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Electrolytes AND Anion gap, decreased [keywords]
- Physicochemical interpretation of Acid-base abnormalities in 54 adult horses with acute severe colitis and diarrhea. [Journal Article]
- J Vet Intern Med 2013 May; 27(3):548-53.
The quantitative effect of strong electrolytes, pCO2 , and plasma protein concentration in determining plasma pH and bicarbonate concentrations can be demonstrated with the physicochemical approach. Plasma anion gap (AG) and strong ion gap (SIG) are used to assess the presence or absence of unmeasured anions.The physicochemical approach is useful for detection and explanation of acid-base disorders in horses with colitis. AG and SIG accurately predict hyperlactatemia in horses with colitis.Fifty-four horses with acute colitis and diarrhea.Retrospective study. Physicochemical variables were calculated for each patient. ROC curves were generated to analyze sensitivity and specificity of AG and SIG for predicting hyperlactatemia.Physicochemical interpretation of acid-base events indicated that strong ion metabolic acidosis was present in 39 (72%) horses. Mixed strong ion acidosis and decreased weak acid (hypoproteinemia) alkalosis was concomitantly present in 17 (30%) patients. The sensitivity and specificity of AG and SIG to predict hyperlactatemia (L-lactate > 5 mEq/L) were 100% (95% CI, 66.4-100; P < .0001) and 84.4% (95% CI, 70.5-93.5 P < .0001). Area under the ROC curve for AG and SIG for predicting hyperlactatemia was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.86-0.99) and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.83-0.99), respectively.These results emphasize the importance of strong ions and proteins in the maintenance of the acid-base equilibria. AG and SIG were considered good predictors of clinically relevant hyperlactatemia.
- Clinical observation of childhood urinary stones induced by melamine-tainted infant formula in Anhui province, China. [Journal Article]
- Arch Med Sci 2013 Feb 21; 9(1):98-104.
The current report detailed an investigation of melamine-linked urinary stones in children exposed to contaminated formula.A total of 1062 children fed with melamine-contaminated infant formula were screened for urinary stones. Sixty healthy children without melamine exposure were recruited as a control group. Ultrasonography of the urinary tract system was performed. Urinalysis, renal function, liver status, and serum electrolytes were determined.We encountered 49 affected children from the 1062 screened ones, at a rate of 4.6% per ultrasound performed. Thirty-two were male, and 17 were female. The affected children ranged in age from 1 month to 96 months, with a mean of 25 months. Duration of exposure was from 1.3 months to 84 months, with a mean of 19.5 months. The melamine contents in serum were between 12 mg/kg and 2563 mg/kg, with mean concentration of 1295.3 mg/kg. Most affected children were asymptomatic with no urinary findings. Patients with urinary stones exhibited lower urine pH and serum HCO3 (-) than those in the healthy children, whereas for serum uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and anion gap the opposite trends were observed. The stone diameter ranged from 2 mm to 18 mm with a median of 6.5 mm. Multiple stones were noted in all patients. After 1 week of conservative management, stone diameters of 38 cases (77.6%) were significantly decreased. Among them, urinary stones were discharged completely in 21 affected children (42.9%).The short-term outcome of melamine-linked urinary stones is satisfactory.
- Effect of the dialysis fluid buffer on peritoneal membrane function in children. [Journal Article, Multicenter Study, Randomized Controlled Trial, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2013 Jan; 8(1):108-15.
Double-chamber peritoneal dialysis fluids exert less toxicity by their neutral pH and reduced glucose degradation product content. The role of the buffer compound (lactate and bicarbonate) has not been defined in humans.A multicenter randomized controlled trial in 37 children on automated peritoneal dialysis was performed. After a 2-month run-in period with conventional peritoneal dialysis fluids, patients were randomized to neutral-pH, low-glucose degradation product peritoneal dialysis fluids with 35 mM lactate or 34 mM bicarbonate content. Clinical and biochemical monitoring was performed monthly, and peritoneal equilibration tests and 24-hour clearance studies were performed at 0, 3, 6, and 10 months.No statistically significant difference in capillary blood pH, serum bicarbonate, or oral buffer supplementation emerged during the study. At baseline, peritoneal solute equilibration and clearance rates were similar. During the study, 4-hour dialysis to plasma ratio of creatinine tended to increase, and 24-hour dialytic creatinine and phosphate clearance increased with lactate peritoneal dialysis fluid but not with bicarbonate peritoneal dialysis fluid. Daily net ultrafiltration, which was similar at baseline (lactate fluid=5.4±2.6 ml/g glucose exposure, bicarbonate fluid=4.9±1.9 ml/g glucose exposure), decreased to 4.6±1.0 ml/g glucose exposure in the lactate peritoneal dialysis fluid group, whereas it increased to 5.1±1.7 ml/g glucose exposure in the bicarbonate content peritoneal dialysis fluid group (P=0.006 for interaction).When using biocompatible peritoneal dialysis fluids, equally good acidosis control is achieved with lactate and bicarbonate buffers. Improved long-term preservation of peritoneal membrane function may, however, be achieved with bicarbonate-based peritoneal dialysis fluids.
- Influence of an acetate- and a lactate-based balanced infusion solution on acid base physiology and hemodynamics: an observational pilot study. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Eur J Med Res 2012.:21.
The current pilot study compares the impact of an intravenous infusion of Ringer's lactate to an acetate-based solution with regard to acid-base balance. The study design included the variables of the Stewart approach and focused on the effective strong ion difference. Because adverse hemodynamic effects have been reported when using acetate buffered solutions in hemodialysis, hemodynamics were also evaluated.Twenty-four women who had undergone abdominal gynecologic surgery and who had received either Ringer's lactate (Strong Ion Difference 28 mmol/L; n = 12) or an acetate-based solution (Strong Ion Difference 36.8 mmol/L; n = 12) according to an established clinical protocol and its precursor were included in the investigation. After induction of general anesthesia, a set of acid-base variables, hemodynamic values and serum electrolytes was measured three times during the next 120 minutes.Patients received a mean dose of 4,054 ± 450 ml of either one or the other of the solutions. In terms of mean arterial blood pressure and norepinephrine requirements there were no differences to observe between the study groups. pH and serum HCO3- concentration decreased slightly but significantly only with Ringer's lactate. In addition, the acetate-based solution kept the plasma effective strong ion difference more stable than Ringer's lactate.Both of the solutions provided hemodynamic stability. Concerning consistency of acid base parameters none of the solutions seemed to be inferior, either. Whether the slight advantages observed for the acetate-buffered solution in terms of stability of pH and plasma HCO3- are clinically relevant, needs to be investigated in a larger randomized controlled trial.
- Does the presence of a seawater gill morphology induced by dietary salt loading affect Cl(-) uptake and acid-base regulation in freshwater rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Fish Biol 2012 Feb; 80(2):301-11.
The goal of this study was to determine the effect of the changes in gill morphology induced by dietary salt feeding on several aspects of gill function in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss maintained in fresh water with specific emphasis on Cl(-) uptake (J(IN)Cl(-)) and acid-base regulation. The addition of 11% NaCl to the diet caused J(IN)Cl(-) to be reduced by c. 45% from 214·4 ± 26·7 to 117·3 ± 17·4 µmol kg(-1) h(-1) (mean ± s.e.). Rates of Cl(-) efflux (J(OUT)Cl(-)), net Cl(-) flux (J(NET)Cl(-)), J(NET) Na(+) and plasma levels of Na(+) or Cl(-) were unaffected by salt feeding. On the basis of significant effect of the salt diet on decreasing the maximal uptake rate of Cl(-)(J(MAX)Cl(-)), it would appear that internal salt loading caused a decrease in the number of functional ion transport proteins involved in Cl(-) uptake (e.g. Cl(-) -HCO(3)(-) exchangers) and decreased the transporting capacity of existing proteins. The acid-base regulating capacity of control fish and salt-loaded fish was assessed by monitoring arterial blood acid-base status [partial pressure of CO(2) (PCO(2)), pH and HCO(3)(-)] during exposure to external hypercapnia (nominally 7·5 mm Hg). Both groups of fish exhibited typical compensatory responses to sustained hypercapnia consisting of the gradual accumulation of plasma HCO(3) (-) and thus metabolic restoration within 24 h of the initial respiratory acidosis elicited by hypercapnia. Overall, the results demonstrate that while Cl(-) uptake capacity is reduced in salt-fed fish, there is no associated alteration in acid-base regulating capability.
- Metabolic decompensation in methylmalonic aciduria: which biochemical parameters are discriminative? [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Inherit Metab Dis 2012 Sep; 35(5):797-806.
Recurrent, life-threatening metabolic decompensations often occur in patients with methylmalonic aciduria (MMAuria). Our study evaluated (impending) metabolic decompensations in these patients aiming to identify the most frequent and reliable clinical and biochemical abnormalities that could be helpful for decision-making on when to start an emergency treatment. Seventy-six unscheduled and 179 regular visits of 10 patients with confirmed MMAuria continuously followed by our metabolic centre between 1975 and 2009 were analysed. The most frequent symptom of an impending acute metabolic decompensation was vomiting (90% of episodes), whereas symptoms of intercurrent infectious disease (29%) or other symptoms (such as food refusal and impaired consciousness) were found less often. Thirty-five biochemical parameters were included in the analysis. Among them, pathological changes of acid-base balance reflecting metabolic acidosis with partial respiratory compensation (decreased pH, pCO(2), standard bicarbonate, and base excess) and elevated ammonia were the most reliable biochemical parameters for the identification of a metabolic decompensation and the estimation of its severity. In contrast, analyses of organic acids, acylcarnitines and carnitine status were less discriminative. In conclusion, careful history taking and identification of suspicious symptoms in combination with a small number of rapidly available biochemical parameters are helpful to differentiate compensated metabolic condition and (impending) metabolic crisis and to decide when to start an emergency treatment.
- Pulmonary gas exchange during hemodialysis: a comparison of subjects with and without COPD on bicarbonate hemodialysis. [Comparative Study, Journal Article]
- Ann Clin Lab Sci 2011; 41(4):315-20.
Little is known about the effect of hemodialysis (HD) on gas exchange in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study was to examine blood gases and pH in COPD patients undergoing HD with bicarbonate dialysate. We studied thirteen subjects with COPD and thirteen controls (CON). All were dialyzed for 4 hrs against a bicarbonate HD solution. Blood gases, pH and HCO(3) (-) were initially analyzed (t(0)) and, during HD, at 30 min (t(0.5)), 1 hr (t(1)) and 4 hrs (t(4)). At t(0), a statistically significant difference was observed for PO(2) (CON: 84.7±3.60, COPD: 72.19±4.92; p<0.001). For the first hr, PO(2) decreased, and at t(1), oxygen was required for 6 COPD subjects. By t(4), there was no significant difference in PO(2) between groups. The alveolar-arterial gradient (ΔA-a) remained different between groups (P<0.001, all times), with increasing ΔA-a for both groups up to t(1) and decreasing over the remaining 3 hr. For both groups, at t(4), ΔA-a was higher than at t(0) (p<0.001). For PCO(2), both groups demonstrated increases from t(0) to t(1) (p=0.0004), with COPD having PCO(2) higher than CON at t(0.5) and t(1) (p<0.05 for both); by t(4), PCO(2) levels decreased to nearly the same as at t(0). Over the 4 hr treatment, HCO(3) (-) and pH increased significantly for both groups; however no significant difference was observed between COPD and CON. Markedly increased ΔA-a is observed during HD in some COPD patients. COPD patients retain more CO(2). However, the effect of HCO(3) (-) leads to mild metabolic alkalosis at t(4).
- The influence of respiratory acid-base changes on muscle performance and excitability of the sarcolemma during strenuous intermittent hand grip exercise. [Journal Article]
- J Appl Physiol 2012 Feb; 112(4):571-9.
Acidification has been reported to provide protective effects on force production in vitro. Thus, in this study, we tested if respiratory acid-base changes influence muscle function and excitability in vivo. Nine subjects performed strenuous, intermittent hand grip exercises (10 cycles of 15 s of work/45 s of rest) under respiratory acidosis by CO(2) rebreathing, alkalosis by hyperventilation, or control. The Pco(2), pH, K(+) concentration ([K(+)]), and Na(+) concentration were measured in venous and arterialized blood. Compound action potentials (M-wave) were elicited to examine the excitability of the sarcolemma. The surface electromyogram (EMG) was recorded to estimate the central drive to the muscle. The lowest venous pH during the exercise period was 7.24 ± 0.03 in controls, 7.31 ± 0.05 with alkalosis, and 7.17 ± 0.04 with acidosis (P < 0.001). The venous [K(+)] rose to similar maximum values in all conditions (6.2 ± 0.8 mmol/l). The acidification reduced the decline in contraction speed (P < 0.001) but decreased the M-wave area to 73.4 ± 19.8% (P < 0.001) of the initial value. After the first exercise cycle, the M-wave area was smaller with acidosis than with alkalosis, and, after the second cycle, it was smaller with acidosis than with the control condition (P < 0.001). The duration of the M-wave was not affected. Acidification diminished the reduction in performance, although the M-wave area during exercise was decreased. Respiratory alkalosis stabilized the M-wave area without influencing performance. Thus, we did not find a direct link between performance and alteration of excitability of the sarcolemma due to changes in pH in vivo.
- Balanced vs unbalanced crystalloid resuscitation in a near-fatal model of hemorrhagic shock and the effects on renal oxygenation, oxidative stress, and inflammation. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Resuscitation 2012 Jun; 83(6):767-73.
The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that balanced crystalloid resuscitation would be better for the kidney than unbalanced crystalloid resuscitation in a rat hemorrhagic shock model.Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n=6/group): (1) time control; (2) hemorrhagic shock control; (3) hemorrhagic shock followed by unbalanced crystalloid resuscitation (0.9% NaCl); and (4) hemorrhagic shock followed by acetate and gluconate-balanced crystalloid resuscitation (Plasma Lyte). We tested the solutions for their effects on renal hemodynamics and microvascular oxygenation, strong-ion difference, systemic and renal markers of inflammation and oxidative stress including glycocalyx degradation as well as their effects on renal function.The main findings of our study were that: (1) both the balanced and unbalanced crystalloid solutions successfully restored the blood pressure, but renal blood flow was only recovered by the balanced solution although this did not lead to improved renal microvascular oxygenation; (2) while unbalanced crystalloid resuscitation induced hyperchloremia and worsened metabolic acidosis in hemorrhaged rats, balanced crystalloid resuscitation prevented hyperchloremia, restored the acid-base balance, and preserved the anion gap and strong ion difference in these animals; (3) in addition balanced crystalloid resuscitation significantly improved renal oxygen consumption (increased VO(2), decreased [Formula: see text] ); and (4) however neither balanced nor unbalanced crystalloid resuscitation could normalize systemic inflammation or oxidative stress. Functional immunohistochemistry biomarkers showed improvement in L-FABP in favor of balanced solutions in comparison to the hemorrhagic group although no such benefit was seen for renal tubular injury (measured by NGAL) by giving either unbalanced or balanced solutions.Although balanced crystalloid resuscitation seems superior to balanced crystalloid resuscitation in protecting the kidney after hemorrhagic shock and is certainly better than not applying fluid resuscitation, these solutions were not able to correct systemic inflammation or oxidative stress associated with hemorrhagic shock.
- Alterations of acid-base balance, electrolyte concentrations, and osmolality caused by nonionic hyperosmolar contrast medium during pediatric cardiac catheterization. [Journal Article]
- Paediatr Anaesth 2011 Nov; 21(11):1119-23.
This prospective clinical observational study was conducted to investigate the effects of contrast medium on acid-base balance, electrolyte concentrations, and osmolality in children. Background: For pediatric cardiac catheterization, high doses of nonionic hyperosmolar contrast medium are widely used.Forty pediatric patients (age 0-16 years) undergoing cardiac angiography with more than 3 ml·kg(-1) of nonionic hyperosmolar contrast medium (Iomeprol) were enrolled, and the total amount of the contrast agent given was documented. Before and after contrast medium administration, a blood sample was collected to analyze electrolytes, acid-base parameters, osmolality, hemoglobin, and hematocrit.After cardiac catheterization, pH, hemoglobin, hematocrit, bicarbonate, base excess, sodium, chloride, calcium, anion gap and strong ion difference decreased, whereas osmolality increased significantly (base excess -1.8 ± 1.8 vs -3.4 ± 2.3, sodium 138 ± 2.9 vs 132 ± 4.1 mm, osmolality 284 ± 5.7 vs 294 ± 7.6 mosmol·kg(-1), P < 0.01). Seventy-eight percent of the children developed hyponatremia (sodium <135 mm). No changes were seen in pCO(2) , lactate, and potassium levels.Regarding the differential diagnosis of metabolic disturbances after pediatric cardiac catheterization, low-anion gap metabolic acidosis and hyponatremia should be considered as a possible side effect of the administered contrast medium.