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Eye AND Optic neuritis [keywords]
- Acute visual loss in papilloedema: the diagnostic pitfalls. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Ophthalmol 2013 Jun 8.
Papilloedema is the descriptive term for optic disc swelling caused by proven elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). Commonly, there is preservation of vision, particularly central vision, visual acuity and colour vision, early in the disease process. However, some patients with raised ICP may present with a combination of disc swelling and visual loss. We report on two patients who presented with visual loss and optic disc swelling. They were initially referred to the neuro-ophthalmology clinic with a provisional diagnosis of optic neuritis given the clinical picture of disc swelling with reduced visual acuity. However they were subsequently found to have papilloedema.
- The primary vascular dysregulation syndrome: implications for eye diseases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- EPMA J 2013 Jun 7; 4(1):14.
Vascular dysregulation refers to the regulation of blood flow that is not adapted to the needs of the respective tissue. We distinguish primary vascular dysregulation (PVD, formerly called vasospastic syndrome) and secondary vascular dysregulation (SVD). Subjects with PVD tend to have cold extremities, low blood pressure, reduced feeling of thirst, altered drug sensitivity, increased pain sensitivity, prolonged sleep onset time, altered gene expression in the lymphocytes, signs of oxidative stress, slightly increased endothelin-1 plasma level, low body mass index and often diffuse and fluctuating visual field defects. Coldness, emotional or mechanical stress and starving can provoke symptoms. Virtually all organs, particularly the eye, can be involved. In subjects with PVD, retinal vessels are stiffer and more irregular, and both neurovascular coupling and autoregulation capacity are reduced while retinal venous pressure is often increased. Subjects with PVD have increased risk for normal-tension glaucoma, optic nerve compartment syndrome, central serous choroidopathy, Susac syndrome, retinal artery and vein occlusions and anterior ischaemic neuropathy without atherosclerosis. Further characteristics are their weaker blood--brain and blood-retinal barriers and the higher prevalence of optic disc haemorrhages and activated astrocytes. Subjects with PVD tend to suffer more often from tinnitus, muscle cramps, migraine with aura and silent myocardial ischaemic and are at greater risk for altitude sickness. While the main cause of vascular dysregulation is vascular endotheliopathy, dysfunction of the autonomic nerve system is also involved. In contrast, SVD occurs in the context of other diseases such as multiple sclerosis, retrobulbar neuritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia and giant cell arteritis. Taking into consideration the high prevalence of PVD in the population and potentially linked pathologies, in the current article, the authors provide recommendations on how to effectively promote the field in order to create innovative diagnostic tools to predict the pathology and develop more efficient treatment approaches tailored to the person.
- NONINVASIVE ASSESSMENTS OF OPTIC NERVE NEURODEGENERATION IN TRANSGENIC MICE WITH ISOLATED OPTIC NEURITIS. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013 May 30.
PURPOSE:To determine if phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNF-H) released into the blood stream and the pattern ERG are noninvasive indicators of neurodegeneration in experimental optic neuritis.
METHODS:Serum from MOG-specific TCR+ transgenic mice that develop isolated optic neuritis usually without any other characteristic lesions of inflammation or demyelination in the spinal cord and littermates negative for the transgene were assayed for the presence of pNF-H. In vivo measurements of optic nerve and retinal ganglion cell injury were assessed by MRI, OCT and PERG. Automated two dimensional fluorescence differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) of pooled optic nerve samples, light and transmission electron micrographs were used to evaluate optic atrophy postmortem.
RESULTS:We found an almost 3-fold elevation in serum pNF-H levels in MOG+ mice relative to MOG-littermates (p = 0.02). 2D-DIGE revealed a 3-fold reduction in optic nerve neurofilaments. Visual function assessed by the PERG was reduced by one-quarter (p= 0 .033) and latencies increased by 38% (p=0.036). MOG+ mice with the lowest PERG amplitudes had optic nerve atrophy visualized by MRI. Optic nerve diameters were reduced by one-third (p = 0.0001) and axon counts reduced by more than two-thirds. Histopathology of the spinal cords was normal.
CONCLUSIONS:Elevated serum pNF-H levels and the PERG are useful markers of neurodegeneration of the optic nerve in isolated experimental optic neuritis. Our findings suggest that elevations of this axonal protein in patients with optic neuritis who had a poor visual outcome are likely also due to demise of optic nerve axons.
- Laser speckle flowgraphy for differentiating between nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy and anterior optic neuritis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Jpn J Ophthalmol 2013 May 22.
PURPOSE:The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) for the differentiation of acute nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) from anterior optic neuritis (ON).
METHODS:To investigate blood flow in the optic disc under normal conditions, NAION, and anterior ON, we compared the tissue blood flow of the right eye with that of the left eye in the control group, and that of the affected eye with that of the unaffected eye in the NAION and anterior ON groups.
RESULTS:In the normal control group, the tissue blood flow did not significantly differ between the right and left eyes. In the NAION group, all 6 patients had decreased optic disc blood flow in the NAION eye when compared with the unaffected eye. By contrast, in the anterior ON group, all 6 patients had increased optic disc blood flow in the anterior ON eye when compared with the unaffected eye. In the NAION group, the mean blur rate (MBR) of the affected eyes was 29.5 % lower than that of the unaffected eyes. In the anterior ON group, the MBR of the affected eyes was 15.9 % higher than that of the unaffected eyes.
CONCLUSIONS:LSFG could be useful in differentiating between NAION and anterior ON. In addition, this imaging technique saves time and is noninvasive.
- [Unilateral optic neuritis and Miller Fisher syndrome]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- J Fr Ophtalmol 2013 Jun; 36(6):e93-9.
Miller Fisher syndrome is an autoimmune neuropathy characterized by the clinical triad of ataxia, areflexia and external ophthalmoplegia. Ophthalmologic involvement in this syndrome is most often represented by motility disorders. The diagnosis is confirmed by the presence of anti-GQ1b antibodies.We report the case of a 65-year-old patient referred by his treating physician to the emergency department for ataxia, dizziness and decreased visual acuity in the left eye. In addition, the patient presented with clinical signs of subacute appendicitis for 2weeks. After treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, the patient complained of further decreased visual acuity and oculomotor disorders. On ophthalmological follow-up, he quickly recovered his initial visual acuity and more gradually his ocular motility.Unilateral optical neuropathy does not preclude the diagnosis of Miller Fisher syndrome. On the contrary, in the case of any rapidly progressive ophthalmologic involvement associated with peripheral neurological signs of ataxia, the diagnosis of Miller Fisher syndrome must be considered.Miller Fisher is a rare syndrome for which the diagnosis must be made quickly, so that the patient may benefit from urgent intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. In most cases, ophthalmologic recovery precedes peripheral neurologic recovery by 6months to 1year.
- Optic neuritis: From magnocellular to cognitive residual dysfunction. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Behav Neurol 2013 Apr 25.
Optic Neuritis (ON) has been associated to both parvocellular dysfunction and to an alteration of the magnocellular pathway. After objective visual field and acuity recovery, ON patients may complain about their vision suggesting a residual subclinical deficit. To better characterize visual abnormalities, 8 patients recovering from a first ON episode as well as 16 healthy controls performed a simple detection task and a more complex categorization task of images presented in low spatial frequencies (to target the magnocellular system) or in high spatial frequencies (to target the parvocellular system) or of non-filtered images. When completing the tasks with their (previously) pathologic eye, optic neuritis patients showed lower accuracy compared to controls or to their healthy eye for Low Spatial Frequency images only. Conjointly, the longest reaction times were observed with the previously pathologic eye regardless the type of images and to a greater extent in the categorization task than in the detection task. Such data suggest two distinct, although associated, types of residual dysfunction in ON: a magnocellular pathway alteration and a more general (magno and parvocellular) visual dysfunction that could implicate the cognitive levels of visual processing.
- Distinguishing optic neuritis in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease from multiple sclerosis: a novel magnetic resonance imaging scoring system. [Journal Article]
- J Neuroophthalmol 2013 Jun; 33(2):123-7.
: The management of acute optic neuritis differs according to the underlying etiology and techniques which may help with early differential diagnosis are therefore of considerable value.: We wanted to determine if multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) could be differentiated on the basis of neuroimaging abnormalities of the anterior visual pathways following an episode of optic neuritis.: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of 27 patients diagnosed with MS (n = 15) or NMOSD (n = 12), who presented with acute isolated optic neuritis over a 3-year period, were reviewed retrospectively. The extent and location of inflammation along the anterior visual pathways were analyzed. A novel scoring system was devised, based upon the number of anatomical segments involved.: Patients with NMOSD had a relative risk of 7.5 (confidence interval: 0.3-17.3) of having a score of 4 or more. Only NMOSD patients were found to have a score of 6 or higher. A trend for more posterior involvement of the anterior visual pathways was noted in the NMOSD group.: This pilot study suggests that the MRI-based scoring system described here may aid in distinguishing patients with optic neuritis who have MS vs NMOSD. Visual pathway inflammation in NMOSD patients appears to be more extensive than in MS, mirroring the longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions found in neuromyelitis optica.
- Bilateral atypical optic neuritis associated with tuberculosis in an immunocompromised patient. [Journal Article]
- Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012 Jul; 2(7):586-8.
A 27 year-old lady, presented with sudden loss of vision in the right eye for a week. It was followed by poor vision in the left eye after 3 days. It involved the whole entire visual field and was associated with pain on eye movement. She was diagnosed to have miliary tuberculosis and retroviral disease 4 months ago. She was started on anti-TB since then but defaulted highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). On examination, her visual acuity was no perception of light in the right eye and 6/120 (pinhole 3/60) in the left eye. Anterior segment in both eyes was unremarkable. Funduscopy showed bilateral optic disc swelling with presence of multiple foci of choroiditis in the peripheral retina. The vitreous and retinal vessels were normal. Chest radiography was normal. CT scan of orbit and brain revealed bilateral enhancement of the optic nerve sheath that suggest the diagnosis of bilateral atypical optic neuritis. This patient was managed with infectious disease team. She was started on HAART and anti-TB treatment was continued. She completed anti-TB treatment after 9 months without any serious side effects. During follow up the visual acuity in both eyes was not improved. However, funduscopy showed resolving of disc swelling and choroiditis following treatment.
- Optic neuritis in neuromyelitis optica. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prog Retin Eye Res 2013 Mar 30.
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease associated with recurrent episodes of optic neuritis and transverse myelitis, often resulting in permanent blindness and/or paralysis. The discovery of autoantibodies (AQP4-IgG) that target aquaporin-4 (AQP4) has accelerated our understanding of the cellular mechanisms driving NMO pathogenesis. AQP4 is a bidirectional water channel expressed on the plasma membranes of astrocytes, retinal Müller cells, skeletal muscle, and some epithelial cells in kidney, lung and the gastrointestinal tract. AQP4 tetramers form regular supramolecular assemblies at the cell plasma membrane called orthogonal arrays of particles. The pathological features of NMO include perivascular deposition of immunoglobulin and activated complement, loss of astrocytic AQP4, inflammatory infiltration with granulocyte and macrophage accumulation, and demyelination with axon loss. Current evidence supports a causative role of AQP4-IgG in NMO, in which binding of AQP4-IgG to AQP4 orthogonal arrays on astrocytes initiates complement-dependent and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and inflammation. Immunosuppression and plasma exchange are the mainstays of therapy for NMO optic neuritis. Novel therapeutics targeting specific steps in NMO pathogenesis are entering the development pipeline, including blockers of AQP4-IgG binding to AQP4 and inhibitors of granulocyte function. However, much work remains in understanding the unique susceptibility of the optic nerves in NMO, in developing animal models of NMO optic neuritis, and in improving therapies to preserve vision.
- In vivo identification of morphologic retinal abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Neurology 2013 Apr 9; 80(15):1406-14.
To assess eyes with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) for morphologic retinal abnormalities utilizing high-definition optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging.In this cross-sectional study, 39 patients with NMO spectrum disorders and 39 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent spectral-domain OCT and visual function testing.Microcystic macular edema (MME) of the inner nuclear layer (INL) was identified in 10 of 39 patients (26%) and was exclusively found in eyes with a history of optic neuritis (ON). MME eyes had lower high- and low-contrast letter-acuity scores (100%: p = 0.002; 2.5%: p = 0.002; 1.25%: p = 0.004), lower peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness (p = 0.04), lower macular RNFL thickness (p = 0.004), lower ganglion cell layer + inner plexiform layer (GCIP) thickness (p = 0.007), higher INL thickness (p < 0.001), and a greater number of ON episodes (p = 0.008) relative to non-MME eyes with a history of ON. After adjusting for history of multiple ON episodes, these findings remained significant for macular-RNFL thickness (p = 0.03), INL thickness (p < 0.001), and 100% and 2.5% contrast letter-acuity scores (p = 0.008 and p = 0.03, respectively). NMO spectrum eyes without ON history had lower macular RNFL thickness (p = 0.003), GCIP thickness (p = 0.002), outer nuclear layer thickness (p = 0.02), and low-contrast letter-acuity scores (2.5%: p = 0.03; 1.25%: p = 0.002) compared to healthy controls.We have identified a pattern of retinal morphologic abnormalities in NMO that is associated with severe retinal axonal and neuronal loss and corresponding visual disability. MME may contribute to poor visual outcomes following NMO-associated ON or alternatively represent a marker of ON severity. Additionally, our results support that subclinical involvement of the anterior visual pathway may occur in NMO spectrum disorders.