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Endocrinology AND Hyperlipidemia [keywords]
- Determinants of VLDL composition and apo B-containing particles in familial combined hyperlipidemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Chim Acta 2014 Aug 26.
In familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) the severity of the dyslipidemia is determined by an overproduction of VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) particles and by its abnormal lipid composition. However, few is known regarding the metabolic factors that determines these abnormalities. We investigated the impact of metabolic factors on the number of atherogenic particles (apolipoprotein B level (apoB)) and the triglyceride content of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL-TG).A cross-sectional study done in FCHL subjects and gender and age-matched healthy subjects.A clinical assessment, lipid profile and plasma concentrations of insulin, apolipoprotein CIII (apo CIII), apolipoprotein AII (apo AII), high sensitive C-reactive protein (HS-CRP), adiponectin and leptin were documented in 147 FCHL patients and 147 age-matched healthy subjects. Multivariate regression models were performed to investigate the independent determinants of VLDL-TG and apo B levels adjusting for confounding factors.The variables that determined the VLDL -triglyceride content as a surrogate of VLDL composition were apo CIII (β=0.365, p<0.001), insulin (β=0.281, p<0.001), Apo AII (β=0.145, p<0.035), and adiponectin levels (β=-0.255, p<0.001). This model explained 34% of VLDL composition (VLDL-TG) variability. However, none of these variables were independent contributors of apo B-containing particles.In patients with FCHL apo CIII, apo AII and adiponectin are major novel factors determining the VLDL particle composition. However, such factors do not explain apo B-containing particles.
- Lowered cutoff points of obesity indicators are better predictors of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in premenopausal Taiwanese women. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Obes Res Clin Pract 2014 Aug 22.
In previous study, we found that in order to prevent MS in women aged <65 years, the cutoff points of obesity indicators should be lowered.To investigate whether our proposed cutoff points of obesity indicators predict the occurrence of hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), and hyperlipidemia in premenopausal women with greater sensitivity and specificity compared to reference cutoff points of obesity that are currently being used.Using the database of the "2002 Survey on the Prevalence of Hypertension, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia in Taiwan" provided by the Bureau of Health Promotion, Taiwan as research material, data from 2270 premenopausal women aged 20-65 years were used for the analyses. The receiver-operating characteristic curves (ROC) of the body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were used to predict HT, DM, and hyperlipidemia.Obesity is not a good predictor of the occurrence of hyperlipidemia in premenopausal women aged <65 years. However, our proposed cutoff points had greater sensitivity and specificity than did the reference cutoff points. To prevent the risk of HT and DM in premenopausal women, the cutoff points of obesity indicators should be reduced. The proposed values are as follows: a WHR of 0.79; a WC of 74.7cm; a WHtR of 0.49; and a BMI of 22.3kg/m(2).
- Preliminary study: Evaluation of melatonin secretion in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2014 Jul; 18(4):565-8.
Melatonin is an indolamine hormone, synthesized from tryptophan in the pineal gland primarily. Melatonin exerts both antioxidative and immunoregulatory roles but little is known about melatonin secretion in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The aim of this study was to measure serum melatonin levels in patients with T1DM and investigates their relationship with type 1 diabetes mellitus.Forty children and adolescents with T1DM (18 boys and 22 girls) and 30 healthy control subjects (17 boys and 13 girls) participated in the study. All patients followed in Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit of Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine and also control subjects had no hypertension, obesity, hyperlipidemia, anemia, and infection. Blood samples were collected during routine analysis, after overnight fasting. Serum melatonin levels were analyzed with ELISA.There were no statistically significant differences related with age, sex, BMI distribution between diabetic group and control group. Mean diabetic duration was 2.89 ± 2.69 years. The variables were in the equation. Mean melatonin level in diabetic group was 6.75 ± 3.52 pg/ml and mean melatonin level in control group was 11.51 ± 4.74 pg/ml. Melatonin levels were significantly lower in diabetic group compared to controls (P < 0.01).Melatonin was associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus significantly. Because of the varied roles of melatonin in human metabolic rhythms, these results suggest a role of melatonin in maintaining normal rhythmicity. Melatonin may play role in preventing process of inflammation and oxidative stress.
- The association of vitamin D deficiency with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. [Journal Article]
- Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2014 Aug; 69(8):542-6.
Vitamin D deficiency has been related to diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and peripheral vascular disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of vitamin D status in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.We included 211 consecutive subjects to examine the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Of these subjects, 57 did not have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and 154 had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.The non-alcoholic fatty liver disease group had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (p = 0.005), uric acid (p = 0.001), aspartate aminotransferase (p<0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p<0.001), γ-glutamyltransferase (p<0.0001), alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.028), HbA1c (p<0.001), ferritin (p<0.001), insulin (p = 0.016), C-peptide (p = 0.001), HOMA-IR (p = 0.003), total cholesterol (p = 0.001), triglyceride (p = 0.001) and white blood cell (p = 0.04) levels. In contrast, the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease group had significantly lower 25(OH)D levels (12.3±8.9 ng/dl, p<0.001) compared with those of the control group (20±13.6 ng/dl).In this study, we found lower serum 25(OH)D levels in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than in subjects without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. To establish causality between vitamin D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, further interventional studies with a long-term follow-up are needed.
- Tissue-specific insulin signaling in the regulation of metabolism and aging. [Journal Article]
- IUBMB Life 2014 Jul; 66(7):485-95.
In mammals, insulin signaling regulates glucose homeostasis and plays an essential role in metabolism, organ growth, development, fertility, and lifespan. The defects in this signaling pathway contribute to various metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, polycystic ovarian disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis. However, reducing the insulin signaling pathway has been found to increase longevity and delay the aging-associated diseases in various animals, ranging from nematodes to mice. These seemly paradoxical findings raise an interesting question as to how modulation of the insulin signaling pathway could be an effective approach to improve metabolism and aging. In this review, we summarize current understanding on tissue-specific functions of insulin signaling in the regulation of metabolism and lifespan. We also discuss the potential benefits and limitations in modulating tissue-specific insulin signaling pathway to improve metabolism and healthspan. © 2014 IUBMB Life, 66(7):485-495, 2014.
- Elevated GH/IGF-I promotes mammary tumors in high-fat, but not low-fat, fed mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Carcinogenesis 2014 Aug 1.
GH and/or IGF-I are thought to promote breast cancer based on reports showing circulating IGF-I levels correlate, in epidemiological studies, with breast cancer risk. Also, mouse models with developmental GH/IGF-I deficiency/resistance are less susceptible to genetic- or chemical-induced mammary tumorigenesis. However, given the metabolic properties of GH, medical strategies have been considered to raise GH to improve body composition and metabolic function in elderly and obese patients. Since hyperlipidemia, inflammation, insulin resistance and obesity increase breast cancer risk, elevating GH may serve to exacerbate cancer progression. To better understand the role GH/IGF-I plays in tumor formation, this study used unique mouse models to determine if reducing GH/IGF-I in adults protects against DMBA-induced mammary tumor development, and if moderate elevations in endogenous GH/IGF-I alter DMBA-induced tumorigenesis in mice fed a standard-chow diet or in mice with altered metabolic function due to high-fat feeding. We observed that adult-onset isolated GH deficient (AOiGHD) mice, which also have reduced IGF-I levels, were less susceptible to DMBA-treatment. Specifically, fewer AOiGHD mice developed mammary tumors compared to GH-replete controls. In contrast, chow-fed mice with elevated endogenous GH/IGF-I (HiGH mice) were not more susceptible to DMBA-treatment. However, high-fat-fed, HiGH mice showed reduced tumor latency and increased tumor incidence compared to diet-matched controls. These results further support a role of GH/IGF-I in regulating mammary tumorigenesis but suggest the ultimate consequences of GH/IGF-I on breast tumor development are dependent on the diet and/or metabolic status.
- Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist is more efficacious than insulin glargine for poorly controlled type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Diabetes 2014 Jul 21.
To compare the reported efficacy and safety of glucagon-like peptide-l receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) and insulin glargine (IGlar) for poorly controlled type 2 diabetes.Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and clinicaltrials.gov were carried out. References and cited papers of relevant articles were also checked.Seven trials met the inclusion criteria. GLP-1RA showed equivalent or superior efficacy to IGlar for reducing haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) , with a greater proportion of patients achieving HbAlc<7%. GLP-1RA also favoured decreased body weight, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Serious adverse events were uncommon and not significantly different. More patients taking GLP-1RA experienced gastrointestinal complications: nausea, diarrhoea, and vomiting. Severe hypoglycaemia events were rare, and minor hypoglycaemia was less common for GLP-1RA.GLP-1RA showed greater efficacy compared to IGlar for type 2 diabetes, and it may also prove beneficial for other diabetes-associated characteristics, including obesity, hypertension, and hyperlipidaemia.
- Ovarian leydig cell hyperplasia: an unusual case of virilization in a postmenopausal woman. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Endocrinol 2014.:762745.
Objective.To report an unusual case of ovarian Leydig cell hyperplasia resulting in virilization in a postmenopausal woman. Methods. Patient's medical history and pertinent literature were reviewed.
Results.A 64-year-old woman presented with virilization with worsening hirsutism, deepening of her voice, male musculature, and male pattern alopecia. Her pertinent past medical history included type 1 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Her pertinent past surgical history included hysterectomy due to fibroids. On further work-up, her serum total testosterone was 506 ng/dL (nl range: 2-45) and free testosterone was 40 pg/mL (nl range: 0.1-6.4). After ruling out adrenal causes, the patient underwent an empiric bilateral oophorectomy that showed Leydig cell hyperplasia on pathology. Six weeks postoperatively, serum testosterone was undetectable with significant clinical improvement.
Conclusion.Postmenopausal hyperandrogenism can be the result of numerous etiologies ranging from normal physiologic changes to ovarian or rarely adrenal tumors. Our patient was found to have Leydig cell hyperplasia of her ovaries, a rarely reported cause of virilization.
- Erectile dysfunction and risk of end stage renal disease requiring dialysis: a nationwide population-based study. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(7):e102055.
Previous studies have suggested that erectile dysfunction (ED) is an independent risk factor for macrovascular disease. Very few studies have evaluated the relationship between ED and risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis.A random sample of 1,000,000 individuals from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database was collected. We selected the control group by matching the subjects and controls by age, diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, hyperlipidemia, area of residence, monthly income and index date. We identified 3985 patients with newly-diagnosed ED between 2000 and 2008 and compared them with a matched cohort of 23910 patients without ED. All patients were tracked from the index date to identify which patients subsequently developed a need for dialysis.The incidence rates of dialysis in the ED cohort and comparison groups were 10.85 and 9.06 per 10000 person-years, respectively. Stratified by age, the incidence rate ratio for dialysis was greater in ED patients aged <50 years (3.16, 95% CI: 1.62-6.19, p = 0.0008) but not in aged 50-64 (0.94, 95% CI: 0.52-1.69, p = 0.8397) and those aged ≧ 65 (0.69, 95% CI: 0.32-1.52, p = 0.3594). After adjustment for patient characteristics and medial comorbidities, the adjusted HR for dialysis remained greater in ED patients aged <50 years (adjusted HR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.05-4.11, p<0.05). The log-rank test revealed that ED patients <50-years-old had significantly higher cumulative incidence rates of dialysis than those without (p = 0.0004).Patients with ED, especially younger patients, are at an increased risk for ESRD requiring dialysis later in life.
- Protection against high-fat diet-induced obesity in helz2-deficient male mice due to enhanced expression of hepatic leptin receptor. [Journal Article]
- Endocrinology 2014 Sep; 155(9):3459-72.
Obesity arises from impaired energy balance, which is centrally coordinated by leptin through activation of the long form of leptin receptor (Leprb). Obesity causes central leptin resistance. However, whether enhanced peripheral leptin sensitivity could overcome central leptin resistance remains obscure. A peripheral metabolic organ targeted by leptin is the liver, with low Leprb expression. We here show that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and obese patients with hepatosteatosis exhibit increased expression of hepatic helicase with zinc finger 2, a transcriptional coactivator (Helz2), which functions as a transcriptional coregulator of several nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in vitro. To explore the physiological importance of Helz2, we generated Helz2-deficient mice and analyzed their metabolic phenotypes. Helz2-deficient mice showing hyperleptinemia associated with central leptin resistance were protected against HFD-induced obesity and had significantly up-regulated hepatic Leprb expression. Helz2 deficiency and adenovirus-mediated liver-specific exogenous Leprb overexpression in wild-type mice significantly stimulated hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase on HFD, whereas Helz2-deficient db/db mice lacking functional Leprb did not. Fatty acid-β oxidation was increased in Helz2-deficeint hepatocytes, and Helz2-deficient mice revealed increased oxygen consumption and decreased respiratory quotient in calorimetry analyses. The enhanced hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase energy-sensing pathway in Helz2-deficient mice ameliorated hyperlipidemia, hepatosteatosis, and insulin resistance by reducing lipogenic gene expression and stimulating lipid-burning gene expression in the liver. These findings together demonstrate that Helz2 deficiency ameliorates HFD-induced metabolic abnormalities by stimulating endogenous hepatic Leprb expression, despite central leptin resistance. Hepatic HELZ2 might be a novel target molecule for the treatment of obesity with hepatosteatosis.