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Endocrinology AND Hyperlipidemia [keywords]
- Effect of Atorvastatin on Pancreatic Beta-Cell Function and Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Randomized Pilot Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Can J Diabetes 2014 Jun 3.
Statins are commonly used for the management of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. We hypothesized that atorvastatin could modulate the beta-cell function by altering the levels of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic lipoproteins and could also have an effect on insulin resistance. The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the effect of atorvastatin 10 mg on pancreatic beta-cell function and insulin resistance in patients with hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes by using the homeostasis model assessment-2 (HOMA2) index.Fifty-one type 2 diabetes patients receiving oral antidiabetes drugs, not taking statins, with baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol between 2.6 mmol/L and 4.1 mmol/L were included. Forty-three patients (21 in placebo group and 22 in atorvastatin group) completed the study and were taken up for final analysis. Fasting blood samples were obtained at baseline and at 12 weeks to determine levels of blood glucose, lipid profile, insulin, C-peptide and glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C).Atorvastatin nonsignificantly increased fasting serum insulin (+14.29%, p=0.18), accompanied by marginal nonsignificant increases in fasting plasma glucose and A1C. There was a decrease in HOMA2 percent beta-cell function (-2.9%, p=0.72) and increase in HOMA2 insulin resistance (+14%, p=0.16) in the atorvastatin group as compared with baseline, but the difference was not statistically significant.Atorvastatin in the dose used failed to produce significant change in pancreatic beta-cell function and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes patients as assessed by the HOMA2 index. The possible explanations include absence of lipotoxicity at prevailing levels of dyslipidemia at baseline or inadequacy of statin dose used in the study. (Clinical Trials Registry-India: CTRI/2008/091/000099).
- Influencing Factors of New-Onset Diabetes after a Renal Transplant and Their Effects on Complications and Survival Rate. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(6):e99406.
To discuss the onset of and relevant risk factors for new-onset diabetes after a transplant (NODAT) in patients who survive more than 1 year after undergoing a renal transplant and the influence of these risk factors on complications and long-term survival.A total of 428 patients who underwent a renal transplant between January 1993 and December 2008 and were not diabetic before surgery were studied. The prevalence rate of and relevant risk factors for postoperative NODAT were analyzed on the basis of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, and differences in postoperative complications and survival rates between patients with and without NODAT were compared.The patients in this study were followed up for a mean of 5.65 ± 3.68 years. In total, 87 patients (20.3%) developed NODAT. Patients who converted from treatment with CSA to FK506 had increased prevalence rates of NODAT (P <0.05). Multi-factor analysis indicated that preoperative FPG level (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48), age (OR = 1.10), body mass index (OR = 1.05), hepatitis C virus infection (OR = 2.72), and cadaveric donor kidney (OR = 1.18) were independent risk factors for NODAT (All P <0.05). Compared with the N-NODAT group, the NODAT group had higher prevalence rates (P < 0.05) of postoperative infection, hypertension, and dyslipidemia; in addition, the survival rate and survival time of the 2 groups did not significantly differ.Among the patients who survived more than 1 year after a renal transplant, the prevalence rate of NODAT was 20.32%. Preoperative FPG level, age, body mass index, hepatitis C virus infection, and cadaveric donor kidney were independent risk factors for NODAT. Patients who converted from treatment with CSA to FK506 after a renal transplant had aggravated impairments in glycometabolism. Patients with NODAT were also more vulnerable to postoperative complications such as infection, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia.
- Serum bilirubin concentrations are positively associated with serum C-peptide levels in patients with Type 2 diabetes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Diabet Med 2014 Jun 9.
To investigate the relationship between physiological serum total bilirubin concentrations and serum C-peptide levels in Korean patients with Type 2 diabetes.A total of 588 patients with Type 2 diabetes were investigated in this cross-sectional study. Fasting C-peptide level, 2-h postprandial C-peptide level and ΔC-peptide (postprandial C-peptide minus fasting C-peptide) level were measured in all patients.Fasting C-peptide level, postprandial C-peptide level and ΔC-peptide level tended to be higher in patients with higher bilirubin concentrations. Partial correlation analysis showed that serum bilirubin levels were significantly correlated with fasting C-peptide level (r=0.159, P < 0.001), postprandial C-peptide level (r=0.209, P < 0.001) and ΔC-peptide level (r=0.186, P < 0.001) after adjustment for other covariates. In the multivariate model, the association between serum bilirubin concentrations and serum C-peptide levels remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors including age, gender, familial diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, BMI, HbA1c , duration of diabetes and associated liver function tests (fasting C-peptide level: β=0.083, P=0.041; postprandial C-peptide level: β=0.106, P=0.005; ΔC-peptide level: β=0.096, P=0.015, respectively).Serum bilirubin concentrations within the physiological range were positively associated with serum C-peptide levels in patients with Type 2 diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Serum Lipid Responses to Weight Loss Differ between Overweight Adults with Familial Hypercholesterolemia and Those with Familial Combined Hyperlipidemia. [Journal Article]
- J Nutr 2014 Aug; 144(8):1219-26.
The effect of weight loss on lipids differs among individuals, although whether it can modify the management of hereditary hyperlipidemias has not yet been explored. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of weight loss on cholesterol metabolism, assessed by circulating noncholesterol sterols, in overweight adults with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL). We conducted a 6-mo weight loss intervention in untreated individuals (FH: n = 28; FCHL: n = 50) with a body mass index of >25 kg/m(2) and mean age of 46.9 ± 11.3 y, of whom 53.8% were men. A hypocaloric diet was implemented and serum lipid analyses, including noncholesterol sterols, were assessed. Global significant mean weight losses of 5.7 kg (-6.6%) and 6.6 kg (-7.6%) were achieved after 3 and 6 mo, respectively. Mean non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) changes at 3 and 6 mo compared with baseline were -5.8% (P = 0.004) and -7.1% (P = 0.014), and -30.1% (P < 0.001) and -31.4% (P < 0.001), respectively. Among participants who lost ≥5% body weight, only significant changes in TGs and non-HDL cholesterol were observed in FCHL participants. Sterol precursors of cholesterol synthesis decreased significantly by 10.4% at 6 mo in FCHL participants, mostly because of a 23.9% lathosterol reduction. Baseline synthesis precursors were associated with TG reduction in FCHL participants (P = 0.039; R(2) = 0.20), and intestinally derived sterols were inversely associated with non-HDL cholesterol changes in FH participants (P = 0.036; R(2) = 0.21). Thus, FCHL participants had a better lipid-lowering response to weight loss than did FH participants. This response was positively associated with baseline cholesterol synthesis, which was reduced by weight loss. Our results confirm the cholesterol overproduction mechanism of FCHL and its interaction with fat mass, while also supporting the differential management of familial hyperlipidemias if obesity coexists. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01995149.
- Guidelines for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment and Cholesterol Treatment-Reply. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Jun 4; 311(21):2236.
- Impact of comorbidities on pharmacotherapy of painful diabetic neuropathy in clinical practice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Diabetes Complications 2014 Apr 18.
We evaluated the impact of baseline comorbidities on the effectiveness of duloxetine and anticonvulsants (pregabalin/gabapentin) in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy in clinical care.Outcomes from a 6-month, observational study with 2575 patients initiating/switching DPNP treatment were analyzed post-hoc. Propensity scoring was used to adjust for baseline factors influencing treatment choice in 1523 patients receiving duloxetine or anticonvulsants. Analysis of covariance models with fixed effects for baseline pain, treatment, propensity score, baseline characteristics or comorbidities, and their interaction with treatment were used to estimate LSmean effects on Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) average pain and interference scores.89.5% of patients reported comorbidities, including hypertension (70.5%), hyperlipidemia (39.2%), and depression (24.8%). Macrovascular complications (37.0%) and 'other chronic pain' (41.5%), particularly joint pain had an impact on both pain treatments, i.e. less improvement of average pain and interference of pain. Better treatment responses with duloxetine vs. anticonvulsants were observed in patients with depression, those with high baseline BPI total interference score, especially general activity, and in patients with joint pain.Comorbidities such as macroangiopathy and depression as well as pain characteristics should be considered in the treatment of DPNP as they may predict the effectiveness of duloxetine and anticonvulsants.
- Polycystic ovary syndrome: update on diagnosis and treatment. [REVIEW]
- Am J Med 2014 May 21.
Polycystic ovary syndrome is now a well-recognized condition affecting 6-25% of reproductive aged women, depending on the definition. Over the past 3 decades, research has launched it from relative medical obscurity to a condition increasingly recognized as common in internal medicine practices. It affects multiple systems, and requires a comprehensive perspective on health care for effective treatment. Metabolic derangements and associated complications include insulin resistance and diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, fatty liver, metabolic syndrome and sleep apnea. Reproductive complications include oligo/amenorrhea, sub-fertility, endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. Associated psychosocial concerns include depression and disordered eating. Additionally, cosmetic issues include hirsutism, androgenic alopecia and acne. This review organizes this multi-system approach around the mnemonic "MY PCOS" and discusses evaluation and treatment options for the reproductive, cosmentic and metabolic complications of this condition.
- [Association of abdominal fat distribution by computed tomography with body mass index and metabolic syndrome in Chinese elders]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2014 Apr; 94(12):908-12.
To explore the gender and age difference of abdominal fat distribution in Chinese older adults and examine the effects of metabolic syndrome (MS) on abdominal fat distribution by computed tomography (CT).Chinese elders (aged ≥ 65 years old) undergoing abdominal CT scanning at our hospital from January 2009 to December 2010 were collected through retrospective analysis. A total of 52 healthy normal-weight subjects and gender-specific body mass index (BMI)-matched middle-aged adults were selected (28 males, 24 females) to compare the difference of abdominal fat during the same period. Visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) were measured at the cross-sections of L4 and L5 intervertebral space.A total of 390 subjects were enrolled. There were 252 males and 138 females. Total abdominal fat (TAF) was not significantly different in both genders [female (323 ± 122 cm(2)) vs male (303 ± 141 cm(2)) , P = 0.146]. However, females had higher TAF than males after height correction (128 ± 49 vs 105 ± 49 cm(2)/m(2), P = 0.000). VFA and SFA were higher with higher BMI values across lean, normal weight, overweight and obese groups in both genders. VFA and SFA were not significantly different in both genders among 3 different age groups (>65-75, >75-85, >85 years; P > 0.05). Compared with healthy normal weight elders and BMI-matched middle-aged adults, VFA and SFA increased with more components of MS except in only one component group. When the patients were excluded suffering from 2 or more components of MS, VFA was not significantly different between normal weight elders and those with only one component of MS (diabetes/hyperlipidemia/hypertension). Logistic regression analysis showed VFA was a risk factor for elders with MS (male: OR = 1.03, 95%CI: 1.012- 1.047; female: OR = 1.06, 95%CI: 1.026-1.088) . However, SFA and age were not.The elder females have more TAF than the elder males while abdominal fat does not increase with age in elders. TAF, VFA and SFA have a highly positively correlation with BMI. Visceral fat, not subcutaneous fat, is a risk factor for elders with MS and it increases with an increment of more than 2 components of MS.
- Palmitate induces reactive oxygen species production and β-cell dysfunction by activating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase through Src signaling. [Journal Article]
- J Diabetes Investig 2014 Feb 12; 5(1):19-26.
Chronic hyperlipidemia impairs pancreatic β-cell function, referred to as lipotoxicity. We have reported an important role of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction by activation of Src, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, in impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) from diabetic rat islets. In the present study, we investigated the role of ROS production by Src signaling in palmitate-induced dysfunction of β-cells.After rat insulinoma INS-1D cells were exposed to 0.6 mmol/L palmitate for 24 h (palmitate exposure); GIIS, ROS production and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) activity were examined with or without exposure to10 μmol/L 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2), a Src inhibitior, for 30 or 60 min.Exposure to PP2 recovered impaired GIIS and decreased ROS overproduction as a result of palmitate exposure. Palmitate exposure increased activity of NOX and protein levels of NOX2, a pathological ROS source in β-cells. Palmitate exposure increased the protein level of p47 (phox) , a regulatory protein of NOX2, in membrane fraction compared with control, which was reduced by PP2. Transfection of small interfering ribonucleic acid of p47 (phox) suppressed the augmented p47 (phox) protein level in membrane fraction, decreased augmented ROS production and increased impaired GΙIS by palmitate exposure. In addition, exposure to PP2 ameliorated impaired GIIS and decreased ROS production in isolated islets of KK-A(y) mice, an obese diabetic model with hyperlipidemia.Activation of NOX through Src signaling plays an important role in ROS overproduction and impaired GΙIS caused by chronic exposure to palmitate, suggesting a lipotoxic mechanism of β-cell dysfunction of obese mice.
- What Is the Role of the Clinical Laboratory in the New ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol in Adults? [Editorial]
- Am J Clin Pathol 2014 Jun; 141(6):772-3.