechanism. It is an melatonin receptor 1 and melatonin receptor 2 melatonergic receptor agonist and a selective antagonist of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2C receptors.We report two cases of patients with migraine successfully treated with agomelatine; one patient presented with comorbid depression, whereas the other had no comorbidities.Given its specific mechanism of action and similarity with melatonin, agomelatine may be a promising new treatment option for migraine prophylaxis. The potential therapeutic action of agomelatine could be due to its synergistic action on both melatonergic and 5-HT2C receptors.
- Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: diagnosis and management. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Urogynecol J 2013 Feb 22.
HYPOTHESIS:The bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a spectrum of urological symptoms characterised by bladder pain with typical cystoscopic features. Diagnosis and management of this syndrome may be difficult. There is no evidence-based management approach for the diagnosis or treatment of BPS. The objective of this study was to critically review and summarise the evidence relating to the diagnosis and treatment of the bladder pain syndrome.
METHODS:A review of published data on the diagnosis and treatment of the BPS was performed. Our search was limited to English-language articles, on the "diagnosis", and "management" or "treatment" of "interstitial cystitis" and the "bladder pain syndrome" in "humans."
RESULTS:Frequency, urgency and pain on bladder filling are the most common symptoms of BPS. All urodynamic volumes are reduced in patients with BPS. Associated conditions include psychological distress, depression, history of sexual assault, irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. Cystoscopy remains the test for definitive diagnosis, with visualisation of haemorrhage on cystoreduction. A multidisciplinary treatment approach is essential in the management of this condition. Orally administered amitriptyline is an efficacious medical treatment for BPS. Intravesical hyaluronic acid and local anaesthetic, with/without hydrodistension are among new treatment strategies. Sacral or pudendal neuromodulation is effective, minimally invasive and safe. Surgery is reserved for refractory cases.
CONCLUSIONS:There remains a paucity of evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of BPS. We encountered significant heterogeneity in the assessment of symptoms, duration of treatment and follow up of patients in our literature review.
- Suicide by self-administration of a drug mixture (propofol, midazolam, and zolpidem) in an anesthesiologist: the first case report in Italy. [Journal Article]
- J Forensic Sci 2013 May; 58(3):837-41.
The authors report an unusual case of suicide of an anesthesiologist, in which the suicide manner and means depend upon the victim's occupation. This is the first case report published in Italy of a death involving propofol and other drugs. The anesthesiologist was found dead with an empty drip still inserted in the hand and another one near his body. Forensic and toxicological findings suggested that the cause of death was a respiratory depression due to a self-administration of a rapidly infused lethal drug mixture. Analytical drug quantification was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Blood analysis revealed: zolpidem (0.86 μg/mL), propofol (0.30 μg/mL), midazolam (0.08 μg/mL), thiopental (0.03 μg/mL), and amitriptyline (0.07 μg/mL). Adipose tissue and hair analysis suggested a previous and repeated use of these drugs verifying the fact that in Italy recreational abuse of anesthetic and sedative agents in health care practitioners is becoming an increasing problem.
- Long-term effects of maternal separation on chronic stress response suppressed by amitriptyline treatment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Stress 2013 Apr 10.
Abstract The early-life environment has many long-term effects on mammals. Maternal interaction and early stressful events may affect regulation of the HPA axis during adulthood, leading to differential glucocorticoid secretion in response to stressful situations. These adverse experiences during postnatal development may even sensitize specific neurocircuits to subsequent stressors. Later in life, the overreaction of the HPA axis to stress can constitute a risk factor for metabolic and mental diseases. As tricyclic antidepressants are known to correct glucocorticoid hypersecretion during depression, we treated maternally separated animals with amitriptyline, at a lower dose than habitually used in depression models, to prevent the response to chronic stress during adulthood. Male Wistar rats were separated from the mother for 4.5 h every day for the first 3 weeks of life. From postnatal day 50, animals were subjected to chronic variable stress during 24 d (five types of stressors at different times of day). During the stress, protocol rats were orally administered amitriptyline (5 mg/kg) daily. We observed that maternal separation caused a reduction in plasma ACTH levels (p < 0.05), but evoked hypersecretion of corticosterone (p < 0.05) when it was combined with stress in adulthood. This rise was completely prevented by antidepressant treatment with amitriptyline.
- QT interval and antidepressant use: a cross sectional study of electronic health records. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- BMJ 2013.:f288.
To quantify the impact of citalopram and other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on corrected QT interval (QTc), a marker of risk for ventricular arrhythmia, in a large and diverse clinical population.A cross sectional study using electrocardiographic, prescribing, and clinical data from electronic health records to explore the relation between antidepressant dose and QTc. Methadone, an opioid known to prolong QT, was included to demonstrate assay sensitivity.A large New England healthcare system comprising two academic medical centres and outpatient clinics.38,397 adult patients with an electrocardiogram recorded after prescription of antidepressant or methadone between February 1990 and August 2011.Relation between antidepressant dose and QTc interval in linear regression, adjusting for potential clinical and demographic confounding variables. For a subset of patients, change in QTc after drug dose was also examined.Dose-response association with QTc prolongation was identified for citalopram (adjusted beta 0.10 (SE 0.04), P<0.01), escitalopram (adjusted beta 0.58 (0.15), P<0.001), and amitriptyline (adjusted beta 0.11 (0.03), P<0.001), but not for other antidepressants examined. An association with QTc shortening was identified for bupropion (adjusted beta 0.02 (0.01) P<0.05). Within-subject paired observations supported the QTc prolonging effect of citalopram (10 mg to 20 mg, mean QTc increase 7.8 (SE 3.6) ms, adjusted P<0.05; and 20 mg to 40 mg, mean QTc increase 10.3 (4.0) ms, adjusted P<0.01).This study confirmed a modest prolongation of QT interval with citalopram, and identified additional antidepressants with similar observed risk. Pharmacovigilance studies using electronic health record data may be a useful method of identifying potential risk associated with treatments.
- Depression, Comorbidities, and Prescriptions of Antidepressants in a German Network of GPs and Specialists with Subspecialisation in Anthroposophic Medicine: A Longitudinal Observational Study. [Journal Article]
- Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012.:508623.
Background.Depression is a major reason for counselling in primary care. Our study aims at evaluating pharmacological treatment strategies among physicians specialised in anthroposophic medicine (AM). Methods. From 2004 to 2008, twenty-two German primary care AM-physicians participated in this prospective, multicentre observational study. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with a prescription of any antidepressant medication.
Results.A total of 2444 patients with depression were included (mean age: 49.1 years (SD: 15.4); 77.3% female). 2645 prescriptions of antidepressants for 833 patients were reported. Phytotherapeutic preparations from Hypericum perforatum were the most frequently prescribed antidepressants over all (44.6% of all antidepressants), followed by amitriptyline (16.1%). The likelihood of receiving an antidepressant medication did not depend on comorbidity after controlling for age, gender, physician specialisation, and type of depression (adjusted OR (AOR) = 1.01; CI: 0.81-1.26). Patients who had cancer were significantly less likely to be prescribed an antidepressant medication than those who had no cancer (AOR = 0.75; CI: 0.57-0.97).
Conclusion.This study provides a comprehensive analysis of everyday practice for the treatment of depression in AM -physicians. Further analysis regarding the occurrence of critical combinations is of high interest to health services research.
- The Influence of the Tricyclic Antidepressant Amitriptyline on Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep. [Journal Article]
- Pharmacopsychiatry 2013 May; 46(3):108-13.
Many antidepressants are associated with periodic limb movements (PLM) during sleep. Although some tricyclic antidepressants, such as amitriptyline, promote sleep and are thus often prescribed as a treatment for sleep disturbances that can accompany depression, it remains unclear whether amitriptyline is associated with PLM.32 healthy males (18-39 years) spent 2 consecutive nights in the sleep lab for polysomnographic recording. During the second night, they received either 75 mg amitriptyline or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled manner.In subjects receiving amitriptyline but not in subjects receiving placebo, the number of periodic leg movements per h was significantly increased from baseline to intervention night. However, objective polysomnographic sleep parameters (such as the number of awakenings, wake after sleep onset, and sleep efficiency) and subjective sleep perception were not significantly associated with any PLM indices.Our findings indicate that amitriptyline can induce or even increase the number of PLM during sleep in healthy subjects. When treating sleep disturbances with amitriptyline, PLM should be considered as a possible cause of insufficient improvement.
- [Antidepressants in cardiology]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Review]
- Klin Med (Mosk) 2012; 90(10):11-6.
Amitriptyline was for a long time the sole medication for the management of depression in cardiological patients despite a large number of side effects. It was substituted by the safe and cardiologically neutral sertraline, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor. Presently the results of agomnelatine therapy of cardiovascular diseases and accompanying depressions arise great interest.