Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
- Cardiovascular autonomic modulation by nitric oxide synthases accounts for the augmented enalapril-evoked hypotension in ethanol-fed female rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Alcohol 2013 Jun; 47(4):339-346.
In this study, we investigated the role of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms in the enhanced enalapril-evoked hypotension in ethanol-fed female rats by examining the effect of the selective inhibitors of eNOS [N(5)-(1-iminoethyl)-l-ornithine; l-NIO], nNOS (N(ω)-propyl-l-arginine; NPLA), or iNOS (1400W) inhibition on the cardiovascular effects of enalapril in ethanol- (5% w/v) fed rats and in their pair-fed controls. In liquid diet-fed control rats, enalapril- (10 mg/kg) evoked hypotension was abolished by l-NIO (20 mg/kg), but not by NPLA (1 mg/kg) or 1400W (5 mg/kg), suggesting a preferential role for eNOS in this response. Enalapril had no effect on spectral indices of hemodynamic variability or +dP/dtmax (myocardial contractility). However, in ethanol-fed rats, the greater enalapril-evoked hypotension was associated with reductions in (i) +dP/dtmax, (ii) low-frequency/high-frequency ratio of interbeat intervals (IBILF/HF), suggesting cardiac parasympathetic dominance, and (iii) low-frequency spectral band of systolic blood pressure (BP), a marker of vasomotor sympathetic tone. While NPLA or 1400W attenuated the enalapril-evoked hemodynamic and autonomic responses in ethanol-fed rats, l-NIO virtually abolished the hypotensive response and was more efficacious in rectifying autonomic responses to enalapril. Together, these findings implicate NOS isoforms, particularly eNOS, in the altered cardiovascular autonomic control that leads to the augmented enalapril-evoked hypotension in ethanol-fed female rats.
- Inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme decreases skeletal muscle fibrosis in dystrophic mice by a diminution in the expression and activity of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN-2). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Tissue Res 2013 May 15.
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS), through angiotensin II and the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), is involved in the genesis and progression of fibrotic diseases characterized by the replacement of normal tissue by an accumulation of an extracellular matrix (ECM). Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) presents fibrosis and a decrease in muscle strength produced by chronic damage. The mdx mouse is a murine model of DMD and develops the same characteristics as dystrophic patients when subjected to chronic exercise. The connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) and transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-β), which are overexpressed in muscular dystrophies, play a major role in many progressive scarring conditions. We have tested the hypothesis that ACE inhibition decreases fibrosis in dystrophic skeletal muscle by treatment of mdx mice with the ACE inhibitor enalapril. Both sedentary and exercised mdx mice treated with enalapril showed improvement in gastrocnemius muscle strength explained by a reduction in both muscle damage and ECM accumulation. ACE inhibition decreased CTGF expression in sedentary or exercised mdx mice and diminished CTGF-induced pro-fibrotic activity in a model of CTGF overexpression by adenoviral infection. Enalapril did not have an effect on TGF-β1 expression or its signaling activity in sedentary or exercised dystrophic mice. Thus, ACE inhibition might improve muscle strength and decrease fibrosis by diminishing specifically CTGF expression and activity without affecting TGF-β1 signaling. Our data provide insights into the pathogenic events in dystrophic muscle. We propose ACE as a target for developing therapies for DMD and related diseases.
- Superior renoprotective effects of the combination of breviscapine with enalapril and its mechanism in diabetic rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Phytomedicine 2013 May 9.
Breviscapine is a flavonoid extracted from a Chinese herb Erigeron breviscapus, previously it was shown that treatment with breviscapine attenuated renal injury in the diabetic rats. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether breviscapine combined with enalapril (an ACE inhibitor) have superior renoprotective effects against diabetic nephropathy. Rats were randomly separated into five groups: control, diabetes, diabetes treated with enalapril, diabetes treated with breviscapine, or diabetes treated with combined enalapril with breviscapine. Twenty-four hours urinary AER and the levels of 3-NT in renal tissue and MDA in renal tissue and urine as well as activities and expression of PKC in renal tissue were determined, and renal tissue morphology were observed by light microscopy after 8 weeks. Expression of TGFβ1 protein was performed by immunohistochemistry method. Increased AER and kidney pathologic injury were attenuated by treatment with either enalapril or breviscapine and further reduced by the combination of the two. Elevated 3-NT in renal tissue and MDA levels in renal tissue and urine were reduced by enalapril or breviscapine and, more effectively, by combined enalapril with breviscapine. PKC activities and expression were higher in renal tissue in diabetic rats than those of the control group, which were reduced by both monotherapies, and further abrogated by combination therapy in both cases. Overexpression of TGFβ1 protein observed in the glomeruli and tubulointerstitium of diabetic rats was attenuated by enalapril or breviscapine to a similar lever and further reduced by the combination of the two. The combination of enalapril and breviscapine confers superiority over monotherapies on renoprotection, which mechanism may be at least partly correlated with synergetic suppression on increased oxidative stress and PKC activities as well as overexpression of TGFβ1 in renal tissue.
- Mineralocorticoid Receptor Agonists Induce Mouse Aortic Aneurysm Formation and Rupture in the Presence of High Salt. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2013 May 9.
OBJECTIVE:Elevated plasma aldosterone concentrations in patients have been linked to a spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists provide additional benefits in patients with heart failure. However, whether aldosterone and the mineralocorticoid receptor are involved in aortic aneurysm is unknown. APPROACH AND
RESULTS:We report that administration of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) and salt or aldosterone and salt, but not DOCA or salt alone, to C57BL/6 male mice induced abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysm formation and rupture in an age-dependent manner. DOCA and salt- or aldosterone and salt-induced aortic aneurysm mimicked human aortic aneurysm with respect to elastin degradation, inflammatory cell infiltration, smooth muscle cell degeneration and apoptosis, and oxidative stress. Aortic aneurysm formation did not correlate with the increase in blood pressure induced by DOCA and salt. Systemic administration of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril, or angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist, losartan, did not affect DOCA and salt-induced aortic aneurysm. In contrast, the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, spironolactone or eplerenone, significantly attenuated DOCA and salt- or aldosterone and salt-induced aortic aneurysm.
CONCLUSIONS:The current study describes a novel aortic aneurysm animal model induced by mineralocorticoid receptor agonist and high salt, and reveals a previously unrecognized but potentially significant role of aldosterone in the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysm. These findings imply that mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists may be effective in the treatment of some aortic aneurysms.
- The effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory peptide LAP on the left common carotid artery remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ir J Med Sci 2013 May 10.
OBJECTIVE:To investigate the protective effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptide LAP on the left common carotid artery remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs).
METHODS:A cohort of male SHRs were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10 for each group): pseudo-experimental group, enalapril-treated group as a positive control group, ACE-inhibitory peptide LAP-treated group. After the experiment, the left common carotid artery from each rat was removed for morphological evaluation.
RESULTS:It was observed that the vascular medial thickness, media thickness/lumen diameter, medial cross-sectional area and mean nuclear area of smooth muscle cells of the left common carotid artery in the LAP group or enalapril group were significantly lower than those in the pseudo-experimental group, while there was no significant difference in these parameters observed between the LAP group and enalapril group. Additionally, the vascular area percentage of collagen fibers of the left common carotid artery in the LAP group and enalapril group was significantly lower than that of the pseudo-experimental group.
CONCLUSIONS:The protective vessel remodeling effect in SHRs was observed with ACE-inhibitory peptide LAP in SHRs by decreasing blood pressure, inhibiting smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and reducing the proliferation of collagen fibers.
- Milk-derived peptides, val-pro-pro and ile-pro-pro, attenuate atherosclerosis development in apolipoprotein e-deficient mice: a preliminary study. [Journal Article]
- J Med Food 2013 May; 16(5):396-403.
Abstract Milk-derived peptides, Val-Pro-Pro (VPP) and Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP), have angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activities and blood pressure-lowering effects. We examined the effects of these peptides on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient [apoE(-/-)] mice. For 31 weeks, six-week-old male apoE(-/-) mice received a diet that included one of the following: fermented milk containing both VPP and IPP; casein hydrolysate containing both of these peptides; synthesized VPP; synthesized IPP; enalapril; captopril; or control diet. At the end of feeding, blood biochemistry, aortic atherogenesis, and gene expression by DNA microarray analysis were evaluated. There were no significant changes in the plasma lipid levels and 8-isoprostane, a marker of oxidative stress. The area ratio of intima to media in the aortic arch was significantly lower in the fermented milk, casein hydrolysate, synthesized VPP, enalapril, and captopril groups than in the control group. As is common with diets containing VPP and/or IPP, we observed reductions in mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β, oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor, and transcription regulators. These results suggest that a continuous intake of VPP and IPP might be beneficial for preventing atherosclerosis caused by hypercholesterolemia.
- Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system does not reduce platelet activity at rest or during stress in hypertension. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Hypertens 2013 Apr 25.
OBJECTIVES:: We investigated the influence of angiotensin receptor blockade and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on stress-induced platelet activation in hypertensive patients. Secondary aims were effects on inflammation, coagulation, and endothelial function.
METHODS::Following a 4-week placebo period, 25 hypertensive patients entered a double-blind, crossover study comparing enalapril (20 mg once daily) and losartan (100 mg once daily) treatment (each for 8 weeks). Patients were studied at rest and after a standardized exercise test.
RESULTS::Mean arterial pressure was reduced from 119 ± 2 to 104 ± 2 (enalapril) and 106 ± 2 (losartan) mmHg (both P <0.001). Plasma angiotensin II decreased from 2.4 ± 0.4 to 0.5 ± 0.1 pmol/l with enalapril, and increased to 7.2 ± 1.3 pmol/l with losartan (both P <0.001). Exercise-evoked platelet activation, as evidenced by increased numbers of P-selectin-positive platelets (P <0.01), elevated circulating platelet-platelet aggregates (P <0.01) and soluble P-selectin levels (P <0.001), and increased platelet responsiveness to adenosine diphosphate and thrombin (both P <0.05). Neither drug influenced these markers of platelet activation at rest or following exercise. Markers of inflammation (high-sensitivity C reactive protein, interleukin-6, tissue necrosis factor-α), coagulation (tissue plasminogen activator antigen, prothrombin fragment F1+2), and endothelial function (von Willebrand factor, soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1) were also uninfluenced by treatment.
CONCLUSION:: Enalapril and losartan failed to reduce platelet activity both at rest and during exercise in hypertensive patients. Markers of inflammation, coagulation, and endothelial function were similarly unaffected. Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system promotes its beneficial effects in hypertension through mechanisms other than platelet inhibition.
- Use of enteric coated mycophenolate sodium in adult resistant nephrotic syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Nephrol 2013 Apr 23.
Introduction: Treatment of patients with resistant/relapsed adult nephrotic syndrome (RNS) caused by glomerulopathies has no consensus therapy.
Objectives:This is a retrospective analysis (RA), performed on 55 patients with RNS treated during one year with enteric coated sodium mycophenolate (EC-MPS) and reduced corticosteroids doses. Material and methods: Inclusion criteria for this RA were: patients aged ≥ 18 years old, diagnosed with RNS with histologically proven glomerulopathy who had received standard therapy with enalapril and/or losartan and 10 mg per day or 20 mg of prednisone every other day. NS was defined with the following criteria: proteinuria > 3.5 g/day, serum albumin ≤ 3 g/dl, hypercholesterolemia and edema. Treatment consisted of oral EC-MPS in 360 mg tablets, 720 mg bid, together with prednisone 10 mg daily or 20 mg every other day. Effectiveness was assessed as the rate of response in the cohort: complete, partial or absent. Complete response patients: 24 hours proteinuria < 300 mg/day, partial response patients: proteinuria > 300 mg/day and < than 3 g/day, all the rest were considered as non responders.
Results:response was achieved in 40/55 (73%) of patients, 24 (44%) with complete response and 16 (29%) with partial response. No EC-MPS discontinuation has been observed due to adverse events, except for one case of transient interruption of medication for 2 weeks.
Conclusion:EC-MPS as single therapy with minimal doses of corticosteroids as in this RA could be an effective alternative in the treatment of patients with RNS.
- Protective effects of enalapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, on multiple organ damage following scald injury in rats. [Journal Article]
- Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2012 Jul; 59(4):307-13.
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of enalapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, on multiple organ damage after scald injury. Healthy adult rats (half male and half female; 8-12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to the following treatments: sham operation, scald injury, and intraperitoneal enalapril (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg body weight) treatment after scalding. At 1, 12, and 24 H postscald, left ventricular and aortic hemodynamics were measured using a multichannel physiological recorder. Functional and pathological changes of the heart, liver, and kidney were examined by biochemical and histological methods. Compared with sham controls, untreated scalded animals showed decreased hemodynamic parameters and increased myocardial angiotensin II, serum creatine kinase heart isoenzyme, and serum cardiac troponin I and histopathological inflammation in the myocardium 12 H postscald. These hemodynamic, functional, and pathological changes were attenuated by 1 mg/kg enalapril. Enalapril reversed scald-induced elevations in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, and blood creatinine 12 H postscald, and ameliorated focal necrosis in the liver and erythrocyte cast formation in renal tubules. However, higher doses of enalapril yielded less or no improvement in organ dysfunction. Enalapril at 1 mg/kg attenuates scald-induced multiple organ damage in rats.
- Randomized Controlled Trial of Enalapril on Decline in Glomerular Filtration Rate and Proteinuria in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Indian Pediatr 2013 Mar 5.
To evaluate the efficacy of enalapril with no enalapril treatment on decline in glomerular filtration rate and reduction in proteinuria in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD).Open label, randomized controlled trial.Pediatric nephrology clinic at a tertiary care referral hospital.Children with GFR between 15-60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were randomized to receive either enalapril at 0.4 mg/kg /day or no enalapril for 1 year.Primary outcomes: Change in GFR using 99mTc-DTPA and urine protein to creatinine ratio. Secondary outcomes included occurrence of composite outcome (30% decline in GFR or end stage renal disease) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure SDS during the study period.41 children were randomized into two groups; 20 received enalapril while 21 did not receive enalapril. During 1 year, GFR decline was not different in enalapril and non enalapril groups(regression coefficient 0.40, 95% CI -4.29 to 5.09, P=0.86). The mean proteinuria reduction was 65% in the enalapril group, significantly higher than in non-enalapril group; the difference remained significant after adjustment for blood pressure (regression coefficient 198.5, CI 97.5, 299.3; P<0.001). Three (17.6%) patients in enalapril and 7 (36.8%) in non-enalapril group attained the composite outcome. On subgroup analysis, in proteinuric children occurrence of composite outcome was significantly lower with enalapril treatment after adjustment for proteinuria and blood pressure.Enalapril is effective in reducing proteinuria in children with CKD and might be renoprotective in proteinuric CKD.