Endocrinology AND Hyperlipidemia [keywords]
- Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Trajectories and Associated Risks. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Big Data 2016 Mar 1; 4(1):25-30.
Disease progression models, statistical models that assess a patient's risk of diabetes progression, are popular tools in clinical practice for prevention and management of chronic conditions. Most, if not all, models currently in use are based on gold standard clinical trial data. The relatively small sample size available from clinical trial limits these models only considering the patient's state at the time of the assessment and ignoring the trajectory, the sequence of events, that led up to the state. Recent advances in the adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems and the large sample size they contain have paved the way to build disease progression models that can take trajectories into account, leading to increasingly accurate and personalized assessment. To address these problems, we present a novel method to observe trajectories directly. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by studying type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) trajectories. Specifically, using EHR data for a large population-based cohort, we identified a typical trajectory that most people follow, which is a sequence of diseases from hyperlipidemia (HLD) to hypertension (HTN), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and T2DM. In addition, we also show that patients who follow different trajectories can face significantly increased or decreased risk.
- Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Dependent and Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Independent Mechanisms of Cyclosporin A-Induced Dyslipidemia. [Journal Article]
- Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2016 Jul; 36(7):1338-49.
Cyclosporin A (CsA) is an immunosuppressant commonly used to prevent organ rejection but is associated with hyperlipidemia and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Although studies suggest that CsA-induced hyperlipidemia is mediated by inhibition of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr)-mediated lipoprotein clearance, the data supporting this are inconclusive. We therefore sought to investigate the role of the LDLr in CsA-induced hyperlipidemia by using Ldlr-knockout mice (Ldlr(-/-)).Ldlr(-/-) and wild-type (wt) C57Bl/6 mice were treated with 20 mg/kg per d CsA for 4 weeks. On a chow diet, CsA caused marked dyslipidemia in Ldlr(-/-) but not in wt mice. Hyperlipidemia was characterized by a prominent increase in plasma very low-density lipoprotein and intermediate-density lipoprotein/LDL with unchanged plasma high-density lipoprotein levels, thus mimicking the dyslipidemic profile observed in humans. Analysis of specific lipid species by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry suggested a predominant effect of CsA on increased very low-density lipoprotein-IDL/LDL lipoprotein number rather than composition. Mechanistic studies indicated that CsA did not alter hepatic lipoprotein production but did inhibit plasma clearance and hepatic uptake of [(14)C]cholesteryl oleate and glycerol tri[(3)H]oleate-double-labeled very low-density lipoprotein-like particles. Further studies showed that CsA inhibited plasma lipoprotein lipase activity and increased levels of apolipoprotein C-III and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9.We demonstrate that CsA does not cause hyperlipidemia via direct effects on the LDLr. Rather, LDLr deficiency plays an important permissive role for CsA-induced hyperlipidemia, which is associated with abnormal lipoprotein clearance, decreased lipoprotein lipase activity, and increased levels of apolipoprotein C-III and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. Enhancing LDLr and lipoprotein lipase activity and decreasing apolipoprotein C-III and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 levels may therefore provide attractive treatment targets for patients with hyperlipidemia receiving CsA.
- Effect of two polymorphisms of the resistin gene (rs10401670 and rs1862513) on resistin levels and biochemical parameters in morbidly obese patients 1 year after a biliopancreatic diversion surgery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Nutr 2016 Apr 13.
Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the resistin gene RETN have been described: rs10401670 and rs1862513. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of these SNPs on changes in serum resistin levels, biochemical parameters and weight after biliopancreatic diversion surgery in morbidly obese patients without diabetes mellitus.A sample of 155 patients with morbid obesity without diabetes mellitus was enrolled. Anthropometric and biochemical evaluations were realized at the basal visit and at 12 months. The percentage of subjects with hypertension and hyperlipidemia was also reported.Initial percentage excess weight loss, body mass index, weight, waist circumference, fat mass, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides levels, insulin and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improve after 12 months. No differences in these improvements were detected between the two genotypes (wild vs mutant group) in each SNP analysis. Resistin levels only changed after surgery in wild genotypes of both SNPs (rs1862513 and rs10401670). The improvement in insulin levels was lower in the mutant group of rs1862513 (-3.4 ± 0.4 UI/dl vs -2.3 ± 0.2 UI/dl; P < 0.05) and rs1040167 (-3.3 ± 0.2 UI/dl vs -1.9 ± 0.3 UI/dl; P < 0.05). The decrease of HOMA-IR was lower in mutant group of rs1862513 (-1.4 ± 0.1 units vs -0.9 ± 0.3 units; P < 0.05) and rs10401670 (-1.2 ± 0.2 units vs -0.9 ± 0.3 units; P < 0.05).The main result of this study was that the mutant genotype of two SNPs of the RETN gene (rs1862513 and rs10401670) was associated with a lack of change in resistin secondary to biliopancreatic diversion. The improvement in insulin levels and HOMA-IR was also lower in these patients.
- Biomarkers for Early Diagnostic of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Type-2 Diabetes Patients: A Multicentre, Retrospective, Nested Case-Control Study. [Journal Article]
- EBioMedicine 2016 Mar.:105-13.
Both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are common age-associated disorders and T2DM patients show an increased risk to suffer from AD, however, there is currently no marker to identify who in T2DM populations will develop AD. Since glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) activity, ApoE genotypes and olfactory function are involved in both T2DM and AD pathogenesis, we investigate whether alterations of these factors can identify cognitive impairment in T2DM patients.The cognitive ability was evaluated using Minimum Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), and the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was diagnosed by Petersen's criteria. GSK-3β activity in platelet, ApoE genotypes in leucocytes and the olfactory function were detected by Western/dot blotting, the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) PCR and the Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center (CCCRC) test, respectively. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of the biomarkers for MCI diagnosis were calculated by logistic regression. The diagnostic capability of the biomarkers was evaluated by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses.We recruited 694 T2DM patients from Jan. 2012 to May. 2015 in 5 hospitals (Wuhan), and 646 of them met the inclusion criteria and were included in this study. 345 patients in 2 hospitals were assigned to the training set, and 301 patients in another 3 hospitals assigned to the validation set. Patients in each set were randomly divided into two groups: T2DM without MCI (termed T2DM-nMCI) or with MCI (termed T2DM-MCI). There were no significant differences for sex, T2DM years, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary disease, complications, insulin treatment, HbA1c, ApoE ε2, ApoE ε3, tGSK3β and pS9GSK3β between the two groups. Compared with the T2DM-nMCI group, T2DM-MCI group showed lower MMSE score with older age, ApoE ε4 allele, higher olfactory score and higher rGSK-3β (ratio of total GSK-3β to Ser9-phosphorylated GSK-3β) in the training set and the validation set. The OR values of age, ApoE ε4 gene, olfactory score and rGSK-3β were 1.09, 2.09, 1.51, 10.08 in the training set, and 1.06, 2.67, 1.47, 7.19 in the validation set, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of age, ApoE ε4 gene, olfactory score and rGSK-3β were 0.76, 0.72, 0.66, 0.79 in the training set, and 0.70, 0.68, 0.73, 0.79 in the validation set, respectively. These four combined biomarkers had the area under the curve (AUC) of 82% and 86%, diagnostic accuracy of 83% and 81% in the training set and the validation set, respectively.Aging, activation of peripheral circulating GSK-3β, expression of ApoE ε4 and increase of olfactory score are diagnostic for the mild cognitive impairment in T2DM patients, and combination of these biomarkers can improve the diagnostic accuracy.
- EGFR mediates hyperlipidemia-induced renal injury via regulating inflammation and oxidative stress: the detrimental role and mechanism of EGFR activation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Oncotarget 2016 Mar 21.
Previous studies have implicated inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis as key factors in the development of obesity-induced kidney diseases. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in cancer development. Recently, the EGFR pathway has been increasingly implicated in chronic cardiovascular diseases via regulating inflammation and oxidative stress. However, it is unclear if EGFR is involved in obesity-related kidney injury. Using ApoE-/- and C57BL/6 mice models and two specific EGFR inhibitors, we investigated the potential effects of EGFR inhibition in the treatment of obesity-related nephropathy and found that EGFR inhibition alleviates renal inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis. In NRK-52E cells, we also elucidated the mechanism behind hyperlipidemia-induced EGFR activation. We observed that c-Src and EGFR forms a complex, and following PA stimulation, it is the successive phosphorylation, not formation, of the c-Src/EGFR complex that results in the subsequent cascade activation. Second, we found that TLR4 regulates the activation EGFR pathway mainly through the phosphorylation of the c-Src/EGFR complex. These results demonstrate the detrimental role of EGFR in the pathogenesis of obesity-related nephropathy, provide a new understanding of the mechanism behind hyperlipidemia/FFA-induced EGFR activation, and support the use of EGFR inhibitors in the treatment of obesity-induced kidney diseases.
- Efficacy and Tolerability of Evolocumab vs Ezetimibe in Patients With Muscle-Related Statin Intolerance: The GAUSS-3 Randomized Clinical Trial. [Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- JAMA 2016 Apr 19; 315(15):1580-90.
Muscle-related statin intolerance is reported by 5% to 20% of patients.To identify patients with muscle symptoms confirmed by statin rechallenge and compare lipid-lowering efficacy for 2 nonstatin therapies, ezetimibe and evolocumab.Two-stage randomized clinical trial including 511 adult patients with uncontrolled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and history of intolerance to 2 or more statins enrolled in 2013 and 2014 globally. Phase A used a 24-week crossover procedure with atorvastatin or placebo to identify patients having symptoms only with atorvastatin but not placebo. In phase B, after a 2-week washout, patients were randomized to ezetimibe or evolocumab for 24 weeks.Phase A: atorvastatin (20 mg) vs placebo. Phase B: randomization 2:1 to subcutaneous evolocumab (420 mg monthly) or oral ezetimibe (10 mg daily).Coprimary end points were the mean percent change in LDL-C level from baseline to the mean of weeks 22 and 24 levels and from baseline to week 24 levels.Of the 491 patients who entered phase A (mean age, 60.7 [SD, 10.2] years; 246 women [50.1%]; 170 with coronary heart disease [34.6%]; entry mean LDL-C level, 212.3 [SD, 67.9] mg/dL), muscle symptoms occurred in 209 of 491 (42.6%) while taking atorvastatin but not while taking placebo. Of these, 199 entered phase B, along with 19 who proceeded directly to phase B for elevated creatine kinase (N = 218, with 73 randomized to ezetimibe and 145 to evolocumab; entry mean LDL-C level, 219.9 [SD, 72] mg/dL). For the mean of weeks 22 and 24, LDL-C level with ezetimibe was 183.0 mg/dL; mean percent LDL-C change, -16.7% (95% CI, -20.5% to -12.9%), absolute change, -31.0 mg/dL and with evolocumab was 103.6 mg/dL; mean percent change, -54.5% (95% CI, -57.2% to -51.8%); absolute change, -106.8 mg/dL (P < .001). LDL-C level at week 24 with ezetimibe was 181.5 mg/dL; mean percent change, -16.7% (95% CI, -20.8% to -12.5%); absolute change, -31.2 mg/dL and with evolocumab was 104.1 mg/dL; mean percent change, -52.8% (95% CI, -55.8% to -49.8%); absolute change, -102.9 mg/dL (P < .001). For the mean of weeks 22 and 24, between-group difference in LDL-C was -37.8%; absolute difference, -75.8 mg/dL. For week 24, between-group difference in LDL-C was -36.1%; absolute difference, -71.7 mg/dL. Muscle symptoms were reported in 28.8% of ezetimibe-treated patients and 20.7% of evolocumab-treated patients (log-rank P = .17). Active study drug was stopped for muscle symptoms in 5 of 73 ezetimibe-treated patients (6.8%) and 1 of 145 evolocumab-treated patients (0.7%).Among patients with statin intolerance related to muscle-related adverse effects, the use of evolocumab compared with ezetimibe resulted in a significantly greater reduction in LDL-C levels after 24 weeks. Further studies are needed to assess long-term efficacy and safety.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01984424.
- Track: A randomized controlled trial of a digital health obesity treatment intervention for medically vulnerable primary care patients. [Journal Article]
- Contemp Clin Trials 2016 May.:12-20.
Obesity continues to disproportionately affect medically vulnerable populations. Digital health interventions may be effective for delivering obesity treatment in low-resource primary care settings.Track is a 12-month randomized controlled trial of a digital health weight loss intervention in a community health center system. Participants are 351 obese men and women aged 21 to 65years with an obesity-related comorbidity. Track participants are randomized to usual primary care or to a 12-month intervention consisting of algorithm-generated tailored behavior change goals, self-monitoring via mobile technologies, daily self-weighing using a network-connected scale, skills training materials, 18 counseling phone calls with a Track coach, and primary care provider counseling. Participants are followed over 12months, with study visits at baseline, 6, and 12months. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, fasting lipids, glucose and HbA1C and self-administered surveys are collected. Follow-up data will be collected from the medical record at 24months.Participants are 68% female and on average 50.7years old with a mean BMI of 35.9kg/m(2). Participants are mainly black (54%) or white (33%); 12.5% are Hispanic. Participants are mostly employed and low-income. Over 20% of the sample has hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Almost 27% of participants currently smoke and almost 20% score above the clinical threshold for depression.Track utilizes an innovative, digital health approach to reduce obesity and chronic disease risk among medically vulnerable adults in the primary care setting. Baseline characteristics reflect a socioeconomically disadvantaged, high-risk patient population in need of evidence-based obesity treatment.
- Extensive metabolic disorders are present in APC(min) tumorigenesis mice. [Journal Article]
- Mol Cell Endocrinol 2016 May 15.:57-64.
Wnt signaling plays essential role in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation. Activation of Wnt signaling suppresses adipogenesis, but promotes osteogenesis in MSC. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a negative regulator of β-catenin and Wnt signaling activity. The mutation of APC gene leads to the activation of Wnt signaling and is responsible for tumorigenesis in APC(min) mouse; however, very few studies focused on its metabolic abnormalities. The present study reports a widespread metabolic disorder phenotype in APC(min) mice. The old APC(min) mice have decreased body weight and impaired adipogenesis, but severe hyperlipidemia, which mimic the phenotypes of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP), an inherited disease also caused by APC gene mutation in human. We found that the expression of lipid metabolism and free fat acids (FA) use genes in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of the APC(min) mice is much lower than those of control. The changed gene expression pattern may lead to the disability of circulatory lipid transportation and storage at WAT. Moreover, the APC(min) mice could not maintain the core body temperature in cold condition. PET-CT determination revealed that the BAT of APC(min) mice has significantly impaired ability to take up (18)FDG from the blood. Morphological studies identified that the brown adipocytes of APC(min) mice were filled with lipid droplets but fewer mitochondria. These results matched with the findings of impaired BAT function in APC(min) mice. Collectively, our study explores a new mechanism that explains abnormal metabolism in APC(min) mice and provides insights into studying the metabolic disorders of FAP patients.
- Reduced bone mineral density in glycogen storage disease type III: evidence for a possible connection between metabolic imbalance and bone homeostasis. [Journal Article]
- Bone 2016 May.:79-85.
Glycogen storage disease type III (GSDIII) is an inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism caused by deficient activity of glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE). It is characterized by liver, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle involvement. The presence of systemic complications such as growth retardation, ovarian polycystosis, diabetes mellitus and osteopenia/osteoporosis has been reported. The pathogenesis of osteopenia/osteoporosis is still unclear.The aim of the current study was to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) in GSDIII patients and the role of metabolic and endocrine factors and physical activity on bone status.Nine GSDIII patients were enrolled (age 2-20years) and compared to eighteen age and sex matched controls. BMD was evaluated by Dual-emission-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and Quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Clinical and biochemical parameters of endocrine system function and bone metabolism were analyzed. Serum levels of the metabolic control markers were evaluated. Physical activity was evaluated by administering the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ).GSDIII patients showed reduced BMD detected at both DXA and QUS, decreased serum levels of IGF-1, free IGF-1, insulin, calcitonin, osteocalcin (OC) and increased serum levels of C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX). IGF-1 serum levels inversely correlated with AST and ALT serum levels. DXA Z-score inversely correlated with cholesterol and triglycerides serum levels and directly correlated with IGF-1/IGFBP3 molar ratio. No difference in physical activity was observed between GSDIII patients and controls.Our data confirm the presence of reduced BMD in GSDIII. On the basis of the results, we hypothesized that metabolic imbalance could be the key factor leading to osteopenia, acting through different mechanisms: chronic hyperlipidemia, reduced IGF-1, Insulin and OC serum levels. Thus, the mechanism of osteopenia/osteoporosis in GSDIII is probably multifactorial and we speculate on the factors involved in its pathogenesis.