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Endocrinology AND Hyperlipidemia [keywords]
- Clinical association of circulating VEGF-B levels with hyperlipidemia and target organ damage in type 2 diabetic patients. [Journal Article]
- Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2014 Jul-Sep; 28(2):225-36.
Vascular endothelial growth factor-B (VEGF-B is an important member of the VEGF protein family. Recent animal studies indicated that VEGF-B signaling had determinant roles in insulin resistance, lipid distribution and metabolism in type 2 diabetes. The clinical significance of VEGF-B in type 2 diabetes is still not clear. This study aimed to correlate VEGF-B levels with biochemistry characteristics and target organ damage in type 2 diabetic patients. Serum VEGF-B levels were measured using ELISA. A crosssectional control study, which included 180 type 2 diabetic patients and 62 healthy subjects, was carried out. Diabetic patients who were undergoing insulin therapy were not included. This results showed that serum VEGF-B levels did not differ between the type 2 diabetic patients and the healthy controls (169.2∓118.8 vs 163.5∓115.2 pg/mL; P=0.734). VEGF-B levels in type 2 diabetic patients were significantly associated with the levels of c-peptide, total cholesterol and triglyceride. T-test analysis showed that the associations of serum VEGF-B levels with insulin resistance, pancreatic reserve, HDL and LDL were not significant. Regression analysis showed that VEGF-B levels were significantly correlated with diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. No significant association between VEGF-B and macro-vasculopathy was found. In conclusion, our study findings suggested that VEGF-B levels did not differ between the type 2 diabetic patients and the normal controls. High VEGF-B levels might correlate with the presence of hyperlipidemia and target organ damage in type 2 diabetic patients.
- New drug therapies for the treatment of overweight and obese patients. [Journal Article]
- Am Health Drug Benefits 2013 Sep; 6(7):423-30.
Obesity is a serious and costly disease that is growing in epidemic proportions. Obesity-related hospitalizations have nearly tripled from 1996 to 2009. If the current trend in the growth of obesity continues, the total healthcare costs attributable to obesity could reach $861 billion to $957 billion by 2030. The American Medical Association has officially recognized obesity as a disease. Obesity is a public health crisis affecting approximately more than 33% of Americans and costing the healthcare system more than $190 billion annually.To review the 2 new drugs that were recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of obesity, lorcaserin HCl (Belviq) and phentermine/topiramate (Qsymia) and their potential impact on the treatment of obese patients.Lifestyle modification is the first and mainstay treatment for obesity. Antiobesity drugs are indicated as adjuncts to a healthy, low-fat, low-calorie diet and an exercise plan. Currently, 4 drugs are approved by the FDA for the treatment of obesity, 2 of which were approved after June 2012. These 2 drugs, Belviq and Qsymia, have added new tools for the treatment of obesity. In addition to reducing body mass index, these drugs have been shown to reduce hemoglobin A1c levels in patients with diabetes and blood pressure levels in patients with hypertension, as well as to decrease lipid levels in patients with hyperlipidemia. This article reviews the drugs' mechanisms of action, evaluates landmark clinical studies leading to the FDA approval of the 2 drugs, their common side effects, and the benefits these new drugs can provide toward the management of the obesity epidemic that are different from other medications currently available.The weight loss seen in patients who are using the 2 new medications has been shown to further improve other cardiometabolic health parameters, including blood pressure, blood glucose levels, and serum lipid levels. Based on clinical trials evidence, it is likely that many obese patients could benefit from these therapies, if used appropriately.
- Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the family members of women with polycystic ovary syndrome from North India. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2014 May; 18(3):364-9.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most complex and common endocrine disorder of women in reproductive years. In addition to irregular menstrual cycles, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, it has many metabolic manifestations such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, dysglycemia, increased risk of cardiovascular disease or possibly endometrial cancer. Familial clustering of PCOS in consistence with the genetic susceptibility has been described.The present study assessed the clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters including prevalence of metabolic syndrome by two different criteria in the first- degree relatives of patients with PCOS.The average age of 37 index patients was 23 ± 3.6 years, with the mean age of menarche as 13.3 ± 1.2 years. The mean age and age of menarche in mothers (n = 22) was 48.8 ± 5.1 and 13 ± 1.3 years, respectively, whereas as it was 23.5 ± 4.7 and 13.3 ± 1.2 years in sisters (n = 22), respectively. Metabolic syndrome (MS) defined by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria was present in 10 index patients, 1 brother, 4 sisters, 17 mothers and 15 fathers while as by Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) it was in 8 index patients, 5 sisters, 16 mothers and 11 fathers.The presence of MS or related metabolic derangements is high in the family members of women with PCOS.
- Effect of Atorvastatin on Pancreatic Beta-Cell Function and Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Randomized Pilot Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Can J Diabetes 2014 Jun 3.
Statins are commonly used for the management of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. We hypothesized that atorvastatin could modulate the beta-cell function by altering the levels of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic lipoproteins and could also have an effect on insulin resistance. The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the effect of atorvastatin 10 mg on pancreatic beta-cell function and insulin resistance in patients with hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes by using the homeostasis model assessment-2 (HOMA2) index.Fifty-one type 2 diabetes patients receiving oral antidiabetes drugs, not taking statins, with baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol between 2.6 mmol/L and 4.1 mmol/L were included. Forty-three patients (21 in placebo group and 22 in atorvastatin group) completed the study and were taken up for final analysis. Fasting blood samples were obtained at baseline and at 12 weeks to determine levels of blood glucose, lipid profile, insulin, C-peptide and glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C).Atorvastatin nonsignificantly increased fasting serum insulin (+14.29%, p=0.18), accompanied by marginal nonsignificant increases in fasting plasma glucose and A1C. There was a decrease in HOMA2 percent beta-cell function (-2.9%, p=0.72) and increase in HOMA2 insulin resistance (+14%, p=0.16) in the atorvastatin group as compared with baseline, but the difference was not statistically significant.Atorvastatin in the dose used failed to produce significant change in pancreatic beta-cell function and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes patients as assessed by the HOMA2 index. The possible explanations include absence of lipotoxicity at prevailing levels of dyslipidemia at baseline or inadequacy of statin dose used in the study. (Clinical Trials Registry-India: CTRI/2008/091/000099).
- Influencing Factors of New-Onset Diabetes after a Renal Transplant and Their Effects on Complications and Survival Rate. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(6):e99406.
To discuss the onset of and relevant risk factors for new-onset diabetes after a transplant (NODAT) in patients who survive more than 1 year after undergoing a renal transplant and the influence of these risk factors on complications and long-term survival.A total of 428 patients who underwent a renal transplant between January 1993 and December 2008 and were not diabetic before surgery were studied. The prevalence rate of and relevant risk factors for postoperative NODAT were analyzed on the basis of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, and differences in postoperative complications and survival rates between patients with and without NODAT were compared.The patients in this study were followed up for a mean of 5.65 ± 3.68 years. In total, 87 patients (20.3%) developed NODAT. Patients who converted from treatment with CSA to FK506 had increased prevalence rates of NODAT (P <0.05). Multi-factor analysis indicated that preoperative FPG level (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48), age (OR = 1.10), body mass index (OR = 1.05), hepatitis C virus infection (OR = 2.72), and cadaveric donor kidney (OR = 1.18) were independent risk factors for NODAT (All P <0.05). Compared with the N-NODAT group, the NODAT group had higher prevalence rates (P < 0.05) of postoperative infection, hypertension, and dyslipidemia; in addition, the survival rate and survival time of the 2 groups did not significantly differ.Among the patients who survived more than 1 year after a renal transplant, the prevalence rate of NODAT was 20.32%. Preoperative FPG level, age, body mass index, hepatitis C virus infection, and cadaveric donor kidney were independent risk factors for NODAT. Patients who converted from treatment with CSA to FK506 after a renal transplant had aggravated impairments in glycometabolism. Patients with NODAT were also more vulnerable to postoperative complications such as infection, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia.
- Serum bilirubin concentrations are positively associated with serum C-peptide levels in patients with Type 2 diabetes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Diabet Med 2014 Jun 9.
To investigate the relationship between physiological serum total bilirubin concentrations and serum C-peptide levels in Korean patients with Type 2 diabetes.A total of 588 patients with Type 2 diabetes were investigated in this cross-sectional study. Fasting C-peptide level, 2-h postprandial C-peptide level and ΔC-peptide (postprandial C-peptide minus fasting C-peptide) level were measured in all patients.Fasting C-peptide level, postprandial C-peptide level and ΔC-peptide level tended to be higher in patients with higher bilirubin concentrations. Partial correlation analysis showed that serum bilirubin levels were significantly correlated with fasting C-peptide level (r=0.159, P < 0.001), postprandial C-peptide level (r=0.209, P < 0.001) and ΔC-peptide level (r=0.186, P < 0.001) after adjustment for other covariates. In the multivariate model, the association between serum bilirubin concentrations and serum C-peptide levels remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors including age, gender, familial diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, BMI, HbA1c , duration of diabetes and associated liver function tests (fasting C-peptide level: β=0.083, P=0.041; postprandial C-peptide level: β=0.106, P=0.005; ΔC-peptide level: β=0.096, P=0.015, respectively).Serum bilirubin concentrations within the physiological range were positively associated with serum C-peptide levels in patients with Type 2 diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Serum lipid responses to weight loss differ between overweight adults with familial hypercholesterolemia and those with familial combined hyperlipidemia. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Nutr 2014 Aug; 144(8):1219-26.
The effect of weight loss on lipids differs among individuals, although whether it can modify the management of hereditary hyperlipidemias has not yet been explored. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of weight loss on cholesterol metabolism, assessed by circulating noncholesterol sterols, in overweight adults with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL). We conducted a 6-mo weight loss intervention in untreated individuals (FH: n = 28; FCHL: n = 50) with a body mass index of >25 kg/m(2) and mean age of 46.9 ± 11.3 y, of whom 53.8% were men. A hypocaloric diet was implemented and serum lipid analyses, including noncholesterol sterols, were assessed. Global significant mean weight losses of 5.7 kg (-6.6%) and 6.6 kg (-7.6%) were achieved after 3 and 6 mo, respectively. Mean non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) changes at 3 and 6 mo compared with baseline were -5.8% (P = 0.004) and -7.1% (P = 0.014), and -30.1% (P < 0.001) and -31.4% (P < 0.001), respectively. Among participants who lost ≥5% body weight, only significant changes in TGs and non-HDL cholesterol were observed in FCHL participants. Sterol precursors of cholesterol synthesis decreased significantly by 10.4% at 6 mo in FCHL participants, mostly because of a 23.9% lathosterol reduction. Baseline synthesis precursors were associated with TG reduction in FCHL participants (P = 0.039; R(2) = 0.20), and intestinally derived sterols were inversely associated with non-HDL cholesterol changes in FH participants (P = 0.036; R(2) = 0.21). Thus, FCHL participants had a better lipid-lowering response to weight loss than did FH participants. This response was positively associated with baseline cholesterol synthesis, which was reduced by weight loss. Our results confirm the cholesterol overproduction mechanism of FCHL and its interaction with fat mass, while also supporting the differential management of familial hyperlipidemias if obesity coexists. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01995149.
- Guidelines for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment and Cholesterol Treatment-Reply. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Jun 4; 311(21):2236.
- Impact of comorbidities on pharmacotherapy of painful diabetic neuropathy in clinical practice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Diabetes Complications 2014 Apr 18.
We evaluated the impact of baseline comorbidities on the effectiveness of duloxetine and anticonvulsants (pregabalin/gabapentin) in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy in clinical care.Outcomes from a 6-month, observational study with 2575 patients initiating/switching DPNP treatment were analyzed post-hoc. Propensity scoring was used to adjust for baseline factors influencing treatment choice in 1523 patients receiving duloxetine or anticonvulsants. Analysis of covariance models with fixed effects for baseline pain, treatment, propensity score, baseline characteristics or comorbidities, and their interaction with treatment were used to estimate LSmean effects on Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) average pain and interference scores.89.5% of patients reported comorbidities, including hypertension (70.5%), hyperlipidemia (39.2%), and depression (24.8%). Macrovascular complications (37.0%) and 'other chronic pain' (41.5%), particularly joint pain had an impact on both pain treatments, i.e. less improvement of average pain and interference of pain. Better treatment responses with duloxetine vs. anticonvulsants were observed in patients with depression, those with high baseline BPI total interference score, especially general activity, and in patients with joint pain.Comorbidities such as macroangiopathy and depression as well as pain characteristics should be considered in the treatment of DPNP as they may predict the effectiveness of duloxetine and anticonvulsants.
- Polycystic ovary syndrome: update on diagnosis and treatment. [REVIEW]
- Am J Med 2014 May 21.
Polycystic ovary syndrome is now a well-recognized condition affecting 6-25% of reproductive aged women, depending on the definition. Over the past 3 decades, research has launched it from relative medical obscurity to a condition increasingly recognized as common in internal medicine practices. It affects multiple systems, and requires a comprehensive perspective on health care for effective treatment. Metabolic derangements and associated complications include insulin resistance and diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, fatty liver, metabolic syndrome and sleep apnea. Reproductive complications include oligo/amenorrhea, sub-fertility, endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. Associated psychosocial concerns include depression and disordered eating. Additionally, cosmetic issues include hirsutism, androgenic alopecia and acne. This review organizes this multi-system approach around the mnemonic "MY PCOS" and discusses evaluation and treatment options for the reproductive, cosmentic and metabolic complications of this condition.