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Endocrinology AND Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 1 MEN 1 [keywords]
- Germline and Somatic Mutations in Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Genes CDKN1A, CDKN2B, and CDKN2C in Sporadic Parathyroid Adenomas. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Horm Cancer 2013 May 29.
The molecular pathogenesis of sporadic parathyroid adenomas is incompletely understood. The possible role of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) genes was raised by recognition of cyclin D1 as a parathyroid oncogene, identification of rare germline mutations in CDKI genes in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1; that in rodents, mutation in Cdkn1b caused parathyroid tumors; and subsequently through identification of rare predisposing germline sequence variants and somatic mutation of CDKN1B, encoding p27(kip1), in sporadic human parathyroid adenoma. We therefore sought to determine whether mutations/variants in the other six CDKI genes CDKN1A, CDKN1C, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CDKN2C, and CDKN2D, encoding p21, p57, p14(ARF)/p16, p15, p18, and p19, respectively, contribute to the development of typical parathyroid adenomas. In a series of 85 sporadic parathyroid adenomas, direct DNA sequencing identified alterations in five adenomas (6 %): Two contained distinct heterozygous changes in CDKN1A, one germline and one of undetermined germline status; one had a CDKN2B germline alteration, accompanied by loss of the normal allele in the tumor (LOH); two had variants of CDKN2C, one somatic and one germline with LOH. Abnormalities of three of the mutant proteins were readily demonstrable in vitro. Thus, germline mutations/rare variants in CDKN1A, CDKN2B, and CDKN2C likely contribute to the development of a significant subgroup of common sporadic parathyroid adenomas, and somatic mutation in CDKN2C further suggests a direct role for CDKI alteration in conferring a selective growth advantage to parathyroid cells, providing novel support for the concept that multiple CDKIs can play primary roles in human neoplasia.
- Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2012 Dec; 16(Suppl 2):S272-4.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid, pancreatic islet and anterior pituitary tumors. Some patients may also develop carcinoid tumors, adrenocortical tumors, facial angiofibromas, collagenomas, and lipomas. MEN1 is an autosomal-dominant disorder, due to mutations in the tumor suppressor gene MEN1, which encodes a 610 amino acid protein, menin. Thus, the finding of MEN1 in a patient has important implications for family members because first-degree relatives have a 50% risk of developing the disease and can often be identified by MEN1 mutational analysis. Patients with MEN1 have a decreased life-expectancy and the outcomes of current treatments, which are generally similar to that for the respective tumors occurring in non-MEN1 patients, are not as successful because of multiple tumors, which may be larger, more aggressive, and resistant to treatment, and the concurrence of metastases. The prognosis for MEN1 patients might be improved by pre-symptomatic tumor detection and undertaking treatment specific for MEN1-tumors. Thus, it is recommended that MEN1 patients and their families should be cared for by multi-disciplinary teams comprising relevant specialists with experience in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with endocrine tumors.
- Growth hormone-releasing hormone-producing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 family with an uncommon phenotype. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013 Mar 29.
The objective of this study was to describe a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) family characterized by primary hyperparathyroidism, in association with acromegaly because of ectopic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) secretion by a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in a young man and with a bronchial carcinoid in his mother. We investigate the clinical, radiological imaging, histopathologic findings, and therapy. An 18-year-old man successfully underwent subtotal parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism. A subsequent genetic analysis showed a MEN1 gene mutation. Three years later, acromegaly because of ectopic GHRH secretion was diagnosed (pituitary MRI negative and elevated GHRH levels). A search for an ectopic tumor was unsuccessful and somatostatin analog therapy was started. Successively, scintigraphy with somatostatin analogs (68-Ga-DOTATOC-PET) showed three focal areas in the pancreatic tail. Distal pancreatectomy showed multiple pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and hormonal status was normalized. Afterwards, the evaluation of the patient's mother, carrying the same mutation, indicated a primary hyperparathyroidism and a 4 cm lung mass. The patient underwent subtotal pneumonectomy and the histological analysis was consistent with the diagnosis of a typical bronchial carcinoid. In conclusion, an atypical phenotype may be recorded in MEN1 families, thus emphasizing the importance of the new imaging and surgical techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of such a rare disease.
- A large functioning parathyroid cyst in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Endocr J 2013 Feb 2.
A 62-year-old woman presented with a mass on the left side of the neck. Biochemical testing revealed primary hyperparathyroidism. Further, a prolactinoma was detected, and the patient's son and daughter also had primary hyperparathyroidism, indicating that the patient had multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Neck ultrasonography revealed several cystic nodules (≤30 mm) that appeared to be adenomatous. After parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation, the largest cystic mass, in the left lower thyroid lobe, was pathologically diagnosed as a functioning parathyroid cyst, and all laboratory data returned to normal. On genetic analysis of blood, we found a novel single base insertion (duplication) in exon 10 codon 552 of the MEN1 gene (c1659dupT) that creates an early stop codon. This is the first case report of a parathyroid cyst resulting from parathyroid hyperplasia in a MEN1 patient.
- Familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the pituitary adenoma predisposition due to mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Endocr Rev 2013 Apr; 34(2):239-77.
Pituitary adenomas are one of the most frequent intracranial tumors and occur with a prevalence of approximately 1:1000 in the developed world. Pituitary adenomas have a serious disease burden, and their management involves neurosurgery, biological therapies, and radiotherapy. Early diagnosis of pituitary tumors while they are smaller may help increase cure rates. Few genetic predictors of pituitary adenoma development exist. Recent years have seen two separate, complimentary advances in inherited pituitary tumor research. The clinical condition of familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) has been described, which encompasses the familial occurrence of isolated pituitary adenomas outside of the setting of syndromic conditions like multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Carney complex. FIPA families comprise approximately 2% of pituitary adenomas and represent a clinical entity with homogeneous or heterogeneous pituitary adenoma types occurring within the same kindred. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene has been identified as causing a pituitary adenoma predisposition of variable penetrance that accounts for 20% of FIPA families. Germline AIP mutations have been shown to associate with the occurrence of large pituitary adenomas that occur at a young age, predominantly in children/adolescents and young adults. AIP mutations are usually associated with somatotropinomas, but prolactinomas, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, Cushing disease, and other infrequent clinical adenoma types can also occur. Gigantism is a particular feature of AIP mutations and occurs in more than one third of affected somatotropinoma patients. Study of pituitary adenoma patients with AIP mutations has demonstrated that these cases raise clinical challenges to successful treatment. Extensive research on the biology of AIP and new advances in mouse Aip knockout models demonstrate multiple pathways by which AIP may contribute to tumorigenesis. This review assesses the current clinical and therapeutic characteristics of more than 200 FIPA families and addresses research findings among AIP mutation-bearing patients in different populations with pituitary adenomas.
- Genetic analysis in young patients with sporadic pituitary macroadenomas: besides AIP don't forget MEN1 genetic analysis. [Journal Article, Multicenter Study, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Eur J Endocrinol 2013 Apr; 168(4):533-41.
Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene (AIP) have been identified in young patients (age ≤30 years old) with sporadic pituitary macroadenomas. Otherwise, there are few data concerning the prevalence of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) mutations in such a population.We assessed the prevalence of both AIP and MEN1 genetic abnormalities (mutations and large gene deletions) in young patients (age ≤30 years old) diagnosed with sporadic and isolated macroadenoma, without hypercalcemia and/or MEN1-associated lesions.The entire coding sequences of AIP and MEN1 were screened for mutations. In cases of negative sequencing screening, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was performed for the detection of large genetic deletions.One hundred and seventy-four patients from endocrinology departments of 15 French University Hospital Centers were eligible for this study.Twenty-one out of 174 (12%) patients had AIP (n=15, 8.6%) or MEN1 (n=6, 3.4%) mutations. In pediatric patients (age ≤18 years old), AIP/MEN1 mutation frequency reached nearly 22% (n=10/46). AIPmut and MEN1mut were identified in 8/79 (10.1%) and 1/79 (1.2%) somatotropinoma patients respectively; they each accounted for 4/74 (5.4%) prolactinoma (PRL) patients with mutations. Half of those patients (n=3/6) with gigantism displayed mutations in AIP. Interestingly, 4/12 (33%) patients with non-secreting adenomas bore either AIP or MEN1 mutations, whereas none of the eight corticotroph adenomas or the single thyrotropinoma case had mutations. No large gene deletions were observed in sequencing-negative patients.Mutations in MEN1 can be of significance in young patients with sporadic isolated pituitary macroadenomas, particularly PRL, and together with AIP, we suggest genetic analysis of MEN1 in such a population.
- Familial isolated pituitary adenomas: an emerging clinical entity. [Journal Article]
- J Endocrinol Invest 2012 Dec; 35(11):1003-14.
Familial pituitary tumors are increasingly recognized. While some of these cases are related to wellknown syndromic conditions such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) or Carney complex, others belong to the familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) patient group. The discovery of heterozygous, loss-of-function germline mutations in the gene encoding the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) in 2006 has subsequently enabled the identification of a mutation in this gene in 20% of FIPA families and 20% of childhood-onset simplex soma- totroph adenomas. The exact mechanism by which the lack of AIP leads to pituitary adenomas is not clear. AIP mutations cause a low penetrance autosomal dominant disease with often a distinct phenotype characterized by young-onset, aggressive, large GH, mixed GH and PRL or PRL-secreting adenomas. This review aims to summarize currently available clinical data on AIP mutation-positive and negative FIPA patients.
- Proliferation rates of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)-associated tumors. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Endocrinology 2012 Nov; 153(11):5167-79.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the combined occurrence of parathyroid and adrenocortical tumors, and neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the pancreas and pituitary. The pancreatic NETs are predominantly gastrinomas and insulinomas, and the pituitary NETs are mostly prolactinomas and somatotrophinomas. We postulated that the different types of pancreatic and pituitary NETs may be partly due to differences in their proliferation rates, and we therefore assessed these in MEN1-associated tumors and gonadal tumors that developed in mice deleted for an Men1 allele (Men1(+/-)). To label proliferating cells in vivo, Men1(+/-) and wild-type (Men1(+/+)) mice were given 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in drinking water from 1-12 wk, and tissue sections were immunostained using anti-BrdU and hormone-specific antibodies. Proliferation in the tumors of Men1(+/-) mice was significantly (P < 0.001) increased when compared with the corresponding normal Men1(+/+) tissues. Pancreatic, pituitary and adrenocortical proliferation fitted first- and second-order regression lines in Men1(+/+) tissues and Men1(+/-) tumors, respectively, R(2) = 0.999. Apoptosis was similar in Men1(+/-) pancreatic, pituitary, and parathyroid tumors when compared with corresponding normal tissues, decreased in Men1(+/-) adrenocortical tumors, but increased in Men1(+/-) gonadal tumors. Mathematical modeling of NET growth rates (proliferation minus apoptosis rates) predicted that in Men1(+/-) mice, only pancreatic β-cells, pituitary lactotrophs and somatotrophs could develop into tumors within a murine lifespan. Thus, our studies demonstrate that Men1(+/-) tumors have low proliferation rates (<2%), second-order kinetics, and the higher occurrence of insulinomas, prolactinomas, and somatotrophinomas in MEN1 is consistent with a mathematical model for NET proliferation.
- Persistent primary hyperparathyroidism: an uncommon location for an ectopic gland--case report and review. [Case Reports, Journal Article, Review]
- Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol 2012 Aug; 56(6):393-403.
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrine disorder that mainly affects middle-aged women. Patients are usually asymptomatic. The disease might be ascribable to hyperplasia, carcinoma, and single or multiple adenomas. PHPT may be sporadic or familial, the latter comprising multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 or 2A, familial benign hypocalciuria hypercalcemia, and hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. The most common causes for persistent PHPT are multiglandular disease, and missed abnormal ectopic or orthotopic parathyroid glands. Imaging localization studies should precede a new surgical intervention. Ectopic parathyroid glands are rarely located at the aortopulmonary window. For diagnosis confirmation, (99m)Tc-sestamibi SPECT/CT seems to be an advantageous test. Another possibility is to perform (99m)Tc-sestamibi followed by thoracic CT or MRI. Parathyroidectomy may be performed by means of median sternotomy, thoracotomy, or video-assisted thoracoscopy. We describe a case of persistent primary hyperparathyroidism due to the presence of an ectopic parathyroid gland found at the aortopulmonary window. As the investigation necessary to clarify the etiology of recurrent nephrolithiasis proceeded, the diagnosis of PHPT was determined. The patient underwent subtotal parathyroidectomy; nevertheless, PHPT persisted. Genetic syndromes that could account for this condition were excluded. Imaging studies available at that time were not able to locate abnormal glands; moreover, the patient refused to undergo surgical exploration. Later, the patient underwent (99m)Tc-sestamibi SPECT/CT, which revealed a parathyroid gland at the aortopulmonary window.
- MEN1 gene replacement therapy reduces proliferation rates in a mouse model of pituitary adenomas. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Cancer Res 2012 Oct 1; 72(19):5060-8.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is characterized by the combined occurrence of pituitary, pancreatic, and parathyroid tumors showing loss of heterozygosity in the putative tumor suppressor gene MEN1. This gene encodes the protein menin, the overexpression of which inhibits cell proliferation in vitro. In this study, we conducted a preclinical evaluation of MEN1 gene therapy in pituitary tumors of Men1(+/-) mice, using a recombinant nonreplicating adenoviral serotype 5 vector that contained the murine Men1 cDNA under control of a cytomegalovirus promoter (Men1.rAd5). Pituitary tumors in 55 Men1(+/-) female mice received a transauricular intratumoral injection of Men1.rAd5 or control treatments, followed by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd) in drinking water for four weeks before magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and immunohistochemical analysis. Immediate procedure-related and 4-week mortalities were similar in all groups, indicating that the adenoviral gene therapy was not associated with a higher mortality. Menin expression was higher in the Men1.rAd5-treated mice when compared with other groups. Daily proliferation rates assessed by BrdUrd incorporation were reduced significantly in Men1.rAd5-injected tumors relative to control-treated tumors. In contrast, apoptotic rates, immune T-cell response, and tumor volumes remained similar in all groups. Our findings establish that MEN1 gene replacement therapy can generate menin expression in pituitary tumors, and significantly reduce tumor cell proliferation.