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Eye AND Ptosis [keywords]
- Herpes Zoster Eye Complications: Rates and Trends. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mayo Clin Proc 2013 May 9.
PURPOSE:To provide population-based data on the risk, types, and outcomes of eye involvement in herpes zoster (HZ).
METHODS:A cohort study based on review of the medical records of patients in whom HZ was diagnosed between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 2007, was performed. Herpes zoster was confirmed by the presence of the typical rash and symptoms or by laboratory testing, and eye involvement was confirmed by ophthalmologists' evaluation. Information was collected on all eye diagnoses and on HZ eye-related visits, treatments, procedures, and outcomes.
RESULTS:Of the 7370 individuals with HZ in any dermatome, 184 (2.5%) had eye involvement. The mean age of the 184 was 62.6 years, and 5 cases occurred in patients younger than 21. Overall, 6.5% (12) were immunosuppressed at the time of the eye complications. The rate of increase in HZ eye involvement was 23% by decade from 1980 to 2007. Common eye complications were keratitis (n=144, 76.2%), uveitis/iritis (n=88, 46.6%), and conjunctivitis (n=67, 35.4%). Recurrent keratitis and recurrent iritis/uveitis occurred in 6.9% (13) and 7.4% (14), respectively. Outcomes included 6 patients (3.3%) with new vision decrements to 20/200 or worse. Two individuals had successful corneal transplants. Another 6 individuals (3.3%) had lid ptosis that affected vision, including 1 elderly woman with permanent unilateral tarsorrhaphy. Severe HZ eye pain was reported to be directly responsible for 1 unsuccessful suicide attempt. Acute retinal necrosis did not develop in any individual. A mean of 10.8 eye visits per patient with HZ and eye involvement was reported to continue for a mean of 308 days.
CONCLUSION:Eye complications are common and result in considerable health care use and permanent vision decrement in about 6.6% (6) of individuals with HZ eye involvement. Most health care use and long-term adverse outcomes occurred in patients in whom prevention of HZ with the zoster vaccine would be possible.
- Ophthalmologic findings in Russian children with fetal alcohol syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Ophthalmol 2013 May 3.:0.
Purpose:To study functional and anatomic characteristics of eyes of Russian children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS).
Methods:One hundred children aged 10-16 years from Russian orphanages (St. Petersburg) were examined: 50 with verified diagnosis of FAS and 50 healthy children. All children were tested for distance visual acuity (VA) with subjective optimal correction (Sivtsev chart), skiascopy, visual inspection for FAS external ocular features, biomicroscopy, eye alignment using cover test, and indirect ophthalmoscopy.
Results:All analyzed parameters were worse in children with FAS compared with controls. Children with FAS showed a higher incidence of amblyopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and anisometropia. In children with FAS, the incidence of blepharophimosis was 34% (8% in controls), epicanthus 14% (2% in controls), telecanthus 32% (compared to 4% in controls), eyelid ptosis 9% (none in controls), and strabismus 26% (10% in controls). Ophthalmoscopy revealed a tilted optic disc in 5 children with FAS (7%) compared with none in controls.
Conclusion:Russian children with FAS have a higher incidence of vision problems and eye pathology that needs to be taken into account and requires ophthalmologist monitoring.
- Clinical presentation, treatment, and prognosis of periocular and orbital amyloidosis in a university-based referral center. [Journal Article]
- Clin Ophthalmol 2013.:801-5.
The purpose was to present the demographic data, clinical presentation, and treatment options, and to evaluate prognosis, for periocular and orbital amyloidosis in patients at the Songklanagarind Hospital, Thailand.This was a retrospective study that reviewed the clinical records of six patients who were diagnosed with periocular and orbital amyloidosis between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2011.The series included six patients (five female and one male). The mean age was 39.7 years (range 15-79 years). There were five cases of unilateral lesion and one case of bilateral lesion. The most common symptom was a mass lesion (83.3%), followed by irritation (66.7%), bloody tears (16.7%), epiphora (16.7%), eye pain (16.7%), and ptosis (16.7%). Five cases had periocular involvement and one case had orbital involvement. Five cases were investigated to rule out systemic amyloidosis, and no systemic involvement was found in these cases. The median duration of symptoms was 6 months, but the mean was 31 months. The main treatment option was surgical excision. The mean follow-up time was 41 months. There was disease progression in 20% of cases after definitive treatment.Periocular and orbital amyloidosis presented with a variety of symptoms, depending on the location of the disease. A mass lesion was the most common symptom. The intent of the treatment modalities was to spare function.
- The impairment of lysyl oxidase in keratoconus and in keratoconus-associated disorders. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neural Transm 2013 Feb 20.
Keratoconus (KC) is an eye disease characterized by the progressive thinning and protrusion of the cornea, which results in the loss of visual acuity. This disorder remains poorly understood, although recent studies indicate the involvement of genetic and environmental factors. Recently, we have found that the distribution of the cross-linking enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX) is markedly decreased in about 63 % of keratoconic specimens. Similarly, LOX activity is significantly reduced by 38 % compared to control tissue. Nearly 70 systemic disorders have been reported in association with KC, most of them affecting the extracellular matrix. In this review we attempted to ascertain whether any KC-associated diseases exhibit signs that may reflect LOX impairment. We hypothesized that very similar changes in the extracellular matrix, particularly at the level of collagen metabolism, including LOX impairment in mitral leaflets, may reflect an association between KC and mitral valve prolapse. Moreover, this putative association is supported by the high frequency of Down syndrome in both diseases. Among other disorders that have been found to coincide with KC, we did not find any in which the LOX enzyme may be directly or indirectly impaired. On the other hand, in cases where KC is present along with other connective tissue disorders (Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and others), KC may not arise as a localized manifestation, but rather may be induced as the result of a more complex connective tissue disorder.
- Ocular manifestations and visual functions in patients with Fanconi anaemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Ophthalmol 2013 May 7.
Purpose:Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a multisystemic disorder with ocular implications. This study aims to describe visual function, ocular characteristics and visual processing skills in patients with FA after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Methods:Ten patients with FA, ages 8-17 years, underwent ophthalmological examinations, corneal, periocular and fundus photography, visual evoked potentials (VEPs), visual fields and ocular motor and visual processing information tests.
Results:Best-corrected decimal visual acuity was ≥0.65 in all 20 eyes. Microcornea was present in 18 of 18 eyes, short axial lengths in six of six eyes, steep corneal curvatures in four of six eyes, ptosis in 14 of 16 eyes, short palpebral fissures in 15 of 16 eyes and hypotelorism in three of seven patients. Optic disc areas were smaller in patients with FA compared to controls (p = 0.0003 right, p = 0.0003 left eye). Visual fields were abnormal in 4 of 18 eyes, while VEP was abnormal in 1 of 20 eyes. Eight patients had ocular motor dysfunction, while nine of 10 patients showed delay in visual processing skills.
Conclusion:Patients with FA can present with microcornea, microphthalmia, ptosis, steep corneal curvatures, small optic discs, ptosis and delay in visual processing skills. Detailed ophthalmological and visual processing skills assessments and developmental investigations are important to detect impairments and facilitate appropriate support.
- Repair of Eyelid Retraction due to a Trabeculectomy Bleb: Case Series and Review of the Literature. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2013 May 2.
Superior limbal trabeculectomy remains a common surgical treatment for glaucoma. Positional effects on the overlying upper eyelid-both ptosis and retraction-have been associated with the procedure. More than 1 mechanism may explain retraction; however, the eyelid may elevate mechanically due to the underlying raised superior bulbar conjunctiva.
- Role of Oral Corticosteroids in Orbital Cellulitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Ophthalmol 2013 Apr 24.
PURPOSE:To evaluate the role of oral corticosteroids as an anti-inflammatory adjunct in the treatment of orbital cellulitis.
DESIGN:Prospective, comparative, single-masked, interventional clinical study.
METHODS:setting: Tertiary eye care center (All India Institute of Medical Sciences). study population: Patients with acute onset (within 14 days) of orbital cellulitis with or without abscess. intervention: Patients were randomized into 2 groups in the ratio of 1:2. Both groups received initial intravenous antibiotics. In Group 2, oral steroids were added after an initial response to intravenous antibiotics. main outcome measures: Resolution of signs and symptoms, duration of intravenous antibiotics, length of hospital stay, and sequelae of disease (ptosis, proptosis, and movement restriction) were evaluated and compared between the 2 groups.
RESULTS:A total of 21 patients (age range, 11-59 years) with orbital cellulitis were studied. There were 7 patients in Group 1, who received standard intravenous antibiotics, and 14 in Group 2, who received adjuvant steroids. Patients in Group 2 showed an earlier resolution of inflammation in terms of periorbital edema (P = .002 at day 7), conjunctival chemosis (P < .001 at day 10), and pain (P = .012 at day 7). They also attained vision of 0.02 on logMAR earlier than Group 1 patients. Decrease in proptosis and improvement in extraocular movements were also significantly better with the use of steroids (P = .027 at day 10, P = .003 at day 14, respectively). While a significant number of patients in Group 1 had mild residual ptosis, proptosis, and movement restriction at 12 weeks, none of the patients treated with steroids had any residual changes (P = .023, P = .001, and P = .001, respectively). The durations of intravenous antibiotics and hospital stay were significantly less in Group 2.
CONCLUSION:Use of oral steroids as an adjunct to intravenous antibiotic therapy for orbital cellulitis may hasten resolution of inflammation with a low risk of exacerbating infection.
- Pediatric Ptosis as a Sign of Treatable Autonomic Dysfunction. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Ophthalmol 2013 Apr 24.
PURPOSE:To report the ophthalmic findings in young patients with dopamine β-hydroxylase deficiency and to assess them in the context of other reports in an attempt to discern if ophthalmic criteria may assist in early detection of this debilitating, yet treatable, disorder.
DESIGN:Prospective, observational case series.
METHODS:An ophthalmic examination, including measuring intraocular and systemic blood pressures while supine, sitting, and standing, and eyelid function and pupillary function testing, was completed on 3 young patients with recently documented dopamine β-hydroxylase deficiency at a single institution.
RESULTS:Mean arterial blood pressures were 90.1 ± 18.5 mm Hg supine, 79.1 ± 25.7 mm Hg sitting, and 45.8 ± 11.6 mm Hg standing (P = .021). Mean intraocular pressures in these patients were 15.8 ± 1.0 mm Hg supine, 15.0 ± 3.6 mm Hg sitting, and 7.7 ± 2.3 mm Hg standing (P = .03). Mean palpebral fissure, levator function, and margin reflex distance were 8.2 ± 1.0 mm, 16.0 ± 0 mm, and 2.8 ± 0.6 mm, respectively. Measurable miosis was present in only 1 patient, and pupillary supersensitivity to 2.5% phenylephrine was not observed.
CONCLUSIONS:The ophthalmologic findings of the patients in this case series documented mild ptosis and striking orthostatic reductions in intraocular pressure and mean arterial blood pressure, as might be expected with a lack of intrinsic sympathetic function. Orthostatic intraocular pressure and mean arterial blood pressure may be a helpful early screening tool for autonomic dysfunction in children undergoing a ptosis evaluation.
- Stereoscopic three-dimensional images of an anatomical dissection of the eyeball and orbit for educational purposes. [Journal Article]
- Acta Med Okayama 2013 Apr; 67(2):87-91.
The purpose of this study was to develop a series of stereoscopic anatomical images of the eye and orbit for use in the curricula of medical schools and residency programs in ophthalmology and other specialties. Layer-by-layer dissection of the eyelid, eyeball, and orbit of a cadaver was performed by an ophthalmologist. A stereoscopic camera system was used to capture a series of anatomical views that were scanned in a panoramic three-dimensional manner around the center of the lid fissure. The images could be rotated 360 degrees in the frontal plane and the angle of views could be tilted up to 90 degrees along the anteroposterior axis perpendicular to the frontal plane around the 360 degrees. The skin, orbicularis oculi muscle, and upper and lower tarsus were sequentially observed. The upper and lower eyelids were removed to expose the bulbar conjunctiva and to insert three 25-gauge trocars for vitrectomy at the location of the pars plana. The cornea was cut at the limbus, and the lens with mature cataract was dislocated. The sclera was cut to observe the trocars from inside the eyeball. The sclera was further cut to visualize the superior oblique muscle with the trochlea and the inferior oblique muscle. The eyeball was dissected completely to observe the optic nerve and the ophthalmic artery. The thin bones of the medial and inferior orbital wall were cracked with a forceps to expose the ethmoid and maxillary sinus, respectively. In conclusion, the serial dissection images visualized aspects of the local anatomy specific to various procedures, including the levator muscle and tarsus for blepharoptosis surgery, 25-gauge trocars as viewed from inside the eye globe for vitrectomy, the oblique muscles for strabismus surgery, and the thin medial and inferior orbital bony walls for orbital bone fractures.
- Acute suppurative bacterial dacryoadenitis: a case series. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Br J Ophthalmol 2013 Jun; 97(6):735-738.