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Endocrinology AND Infertility, female [keywords]
- Expression of Toll-like receptors 7-10 in human fallopian tubes. [Journal Article]
- Iran J Reprod Med 2014 Jun; 12(6):389-94.
The human female reproductive tract (FRT) is constantly deal with the invading pathogens. Recognition of these pathogens is attributed to the family of Toll like receptors (TLR) as a major part of the innate immune system. We and others have previously revealed that TLRs1-6 express in the female reproductive tract. However, more studies should be done to detect TLRs 7-10 in the female reproductive tract, especially in the fallopian tubes.To examine the expression of TLRs7-10 in human fallopian tube tissue.Using immunostaining techniques, distribution of TLR7-10 was studied in surgical sections from the uterine tubes, obtained from patients undergoing tubal ligation and hysterectomy for benign gynecological conditions. RT-PCR was used to show the existence of TLR7-10 genes in fallopian tube tissue.TLR7-10 proteins were detected in the fallopian tube epithelium, although the intensity of staining was not equal in cases. TLR7-10 genes were expressed in human fallopian tube tissue.This study indicates that TLR7-10 is expressed in fallopian tubes tissues, and may play an important role in microbial recognition, and in host defense against ascending infection.
- Role of advanced glycation end-products in obesity-related ovarian dysfunction. [Journal Article]
- Minerva Endocrinol 2014 Sep; 39(3):167-74.
Obesity affects ovarian function, one of the main regulators of female fertility. Tissue levels of the proinflammatory advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and their receptors (RAGE) are elevated in obesity. AGEs are key contributors to perturbations in the ovarian microenvironment. On this basis, the present review focuses on clinical and experimental studies supporting the role of AGE-RAGE system as a contributor to obesity-related ovarian dysfunction. Particular emphasis has been given to changes in AGEs, RAGE and the anti-inflammatory soluble receptor (sRAGE) levels in obesity state and following dietary interventions (high-fat diet and weight loss). Ovarian sensitivity, in particular granulosa cell function and oocyte meiosis, to the pro-inflammatory AGE-RAGE system as well as the relationship of follicular fluid AGEs and sRAGE to in vitro fertilization outcome are also discussed. Overall, obesity, with its alterations in the AGE-RAGE system, can disrupt the ovarian microenvironment potentially compromising oocyte competence and fertility. This review underscores a critical need to uncover the mechanistic actions of AGE-RAGE system in obesity-related ovarian dysfunction. Clinical and basic studies focusing on elucidating the patterns of accumulation and role of the AGE-RAGE system in human ovarian follicles are key steps in understanding their contribution to the health of human oocytes and embryos.
- Over-expression of Corticotropin Releasing Factor in the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala Advances Puberty and Disrupts Reproductive Cycles in Female Rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Endocrinology 2014 Jul 22.:en20141339.
Prolonged exposure to environmental stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and generally disrupts the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. As corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is a key modulator in adaptation to chronic stress, and central administration of CRF inhibits the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator, we tested the hypothesis that over-expression of CRF in the CeA of female rats alters anxiety behaviour, dysregulates the HPA axis response to stress, changes pubertal timing and disrupts reproduction. We used a lentiviral vector to increase CRF expression site specifically in the CeA of pre-weaning (postnatal day 12) female rats. Over-expression of CRF in the CeA increased anxiety-like behavior in peripubertal rats shown by a reduction in time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze and a decrease in social interaction. Paradoxically, puberty onset was advanced, but followed by irregular estrous cyclicity and an absence of spontaneous preovulatory LH surges associated with proestrous vaginal cytology in rats over-expressing CRF. Despite the absence of change in basal or stress (lipopolysaccharide or restraint) induced corticosterone secretion, over-expression of CRF in the CeA significantly decreased lipopolysaccharide, but not restraint, stress-induced suppression of pulsatile LH secretion in post pubertal ovariectomized rats, indicating a differential stress responsivity of the GnRH pulse generator to immunological stress and a potential adaptation of the HPA axis to chronic activation of amygdaloid CRF. These data suggest that the expression profile of this key limbic brain CRF system might contribute to the complex neural mechanisms underlying the increasing incidence of early onset of puberty on the one hand and infertility on the other attributed to chronic stress in modern human society.
- Ovarian adult stem cells: hope or pitfall? [REVIEW]
- J Ovarian Res 2014.:71.
For many years, ovarian biology has been based on the dogma that oocytes reserve in female mammals included a finite number, established before or at birth and it is determined by the number and quality of primordial follicles developed during the neonatal period. The restricted supply of oocytes in adult female mammals has been disputed in recent years by supporters of postnatal neo-oogenesis. Recent experimental data showed that ovarian surface epithelium and cortical tissue from both mouse and human were proved to contain very low proportion of cells able to propagate themselves, but also to generate immature oocytes in vitro or in vivo, when transplanted into immunodeficient mice ovaries. By mentioning several landmarks of ovarian stem cell reserve and addressing the exciting perspective of translation into clinical practice as treatment for infertility pathologies, the purpose of this article is to review the knowledge about adult mammalian ovarian stem cells, a topic that, since the first approach quickly attracted the attention of both the scientific media and patients.
- Recruiting testicular torsion introduces an azoospermic mouse model for spermatogonial stem cell transplantation. [Journal Article]
- Urol J 2014; 11(3):1648-55.
Purpose:To investigate the long-term effect of testicular torsion on sperm parameters and testis structure in order to introduce a novel mice azoospermic model for spermatogonial stem cell transplantation. Materials and
Methods:Unilateral testicular torsion was created. The animals were divided into two groups each containing 15 mice. They underwent 2 and 4 hours of unilateral testicular ischemia, respectively. All animals in this experiment were aged matched. The experimental (n = 5) groups were studied 2, 4 and 10 weeks after testicular ischemia reperfusion. Moreover, the left testes and epididymis were removed for sperm analysis and for weight and histopathological evaluation. Finally isolated spermatogonial stem cells were transplanted in the testes that underwent 2 hours of ischemia reperfusion, two weeks post-surgery.
Results:All the investigated parameters demonstrated a sharp decline at 2, 4 and 10 weeks after testicular torsion, whereas 2-hour ischemia was found to be less injurious in testicular tissue structure. Two months after xenotransplantation, the transplanted cells were localized in the basal of the seminiferous tubules of the recipient ischemic testes.
Conclusion:Torsion can cause permanent azoospermia in mouse. Also Testicular torsion 2 weeks after the 2 hours ischemia reperfusion may prove useful for recipient preparation for SSCs transplantation in mouse.
- Association of PCOS and Its Clinical Signs with Sexual Function among Iranian Women Affected by PCOS. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Sex Med 2014 Jul 4.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its physiological and psychological changes influence the sexual function of women affected.In the present study, we aimed to investigate the association of PCOS and its clinical signs with sexual function among a population of married Iranian women affected by PCOS.The impact of clinical signs of PCOS on sexual function of affected women was the main outcome measure in the present study.This cross-sectional study was carried out on 591 married women with PCOS, aged 18-45 years. Data were collected using a questionnaire including information on demographic and reproductive status and the Female Sexual Function Index. Data were analyzed using chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test, and logistic regression analysis.The participants' mean age was 30.6 years. Among associated manifestations of PCOS, infertility and hair loss have significant adverse effects on female sexual function. Logistic regression analysis showed that PCOS women with infertility have a significantly lower sexual function score compared with those who are fertile. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that compared with their fertile counterparts, PCOS women with infertility had significant sexual dysfunction in all aspects except desire and pain.Among various manifestations of PCOS, infertility mainly disrupts the sexual function of affected women. Hashemi S, Ramezani Tehrani F, Farahmand M, and Bahri Khomami M. Association of PCOS and its clinical signs with sexual function among Iranian women affected by PCOS. J Sex Med **;**:**-**.
- Nine centuries waiting: The experiences of Iranians surrogacy commissioning mothers. [Journal Article]
- Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2014 May; 19(3):224-32.
There are a few studies about commissioning mothers' understanding from the surrogacy during 9 months of waiting for delivery in Iran and other countries. This study was conducted with an aim to explore and explain the nature of concerns (experiences) of commissioning mothers.A qualitative design with a conventional content analysis approach was used to gather and analyze the experiences of commissioning mothers. They were selected from Royan Research Centre and other infertility centers in Iran. After purposive sampling for the selection of the participants, unstructured interviews were held for data collection. Twenty-four unstructured interviews were conducted with 12 commissioning mothers, 2 surrogate mothers, and 2 infertility center social workers who directly and continuously dealt with these mothers.TWO MAIN THEMES EMERGED FROM THE DATA ANALYSIS: 1. cultural dilemma (consisting of three subthemes: Social taboo, concerns about disclosure to others and the child, concerns about altering maternal and child's identity, and 2. uncertain waiting (consisting of three subthemes: Concerns about health of fetus and surrogate, concerns about an unfamiliar surrogate, and concerns about lack of preparation for maternal role).The study reveals the importance of maternal emotional care in this group and introduces a new arena for nurses' activity. These findings help the mothers by nurses' activities in health care clinics and anywhere they deliver nursing care.
- Molecular basis of thyrotropin and thyroid hormone action during implantation and early development. [REVIEW]
- Hum Reprod Update 2014 Jun 18.
Implantation and early embryo development are finely regulated processes in which several molecules are involved. Evidence that thyroid hormones (TH: T4 and T3) might be part of this machinery is emerging. An increased demand for TH occurs during gestation, and any alteration in maternal thyroid physiology has significant implications for both maternal and fetal health. Not only overt but also subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with infertility as well as with obstetric complications, including disruptions and disorders of pregnancy, labor, delivery, and troubles in early neonatal life.We searched the PubMed and Google Scholar databases for articles related to TH action on ovary, endometrium, trophoblast maturation and embryo implantation. In addition, articles on the regulation of TH activity at cellular level have been reviewed. The findings are hereby summarized and critically discussed.TH have been shown to influence endometrial, ovarian and placental physiology. TH receptors (TR) and thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone: TSH) receptors (TSHR) are widely expressed in the feto-maternal unit during implantation, and both the endometrium and the trophoblast might be influenced by TH either directly or through TH effects on the synthesis and activity of implantation-mediating molecules. Interestingly, due to the multiplicity of mechanisms involved in TH action (e.g. differential expression of TR isoforms, heterodimeric receptor partners, interacting cellular proteins, and regulating enzymes), the TH concentration in blood is not always predictive of their cellular availability and activity at both genomic and nongenomic level.In addition to the known role of TH on the hormonal milieu of the ovarian follicle cycle, which is essential for a woman's fertility, evidence is emerging on the importance of TH signaling during implantation and early pregnancy. Based on recent observations, a local action of TH on female reproductive organs and the embryo during implantation appears to be crucial for a successful pregnancy. Furthermore, an imbalance in the spatio-temporal expression of factors involved in TH activity might induce early arrest of pregnancy in women considered as euthyroid, based on their hormonal blood concentration. In conclusion, alterations of the highly regulated local activity of TH may play a crucial, previously underestimated, role in early pregnancy and pregnancy loss. Further studies elucidating this topic should be encouraged.
- Antimüllerian hormone and antral follicle count are lower in female cancer survivors and healthy women taking hormonal contraception. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Fertil Steril 2014 Jun 13.
To determine the impact of hormonal contraception (HC) on markers of ovarian reserve, including antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC).Longitudinal prospective cohort.University hospital.Young adult female cancer survivors and healthy similar-age women.None.Participants were followed annually to determine hormone levels and for transvaginal ultrasound. Subjects who used HC within the preceding 3 months were considered to be exposed. Linear mixed effects models were used to incorporate repeated measures and adjust for potential confounders.A total of 249 women (126 survivors, 123 control subjects; average age 25.5 years) were followed for an average of 2.1 visits and 2.15 years. After adjusting for confounders, AMH was found to be 21% lower among survivors using HC and 55% lower among control subjects using HC (relative risk [RR] 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68-0.93; and RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.30-0.68; respectively). AFC was 20% lower among survivors and control subjects using HC (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69-0.93). When considering an individual subject, AMH was 17%-35% lower when a subject had recently used HC than when she had not (survivors: RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.75-0.93; control subjects: RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.55-0.78), and AFC was 11% lower (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.96). Additive HC exposure across multiple visits was not associated with differences in AMH or AFC.AMH and AFC are significantly lower among women with recent exposure to HC. AMH and AFC should be interpreted with caution when measured in the setting of recent hormone use.
- Risk factors for recurrence rate of ovarian endometriomas following a laparoscopic cystectomy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Minerva Med 2014 Jun 10.
To evaluate risk factors those influence the recurrence of endometrioma after laparoscopic excision. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed at Arash University Hospital between 2009 and 2011 on patients who had a minimum of one year of postoperative follow up after undergoing a laparoscopic excision of an ovarian endometrioma. The patients had any prior surgery for ovarian endometriomas was excluded. Recurrence was defined as the presence of endometrioma more than 2 cm in size, detected by ultrasonography within 1 years of surgery. The variables including age at surgery, presence of infertility, uterine myoma, previous medical treatment of endometriosis, the size of the largest cyst at laparoscopy, unilateral or bilateral involvement, serum CA125 level, revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) score and stage, postoperative medical treatment and postoperative treatment were evaluated to assess their independent effects on the recurrence using logistic regression analysis.A total one hundred fifty eight patients were admitted to surgery unit for endometriomas cystectomy during study period. After the initial assessment, 130 patients were eligible for study. The overall rate of recurrence was 11.5% (15/130). Significant factors that were independently associated with higher recurrence were the size of the largest cyst [odds ratio (OR) = 4.0, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.6-10.4, P = 0.002], a high rASRM score (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-1.4, P = 0.04) and woman age at surgery (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4-0.9, P = 0.01).A high score of rASRM, large cyst size and young age at surgery were three significant factors that were associated with higher recurrence of endometriomas.