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Eye inflammation [keywords]
- P-glycoprotein is a marker of tissue eosinophilia and radiographic inflammation in chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2013 May 15.
BACKGROUND:P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a membrane-bound efflux pump that is upregulated in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and participates in epithelial cytokine secretion. Eosinophilic CRS (ECRS) shares a similar cytokine profile with CRSwNP and is associated with significant inflammation and poor surgical outcomes. The goal of this study is to determine if P-gp expression is associated with degree of eosinophilia and severity of radiographic inflammation in patients with CRS without polyps (CRSsNP).
METHODS:An institutional review board (IRB)-approved study using sinus tissue in 39 steroid-naive patients with CRS. P-gp expression was calculated using quantitative fluorescent immunohistochemistry (Q-FIHC) to generate an epithelial to background staining ratio. Patients were stratified into low and high epithelial expression groups (<3 and ≥3, respectively). Average eosinophils per high powered field (hpf) and Lund-Mackay scores were calculated and compared with P-gp staining ratios using a 2-tailed Student t test.
RESULTS:Among the 39 patients, 7 (17.95%) had high P-gp expression ratios (mean ± SD, 4.86 ± 1.33) while 32 (82.05%) had low expression ratios (1.91 ± 0.45). The number of eosinophils/hpf were significantly greater in the high P-gp expression group as compared to the low expression group (62.38 ± 83.69 vs 5.11 ± 10.12, p = 0.0003). The Lund-Mackay scores were significantly greater in the high P-gp expression group as compared to the low expression group (11.86 ± 2.79 vs 6.84 ± 4.19, p = 0.005).
CONCLUSION:P-gp is known to be overexpressed in CRSwNP. This study suggests that among patients with CRSsNP, P-gp is similarly overexpressed in those with high tissue eosinophilia and correlates with severity of radiographic inflammation.
- [Post-ooperational acute inflammation of an eye in patients with cataracts]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Georgian Med News 2013 Apr; (217):26-30.
Despite the implementation of the newest highly efficient equipment into the practice of modern clinical ophthalmology, improvement of technical skills of ophthalmologist surgeons, the cases of post-operational acute endophthalmitis development, toxic syndrome of anterior segment of an eye, reactive aseptic inflammatory process are rather negatively reflected in the course of a post-operational process of rehabilitation. Under our supervision there were 1100 patients with the senile and complicated cataracts, who underwent operational intervention microcoaxial phacoemulsification. Differential diagnostics was carried out on the basis of the standard objective and subjective methods of research accepted in ophthalmology. On the basis of obtained data is found that clinical symptomatology of autoimmune aseptic anterior uveitis, in particular, the eye inflammation associated with the broken syndrome of an eye anterior chamber-associated immune deviation (ACAID), considerably differs from clinical implications of acute endophthalmitis and a toxic syndrome of the anterior chamber of an eye. In overwhelming majority of cases under the complicated cataracts, precisely the autoimmune aseptic inflammatory process, which originated due to withdrawal of regional immune reactions responsible for ACAID, was observed in postoperative period.
- The comparative effectiveness of demineralized bone matrix, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and bovine-derived anorganic bone matrix on inflammation and bone formation using a paired calvarial defect model in rats. [Journal Article]
- Clin Cosmet Investig Dent 2011.:69-78.
In this study, the effectiveness of Iranian Tissue Bank-produced demineralized bone matrix (ITB-DBM), beta-tricalcium phosphate (βTCP), and Bio-Oss(®) (Geistlich Pharma AG, Wolhusen, Switzerland) were evaluated and compared with double controls. The main goal was to measure the amount of new bone formation in the center of defects created in rat calvaria. Another goal was to compare the controls and evaluate the effects of each treatment material on their adjacent untreated (control) defects.In this study, 40 male Wistar rats were selected and divided into four groups, In each group, there were ten rats with two defects in their calvarias; one of them is considered as control and the other one was treated with ITB-DBM (group 1), BIO-OSS (group2), and βTCP (group 3), respectively. But in group 4, both defects were considered as control. The amount of inflammation and new bone formation were evaluated at 4 and 10 weeks. In the first group, one defect was filled with ITB-DBM; in the second group, one defect was filled with Bio-Oss; in the third group, one defect was filled with βTCP; and in the fourth group, both defects were left unfilled. Zeiss microscope (Carl Zeiss AG, Oberkochen, Germany) and Image Tool(®) (version 3.0; University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX) software were used for evaluation. SPSS Statistics (IBM Corp, Somers, NY) was used for statistical analysis.Maximum bone formation at 4 and 10 weeks were observed in the ITB-DBM group (46.960% ± 4.366%, 94.970% ± 0.323%), which had significant difference compared with the other groups (P < 0.001). Ranking second was the Bio-Oss group and third, the βTCP group. Bone formation in the group with two unfilled defects was much more significant than in the other controls beside the Bio-Oss and βTCP after 10 weeks (29.1 ± 2.065, 29.05 ± 1.649), while this group had the least bone formation compared with the other controls at week 4 (2.100% ± 0.758%, 1.630% ± 0.668%, P < 0.001).Overall, the ITB-DBM group showed the best results, although the results for other experimental groups were unfavorable. The authors conclude that human DBM (ITB-DBM) should be offered as an alternative for bone regeneration in animals, such as horses, as well as in humans, especially for jaw reconstruction. In relation to bone regeneration in control defects, the effect of experimental material on controls was apparent during the initial weeks.
- Retinal blood flow velocity in patients with active uveitis using the retinal function imager. [Journal Article]
- Chin Med J (Engl) 2013 May; 126(10):1944-7.
Previous studies suggest a link between macular edema and retinal blood flow velocity (RBFV). The effects of inflammation in the retinal blood vessels are not clearly understood. We want to evaluate the differences in retinal blood flow velocities of patients with active uveitis and healthy controls using the retinal function imager (RFI) and determine the correlation between retinal blood flow velocity and central macular thickness in uveitis patients.Twenty-eight eyes of 24 patients with active anterior uveitis and 51 eyes of 51 normal control subjects were enrolled. Retinal blood flow velocities evaluated by RFI and central macular thickness evaluated by optical coherence tomography (SLO-OCT) were obtained. Differences among the groups were assessed using Stata statistical software.Ten eyes had uveitic cystoid macular edema (CME). Median (first quartile, third quartile) venous velocity for uveitic eyes with CME, uveitic eyes without CME, and controls were 2.09 (1.92, 2.44), 2.64 (2.32, 2.86), and 2.82 (2.39, 3.53) mm/s respectively. Median (first and quartile) arterial velocity for uveitic eyes with CME, uveitic eyes without CME, and controls were 3.79 (3.61, 4.09), 3.46 (2.86, 4.12), and 3.93 (3.35, 4.65) mm/s. Uveitic eyes with CME had significantly lower venous velocity than controls (P = 0.044). There was a strong linear relationship between venous velocity and central retinal thickness (P = 0.007).Retinal venous velocities were significantly decreased in eyes with uveitic CME relative to controls. Decreased venous velocity was correlated with increased central retinal thickness in uveitic eyes.
- In Vivo Confocal Evaluation of the Ocular Surface Morpho-Functional Unit in Dry Eye. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Optom Vis Sci 2013 May 10.
PURPOSE:To study, by a new, integrated, laser scanning confocal microscopy approach, the ocular surface morpho-functional unit in patients with primary Sjogren syndrome (SSI), non-Sjogren syndrome dry eye (non-SSDE), and meibomian gland disease (MGD).
METHODS:Patients and age- and sex-matched control subjects (N = 60; 15 each) were consecutively enrolled in a prospective case-control study. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to obtain simultaneous optical sampling of the ocular surface components: cornea, bulbar and tarsal conjunctiva, MGs, and eyelid margin.
RESULTS:For all superficial epithelia, except eyelid margins, there were reduced cell densities in each group compared with that in controls (p < 0.001). The lowest cell densities were in the SSI group (p < 0.001). Eyelid margin superficial cell density was decreased only in MGD (p < 0.001). Basal epithelial cell density at the corneal apex was increased in both SSI and non-SSDE compared with that in controls (p < 0.01). In the conjunctiva, it was decreased in each group compared with that in controls (p < 0.01). Subbasal dendritic cell density was significantly increased in both SSI and MGD compared with that in controls (p < 0.01). Conjunctival inflammatory cell density and MG inflammation were increased in each group compared with those in controls (p < 0.001), with the highest values in SSI. Subbasal nerve plexi had fewer fibers and higher bead density in each group compared with those in controls (p < 0.001). There was increased tortuosity in both SSI and MGD (p < 0.001). Patients with MGD had the lowest MG acinar density, the largest diameter of acini and acinar orifices, and the highest secretion reflectivity (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS:Laser scanning confocal microscopy can provide an in vivo, noninvasive, high-resolution overview of the ocular surface morpho-funcional unit. This confocal integrated approach may be useful in both research and clinical settings.
- Concomitant herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus endotheliitis in immunocompetent patient. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2013.
A case of an immunocompetent 51-year-old healthy man with chronic recurrent disciform corneal oedema and hypertensive anterior uveitis in the right eye for 2 years was unresponsive to topical corticosteroid and systemic acyclovir. Diagnostic anterior chamber tapping was performed and viral DNA PCR was positive for both cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus. The patient was treated with both oral valganciclovir for 3 months and long-term oral acyclovir. His condition improved significantly after the treatment; intraocular pressure and anterior chamber inflammation were controlled and the remaining keratic precipitates in the cornea started to clear up.
- Ocular Demodicosis as a Risk Factor of Pterygium Recurrence. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmology 2013 May 9.
PURPOSE:To evaluate ocular demodicosis as a potential risk factor in pterygium recurrence.
DESIGN:Cross-sectional study to correlate clinical findings with laboratory data.
PARTICIPANTS:We retrospectively reviewed 94 patients (43 with primary and 51 with recurrent pterygia), among whom 68 patients received surgical correction, and prospectively enrolled another 23 pterygium patients and 14 nonpterygium controls for measuring the tear level of interleukin (IL)-17.
METHODS:All patients had microscopically confirmed ocular demodicosis. Statistical correlations were analyzed among age, sex, aqueous tear deficiency, dry eye, ocular demodicosis, follow-up period, surgical outcome, and tear levels of IL-17 measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Correlation between ocular demodicosis or IL-17 levels and pterygium recurrence.
RESULTS:Among 94 patients, ocular demodicosis was more prevalent in patients with recurrent pterygium than those with primary pterygium (P = 0.015). During follow-up of 16.5±11.5 months, 68 postsurgical patients developed 7 corneal recurrences, which constituted 7.4% of primary and 12.2% of recurrent pterygium (P = 0.820). They also developed 8 conjunctival recurrences. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed combined (P = 0.000), corneal (P = 0.044), and conjunctival (P = 0.002) recurrence was significantly higher among patients with demodicosis than those without. Conjunctival recurrence occurred within 6 months in eyes without demodicosis but extended beyond 6 months in eyes with demodicosis. In 34 postsurgical patients with demodicosis, the mite count of 14 patients with recurrence was significantly higher than that of 20 without (P = 0.005). The IL-17 level was significantly higher in patients with either pterygium or demodicosis than controls (P = 0.049 and 0.040, respectively), and the IL-17 level was further elevated in patients with both pterygium and demodicosis (all P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS:Ocular demodicosis is a risk factor for pterygium recurrence, especially for conjunctival recurrence, presumably by perpetuating chronic inflammation mediated by T-helper (Th)17 lymphocytes. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any of the materials discussed in this article.
- Rebamipide Suppresses PolyI:C-Stimulated Cytokine Production in Human Conjunctival Epithelial Cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2013 May 10.
Purpose:We previously documented that ocular surface epithelial cells could regulate ocular surface inflammation and suggested that, while Toll-like receptor 3 upregulates, EP3, one of the prostaglandin E2 receptors, downregulates ocular surface inflammation. Others reported that rebamipide, a gastroprotective drug, could not only increase the gastric mucus production, but also suppressed gastric mucosal inflammation and that it was dominantly distributed in mucosal tissues. The eyedrop form of rebamipide, approved in Japan for use in the treatment of dry eye diseases, upregulates mucin secretion and production, thereby suppressing superficial punctate keratopathy on the ocular surface of patients with this disease. In the current study, we investigated whether rebamipide has anti- inflammatory effects on the ocular surface.
Methods:To examine the effects of rebamipide on polyI:C-induced cytokine expression by primary human conjunctival epithelial cells, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. We studied the effects of rebamipide on ocular surface inflammation in our murine experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) model.
Results:Rebamipide could suppress polyI:C-induced cytokine production and the expression of mRNAs for CXCL10, CXCL11, RANTES, MCP-1, and IL-6 in human conjunctival epithelial cells. In our EAC model, the topical administration of rebamipide suppressed conjunctival allergic eosinophil infiltration.
Conclusions:The topical application of rebamipide on the ocular surface might suppress ocular surface inflammation by suppressing the production of cytokines by ocular surface epithelial cells.
- In vitro and in vivo assessment of titanium surface modification for coloring the backplate of the Boston Keratoprosthesis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013 May 9.
PURPOSE:Recent use of a titanium (Ti) backplate has improved the design and biocompatibility of the Boston Keratoprosthesis (BKpro). Titanium's shiny metallic appearance, however, makes the cosmetic outcome less favorable. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a coloring surface modification of Ti.
METHOD:Ti coloring was achieved using electrochemical anodization. Color assessment included: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction crystallography (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Biocompatibility assessment of Ti disks included: in vitro proliferation and cytotoxicity in co-culture with human corneal limbal epithelial cells (HCLE), primary human corneal fibroblasts and immortalized human corneal endothelial cells (HCEnCs) and in vivo intralamellar implantation in rabbit corneas. Histologic appearance (H&E and trichrome staining) and presence of cell inflammation (CD45), apoptosis (TUNEL) and corneal neovascularization (CD31) was evaluated 27 and 53 days post implantation.
RESULTS:Blue and brown coloration of Ti was achieved. Analysis showed the presence of a nanoporous oxide surface with no chemical change of the modified Ti surface. In vitro assessment showed no significant differences in cell proliferation and cytotoxicity between anodized and non-anodized Ti (p> 0.05; ANOVA for all cell types). Analysis of corneal tissues harboring the Ti disks showed normal cellular appearance, and lack of CD45, TUNEL and CD31 positive cells.
CONCLUSION:A biocompatible Ti backplate coloring was achieved by electrochemical anodization. In vitro and in vivo results suggest that the anodized Ti is equally biocompatible and as safe as the standard non-anodized Ti. The color modification of the BKpro may improve the cosmesis and acceptance of the BKpro by patients.
- Serum YKL-40 levels as a novel marker of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eye (Lond) 2013 May 10.
PurposeTo evaluate serum levels of YKL-40 in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) in comparison with those of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects.MethodsForty patients with PEX (PEX group) and 40 age- and sex-matched control subjects (control group) were enrolled in the study. An enzyme immunoassay method using the commercially available test MicroVue YKL-40 was used to measure serum YKL-40 concentration. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, serum levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and triglycerides were also examined.ResultsThe mean age was 54.4±7.6 (ranging 41-65) years in each group. The mean serum YKL-40 level of the PEX group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.001). In addition, the mean serum HsCRP, total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides levels were significantly higher, and mean serum HDL level was significantly lower in the PEX group than in the control group (all P<0.001, excluding both P=0.002 for triglycerides and HDL levels). Further, the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in the PEX group than in the control group (P1=0.001 and P2=0.01, respectively).ConclusionWe have shown a relationship between PEX and elevated serum levels of YKL-40. We imply that a better understanding of the role of YKL-40 in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis is necessary to develop new therapies for preventing or treating PEX. Further studies are warranted to clarify the clinical relevance of these findings.Eye advance online publication, 10 May 2013; doi:10.1038/eye.2013.92.