Electrolytes AND Hypokalemia [keywords]
- Higher Caloric Refeeding Is Safe in Hospitalised Adolescent Patients with Restrictive Eating Disorders. [Journal Article]
- J Nutr Metab 2016.:5168978.
Introduction.This study examines weight gain and assesses complications associated with refeeding hospitalised adolescents with restrictive eating disorders (EDs) prescribed initial calories above current recommendations. Methods. Patients admitted to an adolescent ED structured "rapid refeeding" program for >48 hours and receiving ≥2400 kcal/day were included in a 3-year retrospective chart review.
Results.The mean (SD) age of the 162 adolescents was 16.7 years (0.9), admission % median BMI was 80.1% (10.2), and discharge % median BMI was 93.1% (7.0). The mean (SD) starting caloric intake was 2611.7 kcal/day (261.5) equating to 58.4 kcal/kg (10.2). Most patients (92.6%) were treated with nasogastric tube feeding. The mean (SD) length of stay was 3.6 weeks (1.9), and average weekly weight gain was 2.1 kg (0.8). No patients developed cardiac signs of RFS or delirium; complications included 4% peripheral oedema, 1% hypophosphatemia (<0.75 mmol/L), 7% hypomagnesaemia (<0.70 mmol/L), and 2% hypokalaemia (<3.2 mmol/L). Caloric prescription on admission was associated with developing oedema (95% CI 1.001 to 1.047; p = 0.039). No statistical significance was found between electrolytes and calories provided during refeeding.
Conclusion.A rapid refeeding protocol with the inclusion of phosphate supplementation can safely achieve rapid weight restoration without increased complications associated with refeeding syndrome.
- Electrolyte disturbances and risk factors of acute kidney injury patients receiving dialysis in exertional heat stroke. [Journal Article]
- BMC Nephrol 2016; 17(1):55.
Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is a life-threatening illness and leads to multi-organ dysfunction including acute kidney injury (AKI). The clinical significance of abnormal electrolytes and renal outcomes in ESH patients has been poorly documented. We aim to exhibit the electrolyte abnormalities, renal outcomes and risk factors of patients with AKI receiving dialysis in EHS.A retrospective cohort study in EHS patients between 2003 and 2014 were conducted. Clinical and laboratory outcomes including serum and urine electrolytes, AKI and dialysis were assessed on admission, during hospitalization and at the time of their discharge from the hospital. A logistic regression analysis was performed for risk factors of acute dialysis.All 66 subjects with mean age 22.1 ± 4.3 years were included. On admission, the common electrolyte disturbances were hypokalemia (71.2 %), hypophosphatemia (59.1 %), hyponatremia (53.0 %), hypocalcemia (51.5 %), and hypomagnesemia (34.9 %). Electrolytes depletion was confirmed as renal loss (potassium loss; 54.2 %, phosphate loss; 86.7 %, sodium loss; 64.7 % and magnesium loss; 83.3 %). During hospitalization ranging from 2 to 209 days, 90.9 % patients suffered from AKI with 16.7 % receiving acute dialysis, and 3 % patients died. At discharge, AKI and electrolyte abnormalities had dramatically improved. The prognosis factors for AKI receiving dialysis were identified as neurological status, renal function and serum muscle enzyme at time of admission.The study suggests that hypoelectrolytemia and AKI are frequently observed in patients with EHS. Neurological impairment, impaired renal function, and increased serum muscle enzyme should be considered risk factors of acute dialysis.
- The McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome: a rare cause of curable diabetes. [Journal Article]
- Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2016.:160013.
McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome (MWS) is a rare consequence of severe dehydration and electrolyte depletion due to mucinous diarrhoea secondary to a rectosigmoid villous adenoma. Reported cases of MWS commonly describe hypersecretion of mucinous diarrhoea in association with dehydration, hypokalaemia, hyponatraemia, hypochloraemia and pre-renal azotemia. Hyperglycaemia and diabetes are rarely reported manifestations of MWS. Herein we describe the case of a 59-year-old woman who presented with new-onset diabetes and severe electrolyte derangement due to a giant rectal villous adenoma. Subsequent endoscopic resection of the tumour cured her diabetes and normalised electrolytes. This case describes a rare cause of 'curable diabetes' and indicates hyperaldosteronism and/or whole-body potassium stores as important regulators of insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis.McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome (MWS) is typically characterised by the triad of pre-renal failure, electrolyte derangement and chronic diarrhoea resulting from a secretory colonic neoplasm.Hyperglycaemia and new-onset diabetes are rare clinical manifestations of MWS.Hyperaldosteronism and/or hypokalaemia may worsen glucose tolerance in MWS.Aggressive replacement of fluid and electrolytes is the mainstay of acute management, with definitive treatment and complete reversal of the metabolic abnormalities being achieved by endoscopic or surgical resection of the neoplasm.
- Severe Torsades de Pointes with acquired QT prolongation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2016 May 6.
Torsades de pointes (TdP) is a fatal polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in association with congenital or acquired QT prolongation. Concomitant electrolyte disturbances and drugs potentiate the development of TdP. We describe a severe case of refractory TdP in the setting of methadone, cocaine, hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia. The successful treatment was achieved with the administration of magnesium, isoproterenol, and electrolyte replacement.
- Renal effects of BRAF inhibitors: a systematic review by the Cancer and the Kidney International Network. [Journal Article, Review]
- Clin Kidney J 2016 Apr; 9(2):245-51.
Advanced melanoma has been traditionally unresponsive to standard chemotherapy agents and used to have a dismal prognosis. Genetically targeted small-molecule inhibitors of the oncogenic BRAF V600 mutation or a downstream signaling partner (MEK mitogen-activated protein kinase) are effective treatment options for the 40-50% of melanomas that harbor mutations in BRAF. Selective BRAF and MEK inhibitors induce frequent and dramatic objective responses and markedly improve survival compared with cytotoxic chemotherapy. In the past decade after discovery of this mutation, drugs such as vemurafenib and dabrafenib have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of V600-mutated melanomas. While the initial trials did not signal any renal toxicities with the BRAF inhibitors, recent case reports, case series and FDA adverse reporting systems have uncovered significant nephrotoxicities with these agents. In this article, we systematically review the nephrotoxicities of these agents. Based on recently published data, it appears that there are lower rates of kidney disease and cutaneous lesions seen with dabrafenib compared with vemurafenib. The pathology reported in the few kidney biopsies done so far are suggestive of tubulo interstitial damage with an acute and chronic component. Electrolyte disorders such as hypokalemia, hyponatremia and hypophosphatemia have been reported as well. Routine monitoring of serum creatinine and electrolytes and calculation of glomerular filtration rate prior to the first administration when treating with dabrafenib and vemurafenib are essential.
- Hypoglycemia associated with refeeding syndrome in a cat. [CASE REPORTS]
- J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2016 Mar 11.
To describe the clinical presentation and biochemical abnormalities occurring during the successful treatment of refeeding syndrome in a cat.A 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat presented after having been missing for 12 weeks. The cat had clinical signs of severe starvation. Common complications developed during refeeding (eg, hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, and hemolytic anemia). The cat also developed hypoglycemia, a complication common in people but not previously reported in a cat. Hypoglycemia and electrolyte deficiencies were managed with intravenous supplementation. The cat was successfully treated and was discharged alive 7 days after presentation.Hypoglycemia has not been reported previously as a complication of refeeding in a cat. Frequent monitoring of electrolyte, mineral, and blood glucose concentrations is essential to successful management of refeeding syndrome. The ideal refeeding strategy is unknown at this time. Evidence suggests that a diet low in carbohydrate decreases the likelihood of metabolic derangements commonly associated with refeeding.
- Electrolytes-Enriched Hemodiafiltration Solutions for Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy in Acute Kidney Injury: A Crossover Study. [Journal Article]
- Blood Purif 2016; 42(1):18-26.
To evaluate the capability of an electrolytes-enriched solution to prevent metabolic disorders during continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF).Serum biochemistry and clinical tolerance were compared during CVVHDF treatments with an electrolyte-enriched (Phoxilium) or standard solutions in 10 acute renal failure patients.As compared to standard fluids, serum potassium and phosphate levels were maintained in the normal range with Phoxilium without any supplementation but total serum calcium levels were significantly lower. Bicarbonatemia was slightly higher (24-26 vs. 21.5-24.5 mmol/l, p < 0.05) with conventional solutions and was associated with a significant increased level of pH (>7.44). Despite the absence of glucose in the Phoxilium solution, blood glucose levels and glucose supplementation were similar between treatments. Clinical tolerance and efficiency of CVVHDF sessions were comparable.Phoxilium effectively prevented hypophosphatemia and hypokalemia during CVVHDF. It was, however, associated with a slight metabolic acidosis and hypocalcemia compared with conventional solutions.
- Electrolyte disorders associated with the use of anticancer drugs. [Journal Article, Review]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2016 Apr 15.:78-87.
The use of anticancer drugs is beneficial for patients with malignancies but is frequently associated with the occurrence of electrolyte disorders, which can be hazardous and in many cases fatal. The review presents the electrolyte abnormalities that can occur with the use of anticancer drugs and provides the related mechanisms. Platinum-containing anticancer drugs induce hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia and hypocalcemia. Moreover, platinum-containing drugs are associated with hyponatremia, especially when combined with large volumes of hypotonic fluids aiming to prevent nephrotoxicity. Alkylating agents have been linked with the occurrence of hyponatremia [due to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)] and Fanconi's syndrome (hypophosphatemia, aminoaciduria, hypouricemia and/or glucosuria). Vinca alkaloids are associated with hyponatremia due to SIADH. Epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody inhibitors induce hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia and hypocalcemia. Other, monoclonal antibodies, such as cixutumumab, cause hyponatremia due to SIADH. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are linked to hyponatremia and hypophosphatemia. Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors induce hyponatremia (due to aldosterone resistance), hypokalemia and hypophosphatemia. Other drugs such as immunomodulators or methotrexate have been also associated with hyponatremia. The administration of estrogens at high doses, streptozocin, azacitidine and suramin may induce hypophosphatemia. Finally, the drug-related tumor lysis syndrome is associated with hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalemia and hypocalcemia. The prevention of electrolyte derangements may lead to reduction of adverse events during the administration of anticancer drugs.
- Junctional Bradycardia as Early Sign of Digoxin Toxicity in a Premature Infant with Congestive Heart Failure due to a Left to Right Shunt. [Journal Article]
- AJP Rep 2016 Mar; 6(1):e96-8.
Introduction Congestive heart failure due to left to right cardiac shunt is usually managed medically with diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and, in some cases, with the addition of digoxin. Case We report a 31-week gestation premature male infant who did not respond to such treatment and developed hyperaldosteronism and severe hypokalemia secondary to activation of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system. The hypokalemia was not responsive to intravenous KCL supplementation and induced digoxin toxicity despite a relatively normal digoxin level. The earliest signs of digoxin toxicity in the patient were junctional rhythm and bradycardia. The discontinuation of digoxin and the administration of digoxin specific immunoglobulin fragments (Fab) reversed those changes. The addition of spironolactone (an aldosterone antagonist) had a dramatic effect, resulting in clinical improvement of the patient coupled with normalization of Q4 serum and urine electrolytes. Conclusion Serum Digoxin level alone may fail as an independent guide in the diagnosis of digoxin toxicity when hypokalemia is present. In premature infants with congestive heart failure and hypokalemia, addition of an aldosterone antagonist should be considered.
- Impact of electrolyte imbalances on the outcome of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: A prospective study. [Journal Article]
- Asian J Neurosurg 2016 Jan-Mar; 11(1):29-33.
Electrolyte disturbances are frequently observed during the acute and subacute period after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and may potentially worsen therapeutic outcome. This study was conducted to determine the pattern of electrolyte disturbance in the acute and subacute phase after SAH and their effect on the long-term outcome of the patients.Fifty-three patients were prospectively enrolled. The standards of care for all patients were uniformly performed. The serum levels of electrolytes (sodium, potassium and magnesium) were determined with measurements obtained on admission, 3-5 and 7-10 days after SAH. Radiographic intensity of hemorrhage (Fisher's scale), and the clinical grading (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade) were documented in the first visit. The outcomes were evaluated using Glasgow outcome scale at 3 months after discharge.Hyponatremia was the most common electrolyte imbalance among the patients but did not worsen the outcome. Although less common, hypernatremia in the subacute phase was significantly associated with poor outcome. Both hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia were predictive of poor outcomes.Because electrolyte abnormalities can adversely affect the outcome, the serum levels of electrolytes should be closely monitored with serial measurements and treated properly in patients with aneurysmal SAH.