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Eye AND Keratitis corneal ulcer or inflammation [keywords]
- Toxicity of topical ophthalmic anesthetics. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2013 Apr 25.
Introduction: Topical ocular anesthetics are generally well tolerated in clinical settings but have great potential for abuse if used by patients at home. This abuse can lead to significant ocular complications. Topical ocular anesthetic abuse can lead to superficial punctate keratitis, persistent epithelial defects, stromal/ring infiltrates, corneal edema, endothelial damage and ocular inflammation, even when used in a dilute concentration. Patient characteristics may include a healthcare association and/or psychiatric illness. In these instances, patients often do not admit to anesthetic use and are often initially treated for acanthamoeba keratitis. Local anesthetics are thought to cause direct toxicity to the corneal epithelium, stroma and endothelium. This in turn may lead to release of antigens and from there an inflammatory response in the form of infiltrate and edema. It is thought that preservatives in anesthetics may play a further role in toxicity. Areas covered: The authors provide a brief history on topical ocular anesthetics and review the most recent literature on reported ocular toxicities of topical anesthetics. Expert opinion: Practitioners must maintain high suspicion for topical ocular anesthetic abuse to identify it early. Topical ocular anesthetic abuse is often misdiagnosed as acanthamoeba keratitis. Early identification is one of the most important factors for a successful outcome. It is also imperative to give proper alternative pain control to avoid topical anesthetic abuse.
- Dry eye disease and microbial keratitis: is there a connection? [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- Ocul Surf 2013 Apr; 11(2):75-92.
Dry eye is a common ocular surface disease of multifactorial etiology characterized by elevated tear osmolality and inflammation leading to a disrupted ocular surface. The latter is a risk factor for ocular surface infection, yet overt infection is not commonly seen clinically in the typical dry eye patient. This suggests that important innate mechanisms operate to protect the dry eye from invading pathogens. This article reviews the current literature on epidemiology of ocular surface infection in dry eye patients and laboratory-based studies on innate immune mechanisms operating at the ocular surface and their alterations in human dry eye and animal models. The review highlights current understanding of innate immunity in dry eye and identifies gaps in our knowledge to help direct future studies to further unravel the complexities of dry eye disease and its sequelae.
- Chronic ocular hypertension after treated multifocal bacterial keratitis. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Ophthalmol 2013 Jan; 4(1):23-6.
To report an unusual case of multifocal bacterial keratitis that despite success-ful treatment caused chronic ocular hypertension.A 67-year-old woman with unilateral multifocal keratitis and no previous ocular pathology was admitted to our hospital. Corneal scrapings and conjunctival samples were obtained for culture and the patient received intensive therapy with fortified vancomycin and tobramycin eye drops.The cultures demonstrated two strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis, one resistant to ciprofloxacin and both sensitive to vancomycin. Treatment was effective and gradually discontinued after total cessation of the inflammatory activity. During the follow-up period, the patient developed late and persistent ocular hypertension of unknown etiology, in absence of any detectable inflammation or complication, and received permanent antiglaucoma therapy.Differential diagnosis between fungal and bacterial infection is critical in cases of multifocal keratitis. Patients with multifocal bacterial keratitis may need intraocular pressure monitoring, even after complete infection healing.
- Acute postoperative Staphylococcus schleiferi endophthalmitis following uncomplicated cataract surgery: first report in the literature. [Journal Article]
- Eur J Ophthalmol 2013 Apr 22; 23(3):427-30.
Introduction: We report a rare case of acute postoperative Staphylococcus schleiferi endophthalmitis following an uneventful cataract extraction.
Methods:An 83-year-old woman underwent uneventful phacoemulsification without receiving the usual intracameral cefuroxime solution due to cephalosporin intolerance. Two days postoperatively, she presented with acute ocular pain and blurred vision in the operated eye. Ophthalmic examination revealed signs of acute keratitis and endophthalmitis. Corneal scrapes and vitreous taps were sent for cultivation and analysis. The patient received intravitreal antibiotics at the same time.
Results:Cultivation grew S schleiferi, a pathogen commonly found in dogs. Following microbiological report, the patient received a repeated intravitreal injection of 1 mg/0.1 mL vancomycin combined with fortified topical vancomycin drops. One week later, the inflammation subsided completely while the corneal ulcer healed and visual acuity improved dramatically. Further examination revealed the existence of the same pathogen in a specimen obtained from the dog owned by the patient's family.
Conclusions:This description of S schleiferi endophthalmitis highlights the need to provide alternative intracameral antibiotic solution in the operating room and avoid direct contact with dogs during the first postoperative period after intraocular surgery.
- Visual outcome after corneal transplantation for corneal perforation and iris prolapse in 37 horses: 1998-2010. [Journal Article]
- Equine Vet J Suppl 2012 Dec.:115-9.
We wanted to investigate the visual outcome of horses presented with iris prolapse and treated with corneal transplantation.To evaluate the visual outcome of horses with iris prolapse treated with penetrating keratoplasty alone and penetrating keratoplasty in combination with overlying conjunctival or amniotic membrane grafting.A retrospective medical records study of horses presented to the University of Florida Veterinary Medical Center for iris prolapse and treated with penetrating keratoplasty in the period of 1998-2010. Data collected from the medical records included signalment, clinical descriptions of ocular lesions, treatments, and therapeutic outcome.Iris prolapses in this study were caused by corneal ulcers with keratomalacia (n = 37). All horses were treated medically for infection, hyperproteinase activity and iridocyclitis, and then surgically treated with either penetrating keratoplasty alone (n = 9) or penetrating keratoplasty with either a conjunctival pedicle flap (n = 22), amniotic membrane transplant (n = 5) or amnion membrane and conjunctival pedicle flap (n = 1). The eyes were visual postoperatively in a majority of the cases (n = 24; 64.9%). Limited vision was noted in 6 eyes (16.2%), 3 eyes became phthisical (8.1%) and 4 globes were enucleated (10.8%). Graft rejection manifested as some degree of donor corneal graft opacification in all cases. Anterior synechiae were present in 48.6% of the eyes. Wound dehiscence and aqueous humour leakage were also common as post operative problems.Penetrating keratoplasty alone or in combination with an overlying graft of conjunctiva or amniotic membrane can achieve a successful visual outcome in a high percentage of horses with iris prolapse.
- Ulcerative fungal keratitis in a Brown Swiss cow. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Ophthalmol 2013 Feb 26.
An 11-year-old Brown Swiss cow was referred to the Farm Animal Department of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital in Zurich, Switzerland, because of lateral recumbency due to puerperal hemolytic anemia. The animal had developed enophthalmos due to dehydration at the time of presentation. Two days after hospitalization, the cow showed blepharospasm and epiphora of the right eye. Ophthalmic examination of the right eye revealed a fluorescein-positive, paraxial, superficial corneal ulcer with focal edema, and mild superficial neovascularization. White corneal stromal infiltrates were seen at the edges of the ulcer bed. After initial topical treatment with an antibiotic ointment (Neomycin 3.5 mg/g, Bacitracin 250 IU/g) three times a day, an increase in corneal infiltrates was noted on re-examination 2 days later. Several fluorescein-negative, punctate, stromal, white opacities were seen dorsal to the ulcer. Cytology demonstrated the presence of fungal hyphae. Topical treatment with 2% miconazole ointment and 0.36% K-EDTA eye drops six times daily and four times daily, respectively, from the second day and continued antibiotics three times daily resolved the clinical symptoms within 6 days. Fungal culture identified the fungal organism as Eurotium amstelodami.
- Evaluation of Moxifloxacin 0.5% in Treatment of Nonperforated Bacterial Corneal Ulcers: A Randomized Controlled Trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmology 2013 Feb 14.
PURPOSE:To compare the equivalence of moxifloxacin 0.5% with a combination of fortified cefazolin sodium 5% and tobramycin sulfate 1.3% eye drops in the treatment of moderate bacterial corneal ulcers.
DESIGN:Randomized, controlled, equivalence clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS AND CONTROLS: Microbiologically proven cases of bacterial corneal ulcers were enrolled in the study and were allocated randomly to 1 of the 2 treatment groups.
INTERVENTION:Group A was given combination therapy (fortified cefazolin sodium 5% and tobramycin sulfate) and group B was given monotherapy (moxifloxacin 0.5%).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary outcome variable for the study was percentage of the ulcers healed at 3 months. The secondary outcome variables were best-corrected visual acuity and resolution of infiltrates.
RESULTS:Of a total of 224 patients with bacterial keratitis, 114 patients were randomized to group A, whereas 110 patients were randomized to group B. The mean ± standard deviation ulcer size in groups A and B were 4.2±2 and 4.41±1.5 mm, respectively. The prevalence of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (40.9% in group A and 48.2% in group B) was similar in both the study groups. A complete resolution of keratitis and healing of ulcers occurred in 90 patients (81.8%) in group A and 88 patients (81.4%) in group B at 3 months. The observed percentage of healing at 3 months was less than the equivalence margin of 20%. Worsening of ulcer was seen in 18.2% cases in group A and in 18.5% cases in group B. Mean time to epithelialization was similar, and there was no significant difference in the 2 groups (P = 0.065). No serious events attributable to therapy were reported.
CONCLUSIONS:Corneal healing using 0.5% moxifloxacin monotherapy is equivalent to that of combination therapy using fortified cefazolin and tobramycin in the treatment of moderate bacterial corneal ulcers. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
- Corticosteroids for bacterial keratitis: who gets them? [Comment, Editorial]
- JAMA Ophthalmol 2013 Feb; 131(2):233-5.
- Association between cytotoxic and invasive Pseudomonas aeruginosa and clinical outcomes in bacterial keratitis. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- JAMA Ophthalmol 2013 Feb; 131(2):147-53.
To determine whether cytotoxic and invasive Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains differentially influence clinical presentation, outcomes, or therapeutic response in bacterial keratitis.Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from the National Eye Institute-funded Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial were subtyped as cytotoxic or invasive strains. The main outcome measure compared between the 2 subtypes was change in visual acuity at 3 months using Huber robust regression, adjusting for topical corticosteroid treatment.Of 101 confirmed P aeruginosa isolates from the Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial, 74 had a classically cytotoxic or invasive genotype. While corneal ulcers caused by genotypically invasive P aeruginosa strains were associated at presentation with significantly better visual acuity than corneal ulcers caused by genotypically cytotoxic P aeruginosa strains when adjusting for the effect of ulcer location (P= .008), invasive ulcers had improved significantly less than cytotoxic ulcers at 3 months (0.35; 95% CI, 0.04-0.66 logMAR; P= .03 [3.5-line difference]). Compared with topical moxifloxacin alone, adjunctive treatment with topical corticosteroids was associated with significantly more improvement in visual acuity in the invasive subgroup (P= .04) but was associated with less improvement in visual acuity in the cytotoxic subgroup (P= .07).Rational profiling of differentially expressed virulence determinants (eg, cytotoxicity and invasiveness for P aeruginosa) could be used as a tool for decision making in the management of infections to optimize outcomes.
- Schizophyllum commune: A New Organism in Eye Infection. [Journal Article]
- Mycopathologia 2013 Apr; 175(3-4):357-60.
We report a case of mycotic keratitis caused by a rare fungus Schizophyllum commune.Clinical examination, slit-lamp examination, and microbiological evaluation of the corneal ulcer were done, and its treatment outcome was studied. The fungal etiology was established by conventional microbiological techniques, polymerase chain reaction and speciation by DNA sequencing.Corneal scraping showed the presence of fungal filaments. The fungus was identified as S. commune based on DNA sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region. The organism was susceptible to amphotericin B and voriconazole and demonstrated resistance to anidulafungin, itraconazole, and fluconazole. Therapeutic keratoplasty was performed but there was recurrence of the infection in the graft, which was controlled with topical voriconazole and intracameral amphotericin B. At the end of 3 months, the affected eye had developed phthisis bulbi.The best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of keratitis caused by the rare fungus S. commune. Management of these cases is difficult, and surgical procedures may be needed.