- Exploring Inpatient Hospitalizations and Morbidity in Patients with Adrenal Insufficiency. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016 Sep 13; :jc20162221
- CONCLUSIONS: Patients with AI carry a significant metabolic and psychiatric burden, with higher risk of comorbidities and hospital admissions than matched controls. Secondary abstract This retrospective observational study using data from a US-based national payer database showed patients with adrenal insufficiency to be at increased risk of comorbid conditions and hospitalization compared to matched controls.
- Angiopoietin-like protein 4 improves glucose tolerance and insulin resistance but induces liver steatosis in high-fat-diet mice. [Journal Article]
- MMMol Med Rep 2016; 14(4):3293-300
- Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4) is a secreted protein predominantly expressed in liver and adipose tissues, and has been identified as an adipokine. Angptl4 is the target gene of peroxisome pro...
Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4) is a secreted protein predominantly expressed in liver and adipose tissues, and has been identified as an adipokine. Angptl4 is the target gene of peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptors, which are widely used as lipid‑lowering and anti‑diabetic drugs, and previous studies have demonstrated that Angptl4 is able to directly stimulate adipocyte lipolysis. The current study focused on how Angptl4 was involved in regulating lipid and glucose metabolism in high‑fat‑diet (HFD) C57 mice. In the present study, mice were divided into three groups, with standard chow mice as a normal control, adenovirus (adv)‑injected HFD mice as a model control and adv‑Angptl4‑injected HFD mice as the Angptl4+ group. Firstly, compared with the normal control group, mice in the model control group gained more body weight with severe liver steatosis and increased serum levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, free fatty acids, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. In the Angptl4+ group, Angptl4 reduced the weight growth rate, aggravated hepatic steatosis and further increased all the aforementioned serum indexes. Secondly, compared with the normal control, the model control group had a reduced glucose tolerance and developed insulin resistance. Angptl4 expression and the phosphorylation levels of several insulin signaling pathway‑associated genes, insulin receptor substrate 1, protein kinase B, janus kinase 2, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 were downregulated in the liver samples. Adv‑Angptl4 injection was observed to improve glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. The genes measured were identified to be upregulated close to normal levels. All the results suggested that Angptl4 served an important role in lipid and glucose metabolism in HFD‑induced obese mice, and this may have a great significance for treatment of hyperlipidemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and other diseases.
- Effects of 6-month eicosapentaenoic acid treatment on postprandial hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin secretion ability, and concomitant endothelial dysfunction among newly-diagnosed impaired glucose metabolism patients with coronary artery disease. An open label, single blinded, prospective randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- CDCardiovasc Diabetol 2016 Aug 26; 15(1):121
- CONCLUSIONS: EPA corrected postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia and insulin secretion ability. This amelioration of several metabolic abnormalities was accompanied by recovery of concomitant endothelial dysfunction in newly diagnosed IGM patients with CAD. Clinical Trial Registration UMIN Registry number: UMIN000011265 ( https://www.upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr.cgi?function=brows&action=brows&type=summary&recptno=R000013200&language=E ).
- Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Adults Age 20-49 Years in the United States, 1971-2012: A Series of Cross-Sectional Studies. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2016; 11(8):e0161770
- CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular risk factors of younger U.S. adults have worsened over the past 40 years, but treatment for hypertension and high cholesterol has improved. The sub-optimal and worsening health in younger adults may have a substantial impact on health care utilization and costs, and should be considered when developing health care practices.
- KLF15 Enables Rapid Switching between Lipogenesis and Gluconeogenesis during Fasting. [Journal Article]
- CRCell Rep 2016 Aug 30; 16(9):2373-86
- Hepatic lipogenesis is nutritionally regulated (i.e., downregulated during fasting and upregulated during the postprandial state) as an adaptation to the nutritional environment. While alterations in...
Hepatic lipogenesis is nutritionally regulated (i.e., downregulated during fasting and upregulated during the postprandial state) as an adaptation to the nutritional environment. While alterations in the expression level of the transcription factor SREBP-1c are known to be critical for nutritionally regulated lipogenesis, upstream mechanisms governing Srebf1 expression remain unclear. Here, we show that the fasting-induced transcription factor KLF15, a key regulator of gluconeogenesis, forms a complex with LXR/RXR, specifically on the Srebf1 promoter. This complex recruits the corepressor RIP140 instead of the coactivator SRC1, resulting in reduced Srebf1 and thus downstream lipogenic enzyme expression during the early and euglycemic period of fasting prior to hypoglycemia and PKA activation. Through this mechanism, KLF15 overexpression specifically ameliorates hypertriglyceridemia without affecting LXR-mediated cholesterol metabolism. These findings reveal a key molecular link between glucose and lipid metabolism and have therapeutic implications for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.
- Triglyceride Treatment in the Age of Cholesterol Reduction. [Review]
- PCProg Cardiovasc Dis 2016 Sep - Oct; 59(2):107-118
- Cholesterol reduction has markedly reduced major cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and shown regression of atherosclerosis in some studies. However, CVD has for decades also been associated with in...
Cholesterol reduction has markedly reduced major cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and shown regression of atherosclerosis in some studies. However, CVD has for decades also been associated with increased levels of circulating triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins. Whether this is due to a direct toxic effect of these lipoproteins on arteries or whether this is merely an association is unresolved. More recent genetic analyses have linked genes that modulate TG metabolism with CVD. Moreover, analyses of subgroups of hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) subjects in clinical trials using fibric acid drugs have been interpreted as evidence that TG reduction reduces CVD events. This review will focus on how HTG might cause CVD, whether TG reduction makes a difference, what pathophysiological defects cause HTG, and what options are available for treatment.
- Genetic testing of familial hypercholesterolemia in a real clinical setting. [Journal Article]
- WKWien Klin Wochenschr 2016 Aug 19
- Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by strikingly elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and premature atherosclerosis. For i...
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by strikingly elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and premature atherosclerosis. For individuals with a definite or probable diagnosis of FH, molecular genetic testing is recommended. This can be justified in countries where genetic testing is broadly available and covered. On the other hand, in countries with limited access to genetic testing, it can be argued whether it is necessary and cost-effective to perform genetic testing in patients with a proven clinical diagnosis of FH. This article presents a family with FH where different family members manifested different phenotypes and discusses situations where genetic diagnosis can crucially help physicians in clinical decision-making on how to approach and treat patients.
- Evaluation of the Association Between Preoperative Clinical Factors and Long-term Weight Loss After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass. [Journal Article]
- JSJAMA Surg 2016 Aug 10
- CONCLUSIONS: Few preoperative clinical factors associated with long-term weight loss after RYGB were identified. Preoperative insulin use was strongly associated with better long-term %WL, while preoperative hyperlipidemia, higher body mass index, and older age were associated with poorer %WL. Our findings provide additional insight into preoperative identification of RYGB patients at higher risk for long-term suboptimal outcomes.
- Long-term clinical follow-up and molecular testing for diagnosis of the first Tunisian family with Alström syndrome. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Med Genet 2016; 59(9):444-51
- Alström syndrome is a clinically complex disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of sensory functions, resulting in visual and audiological impairment as well as metabolic disturbances. It...
Alström syndrome is a clinically complex disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of sensory functions, resulting in visual and audiological impairment as well as metabolic disturbances. It is caused by recessively inherited mutations in the ALMS1 gene, which codes for a centrosomal/basal body protein. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic and clinical features of two Tunisian affected siblings with Alström syndrome. Detailed clinical examinations were performed including complete ophthalmic examination, serial audiograms and several biochemical and hormonal blood tests. For the molecular study, first genomic DNA was isolated using a standard protocol. Then, linkage analysis with microsatellite markers was performed and DNA array was used to detect known mutations. Subsequently, all ALMS1 exons were simultaneously sequenced for one affected patient with the TaGSCAN targeted sequencing panel. Finally, segregation of the causal variant was performed by Sanger sequencing. Both affected siblings had cone rod dystrophy with impaired visual acuity, sensorineural hearing loss and truncal obesity. One affected individual showed insulin resistance without diabetes mellitus. Other clinical features including cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction, hypothyroidism, hyperlipidemia, acanthosis nigricans, renal and hepatic dysfunction were absent. Genetic analysis showed the presence of a homozygous splice site mutation (c.10388-2A > G) in both affected siblings. Although Alström syndrome is relatively well characterized disease, this syndrome is probably misdiagnosed in Tunisia. Here, we describe the first report of Tunisian patients affected by this syndrome and carrying a homozygous ALMS1 mutation. The diagnosis was suspected after long-term clinical follow-up and confirmed by genetic testing.
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- Rhus Coriaria L. (Sumac) in Patients with Hyperlipidemia; A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial. [Journal Article]
- IJIran J Med Sci 2016; 41(3):S10
- CONCLUSIONS: The study showed significant HDL cholesterol increasing effect of sumac supplementation in patients with Hyperlipidemia.